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Updated 04-Oct-2011







Hillaryous Nuclear ‘Uprating’ Process

= ‘Screwing’ ol’ shaky over-aged Nuke plants with Plutonium – power up 20%




“Move on folks, nothin to see ‘ere…” – CLIC TO ENLARGE




I’d laugh all the way down – if this wasnt dead serious fukushima creating issue. ‘Enjoy… especially ●● MR. SCARBROUGH’


Advisory Committee 512th Meeting

[Note to reader this .pdf didnt transform here very nicely, thus lots of conn-ected words, numeric-character errors. Take care, copy and spread. This transcript was briefly displayed  in LATimes before censorship hit it down; http://www. documents .latimes.com/background-on-nuclear-uprating). The following has been derived from a intentionally dechiphered format of NCR – nobody can follow its text without modding… Here some of that work is now done: ]




To the reader: this part works as an intro to understand the issues in the following Meeting-discussions. Originally it was in the end of the memo.

The Continuing catastrophic failures, E.G. The G.E. “POTENTIAL ADVERSE FLOW EFFECTS FROM POWER UPRATES”
David Terao Thomas G. Scarbrough Mechanical and Civil Engineering Branch Division of Engineering NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation May 7, 2004







Since 1970s, Nuclear Reactor -licensees have been implementing power uprates [ = adding Plutonium = MOX ] to increase Nuclear Power Plant electric output. [Plutonium utilization increases dramatically Reactor core heat and also danger of  uncontrolled meltdown. This means that cooling water circulation speed and volume has to be increased exponentially… This heat produces more steam and thus more power from steam turbines: steam age madness to boil water with uranium]

Power uprates are categorized as:

– Measurement Uncertainty Recapture (about 1.5%)
– Stretch (about 6%).
EPU – Extended Power Uprate (power increase up to about 20%).

[ NOTE: These uprates mean always adding more Plutonium in mox assemblies, cooling needs increase 3x or more. [added]]

Catastrophic failures:

Cracking of RPV /Reactor internals is long-standing issue in BWR plants – even without power uprates.

Some Nuclear Power Plants NPPs are experiencing additional problems with safety-related and non-safety related equipment during Extended 20% Power Uprate (EPU) operation.




Steam Dryer Catastrophic Failures 2002 and 2003 [just in USA]



– Quad Cities Units 1 & 2  experienced catastrophic failures of steam dryers during EPU operation.
– Quad Cities Unit 1  – June 2002: After 90 days of Extended 20% Power Uprate (EPU) operation, steam dryer cover plate fails with pieces found on steam separators and in main steamline.
– Quad Cities Unit 2 – June 2003: After additional 300 days of Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation, steam dryer experiences failure of hood, internal braces, and tie bars.
– Dresden Unit  – October 2003: During RFO inspection after two years of Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation, 4-inch cracks identified in steam dryer hood panels. Holes found in feedwater sparger from broken sampling probe.
– Quad Cities Unit 1 – November 2003: After about one year of Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation, steam dryer hood experiences significant cracking with 6x inch piece of outer bank vertical plate missing. Damage also found to main steam electromatic relief valve (ERV),  steamline supports, and HPCI steam supply motor-operated valve. Steam Dryer Failure November 2003, Missing portion of outer bank vertical plate, approx.  6×9  in.
– Dresden Unit 3 – Dec 2003: During shutdown inspection after about  months of Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation, two 4-inch through-wall cracks identified in steam dryer hood, and two FW sampling probes found in sparger. Licensee determines FW sampling probe missing from installed location.
– Quad Cities Unit 2 – March 2004: After about 8 months of Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation, numerous steam dryer indications identified during refueling outage inspection including cracking near gussets installed in 2003, broken tie bar welds, and damaged stiffener plate weld.


Other BWR steam dryer inspections in Spring 2004:

– Nine Mile Point Unit 2 (curved hood steam dryer) finds a thin 18-inch crack along a weld after several years of operation at 4.3% power uprate.
– Brunswick Unit 1 (slanted hood steam dryer) finds only minor cracks after 2 years of operation at Extended 13% Power Uprate (EPU).
– Vermont Yankee (square hood steam dryer) finds minor but numerous cracks after operation at original licensed power.
– July 2002 Quad Cities Unit 2  steam dryer cover plate: high cycle fatigue due to high frequency resonance (180 Hz) as a result of alignment of cover plate natural frequency, standing acoustic wave frequency, and vortex shedding frequency. (This is actually operator and NRC TEPCO-class fucu-incompetence as can be seen from the discussion)
– July 2003 Quad Cities Unit 2  steam dryer hood: high cycle fatigue due to low frequency pressure loading (0 – 50 Hz).
– November 2003 Quad Cities Unit 1 steam dryer: high cycle fatigue from fluctuating pressure loading with acoustics.
– 2003 Dresden FW probes: resonance frequency vibration.
– Quad Cities and Dresden more susceptible to adverse flow effects from Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation: Steam dryer with square hood experiences greater stress than slanted or curve hood design. Main steam lines with smaller diameter have higher steam velocity.  EPU power uprate involves more significant changes from original power level.
– January 2004: General Electric identifies fluctuating pressure load in acoustic range as potential failure cause of Quad Cities steam dryers. Exelon study of vibration effects determines  Quad Cities ERVs unable to withstand Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU vibration for full cycle.
– March 2004 Quad Cities Units 2 steam dryer: inadequate design [=NO DESIGN, TEPCO class welder’s ? own inventions] of previous gusset repair, movement of high stress point during tie bar repair, and poor installation practice for stiffener plate.





– July 2002: Quad Cities Unit 2 steam dryer cover plate increased from 0.25 to 0.5 inch, outer hood plates increased from 0.5 to 1
0.5 to 1 inch with gussets installed and braces removed.
– Oct 2003 Dresden 2 steam dryer modified similar to Quad Cities Unit 2
– Nov 2003: Quad Cities Unit 1 steam dryer modified similar to Quad Cities Unit 2
– Dec 2003: Dresden 3 steam dryer repair improved over Quad Cities Unit 1 and 2.
March 2004: Quad Cities Unit 2 – Replacement of entire vertical plate of steam dryer hood. Installation of full-length gussets on vertical plate. ERVs strengthened to support 2-year operation.

[ – hello!? – ONE YEAR UTLIZATION IS THE ‘LAWFUL’ STANDARD! After this the fuel releases higly more radiation: Finland has used up to five years – and possibly the most polluted radiating sea -status is their deliberated action… 125Bq/m3 compared to Pacific 3Bq/m3 ]





Aug 2002: General Electric SIL (Service Information Letter) n0. 644 for square-hood steam dryers to monitor moisture carryover and RFO inspections.
– Sept2003: Supplement 1 to SIL 644 to all BWRs with power uprates to monitor moisture carryover and RFO inspections.
– Feb 2004: BWROG assumes industry lead for Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU vibration issue. BWRVessel and Internals Project
– Mar2004: Exelon evaluated Dresden EPU operation with RFOs for Unit 2 in Nov 2005 and Unit 3 in Nov 2004.


– BWROG  – Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group – by General Electric. webpage info: “Nuclear Services – Performance Services: The GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) Performance Services portfolio offers existing nuclear plants a unique combination of experience, knowledge, and capabilities. Asset Enhancement provides increased output and operational flexibility, Steam Dryer Analysis provides evaluations to support power uprates [ = shaky plutonium Power boosts for ol shaky reactors ], Controls & Systems Upgrades offers NUMAC, Reactivity Control, and other Digital Controls, Technical Services provides technical support and optimized availability, and the BWR Owners Group manages the BWROG activities.” [ = in-breeding self control ]

– Exelon Nuclear:  Exelon distributes electricity to approximately 5.4 million customers in northern Illinois and Pennsylvania and gas to approximately 480,000 customers in the Philadelphia area. Exelon is headquartered in Chicago and trades on the NYSE under the ticker EXC. … Exelon Selects GE Hitachi’s ESBWR (General Electric’s Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor =ESBWR) – WILMINGTON, N.C.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Illinois-based Exelon Nuclear, the nation’s largest nuclear utility, has announced it will use GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy’s (GEH) next-generation ESBWR reactor design if the company decides to build a new nuclear power plant in Texas. 12 November 2007



Exelon Commitments – April 2, 2004: 

(EXELON = Nuke Users Group: nice tighknitted group inspecting itself)
– Limit Quad Cities  I and 2 to Extended 20% Power Uprate  – to pre-EPU power except for 72-hour testing.
– Modify Quad Cities 1 electromatic relief valves before long-term Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation.
– Provide specific commitments on obtaining NRC acceptance of Modify Quad Cities  1 and 2 Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU operation; [ hello! No sanctions on TEPCO-style fucu weldings causin catastrophic failures! ]
– monitoring steam dryers and other components; [ LOL: monitor wassup – years has passed with catastrophic failures – now start to “monitor” ]
– criteria for prompt corrective action if needed; [ eh? ]
– description of steam dryer loads; [ Description? They blatantly lied about simulation tests. Now please give “description!” ]
– evaluation of Quad Cities  2 steam dryer repairs;
– independent review; [ independent? More EXELON brother reaping $-review flow ]
– re-evaluation of flow-induced vibration assessments; [ simulation? Noooooooo….]
– Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU vulnerability team effort; [ WELL YES. WE GOT TO USE MORE PLUTONIUM! ]
– future steam dryer inspection plans. [ plans? ]





– May 2004:  BWROG to submit plan and GE/Exelon to complete operational improvement recommendations.
– June 2004: General Electric to complete review of steam dryer and steam/feedwater components. [ checkup who lied and screwed up the promised Simulation general Electric never did? Nope… ]
– Sept 2004: BWR Vessel and Internals Project to complete steam dryer inspection guidance. [ maybe just some day we can boost the old shaky – far over aged reactors – up to 50% more power – with Plutonium distribution for the masses in mind? ]




NRC Staff [ non ] Action:

– Sept2002: Information Notice 2002-26 on QC 2 steam dryer cover plate failure.
– July2003: NRC Special Inspection Team and Supplement 1 to IN 2002-26 in response to Quad Cities 2 steam dryer hood failure.
– Sept2003: NRC letter (9/26) to BWROG with comments on SIL 644 (Supplement 1).
– Nov 2003: Public meeting (11/5) with BWROG.
– Nov 2003: NRC discussions with Exelon on QC 1 steam dryer repair and lost parts. [ hello happy merry-go-around with catastrophic failure parts ]
Jan 2004 Supplement 2 to IN 2002-26 on Quad Cities  I steam dryer and additional component failures.
– Feb/Mar 2004 Public meetings (2/3 and 3/4) with BWROG.
– Mar 2004 IN 2004-06 on loss of FW sampling probes at Dresden 2 and 3. [ why probes disappear. Not to worry, its fucunormal SAFE operation like sandbags , lets discuss sm more… ]
– Apr 2004 NRR/RES meetings to discuss research support on adverse flow effects from power uprates. [ lets keep discussing over coffe latte how the catastrophic events could produce us more Plutonium power  – and fucudistribution on the stupido unawares ]
– Acknowledgement letter (4/20) to Exelon: No problem [ NO PROBLIMS !!? ] with proceeding as described in April 2 letter.
Concerns with plans to justify Extended 20% Power Uprate long-term EPU operation at Quad Cities and Dresden. Examples include:
Licensee did not indicate that loads (forcing function) causing steam dryer damage will be identified. Quad Cities test plan not clear that sufficient data will be collected to assess dynamic loading on steam dryer and other components. Dresden Extended 20% Power Uprate EPU basis did not provide quantitative technical assessment of loadings and stresses that could fail steam dryer or other components.



NRC Future Plans:

– Review of Exelon information supporting Quad Cities and Dresden Extended 20% Power Uprated EPU operation.
– Regulatory communications being considered: Regulatory Issue Summary on potential adverse flow effects from Extended 20% Power Uprates. [ should we have more coffe ltte about the catastrophic failures or not? Should we kindly ask general Electric about their lies? Should we consider that over aged Nukes should always be run only with lower – NOT HIGHER REVS? ]
Generic regulatory action for other BWRs with Extended 20% Power Uprates.
– Review of Vermont Yankee Extended 20% Power Uprated request. [ review? No, just more cafe latte ]
Revision to power uprate review standard. [ eh, there is none – except the coffee… ]




Draft Research Plan

to AssessPotential [ The catastrophic failures ] = G.E. Adverse Flow Effects During BWR [Plutonium ] Power Uprates,
Shah-Malik, Don Helton, ACRS Briefing: May 7,2004 .US. NRCi.

Due to recent events at Quad Cities 1 & 2 and Dresden 2 & 3 plants, a research program is being planned in RES to address
adverse flow effects [ err catastrophic failures ] due to Extended 20% Power Uprates in BWRs
– Objectives of Research Program:
– Identify and determine relative significance of phenomena  [ the catastrophic failures ] that cause adverse flow effects in steam dryers and other components in steam and feedwater flow paths leading to degradation and potential failures [ actual past catartrophes ] due to flow induced vibration (FIV) and high cycle fatigue
– Apply these phenomena to characterize failures observed in BWR plants under Extended 20% Power Uprate conditions
– Determine if there are any generic implications that can be drawn on the extent of the adverse flow effects [ we never learn from anything, do we? ]
– Assess feasibility of developing a screening tool that NRR can use to review submittals on BWR Extended 20% Power Uprates
– Support NRR in evaluating BWR Extended 20% Power Uprate submittals [ SUPPORT MORE PLUTONIUM! ]

– acquire detailed plant data from general Electric [ eh, this time real drawings, no!? ]
– Affected components drawings and vibration monitoring data [ Oh boy whata demand: real drawings!… hopefully the sensors wont now disappear… ]
– Scaled-model test data, in-plant test data
– Analytical modeling information (fluid and structural evaluations) [how about now askin about the Eeneral Electric treason-  that this flow simulation and analysis was already done – being the base of all this MORE PLUTONIUM CATASTROPHIC FAILURES … ? ]
– Licensee inspection information
– Procure tech. consultants in flow induced vibration (FIV) Computational fluid’ dynamics (CFD), Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), FIV computational structural dynamics analyses (FEA)
– Perform CFD feasibility studies to predict vortex shedding [ this time dont believe General Electric promises, no? ]
  Perform FEA structural dynamics studies (natural frequencies, mode shapes)
[how about now pursuing about the General Electric treason –  their claim that this flow simulation and analysis was already done – being the base of Extended 20% Power Uprates – behind all these PLUTONIUM CATASTROPHIC FAILURES … ? Nope obummers G.E., is the papal saint above questioning. ]


Phase 2:
– Determine what FIV mechanisms are of concern; Turbulent loading, Vortex shedding, Acoustic excitation, Any other mechanism
– Predict FIV loadings via thermal-hydraulic models
– Determine significance of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) [ was it done this time? ]
– Apply FIV loadings on finite element structural dynamic models and perform analyses
– Predict components’ failure modes
– Infer generic implications
– Develop potential screening tools for NRR’s use in review of submittals on power uprates
Timetable … Continue providing additional guidance to NRR in reviewing submittals as soon as research information becomes available






This is to certify that the attached proceedings before the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commissionin the matter of: Name of Proceeding: Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards the Committee Meeting
Docket Number: n/aLocation: Rockville, MD were held as herein appears, and that this is the original transcript thereof for the file of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission taken by me and, thereafter reduced to typewriting by me or under the direction of the court reporting company, and that thetranscript is a true and accurate record of the foregoing proceedings. Signed by Rebecca Silberman.

FYI: [ ] -marked notes added later and relate to the banal discussion of catastrophic Nuke Disaster as they were planning next volley ball beach- tournament . Especially note how this ●● MR. SCARBROUGH is allowed to spin the whole panel and is not responsible to anyone about anything – but can continue to play dice with 1000 million ppl lives!]



(There are lots of detailed pictures about these regularly occurring and continuing catastrophic failures – possibly added later; here just one.)



Everyday Reactor Catastrophies; here leaked near-catastrophic document from Fukushima Daichii … ever before heard of the place?









Advisory Committee 512th Meeting



Official Transcript of Proceedings

  Friday, May 7, 2004                  NRC-14 Pages 1-119



The full committee met at Regulatory Commission, Two White E Room T2B3, 1154 Rockville Pike,

Mario V. Bonaca, CHAIRMAN, presiding.














CHAIRMAN BONACA: “This meeting will now come to order. This is the third day of the 512th meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. During today’s meeting the committee will consider the following: potential adverse effects from core power prates, subcommittee report on fire protection issues, future ACRS activities/report of the Planning and Procedures Subcommittee, reconciliation of ACRS comments and recommendations, topic schedule for discussion during the meeting with NRC Commissioners between 1:30 and 3:30 p.m. on Wednesday, June 2, 2004, and preparation of ACRS reports. This meeting is being conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.

MR.  Sam Duraiswamy is the Designated Federal Official for the initial portion of the meeting. We have received no written comments or requests for time to make oral statements from Members of the public regarding today’s session. A transcript of portions of the meeting is being kept, and it is requested that the speakers use one of the microphones, identify themselves, and speak with sufficient clarity and volume so that they can be readily heard. Are there any comments from Members or questions? If none, we’ll proceed with the first item on the agenda, which is potential adverse effects from power uprates, and with that I turn to John Sieber. He’s—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I’m the cognizant MEMBER.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Thank you,

MR. CHAIRMAN. I’m sure the Members all recall the fact that about two years ago we wrote a letter to concur in the power uprate for Quad Cities and Dresden, and, in addition, the General Electric topical report on constant pressure power uprates. And in our deliberations at the time, we were concerned about the increase in [coolant] flow, but mostly in the context of flood-assisted corrosion as opposed to vibration and cracking. After Quad Cities began its upgrade, and shortly thereafter, they suffered a failure which was detected by an increase in moisture carryover to the main unit turbine and indicated that some part of the moisture separator inside the vessel had failed in one way or another. You received all of the package late in April that has—had  attachments to it. It came in the mail. He also—it’s also on your notebook CDs, and I got a third set as an attachment to an e-mail. But in any event, there is some important information in there that will give you some background. For example, in 2002, the staff issued an information notice, which is 02-26, and then later onto supplements as information was gathered. Also in that package is a General Electric service information letter, dated August 2002, along with its supplement, and then most recently the correspondence between the NRR and the BWR Owner’s Group, and presentation materials from a meeting that was held this past February.

So that sort of brings you up to date as to the issues involved in the potential damage caused by increased flow due to power uprates. What I’d like to do now is turn to the staff. And David Terao and Tom Scarbrough are thecognizant NRR people that are responsible for this project, and we will also hear from Research later on during this period. So why don’t we just begin with—


Catastrophic Failures – due to Plutonium


CHAIRMAN BONACA: Yes. But I just need to say one thing. I would like to also bring up the  issue that two or three years ago when we were reviewing the generic approach to power uprates,  a number of MEMBERs of the Committee raised concerns.


CHAIRMAN BONACA: And that specificallywas one of those—regarding performance or components also during severe accident—not severe accident, under accident conditions. Since uprated powerplants will experience maybe higher blowdowns, or whatever, and forces solicitation of components, internals, etcetera, maybe higher, we raised questions regarding margin. And we were provided the answer that there was no concern regarding this margin. We also wrote a paper, I believe, myselfand Dr. Wallis and MR. —and Dr. Cronenberg. Andpersonally, the fact that we had these failures as aresult of the power uprate in the steam dryers again brings up the question of, what about other components that are not going to be challenged during normal operation, but they’re going to be challenged during accidents.  I think at some point we would like to raise this issue. I would like to hear something about it, if Research [!?] is doing something about it. And so I would like to, you know, bring this forth.







■ MEMBER FORD: And for the record, just before we start, could I just for the record state that I’m a General Electric retiree. I don’t know if that constitutes a conflict of interest, but just forthe record.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I suspect that it does, but that’s for the CHAIRMAN to decide.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I would point out that, just to amplify a little bit what Dr. Bonaca said,with constant pressure power uprate, as far asblowdown loads, and so forth, are concerned, it is the same before and after the uprate, because the pressure is the same. On the other hand, there are a lot of effects, as Dr. Bonaca stated, that are due to the increase in flow—for example, strain on the mainsteam stop valves when they close. You know, the increase in flow is going to give you increases inforce. So these are the kinds of things that we continue to be interested in. So with all that, why don’t I turn it over to the staff.

MR.  LARKINS: Mario, let me just clarify. We looked at a conflict of—Peter, you don’t have a conflict on this particular review, because it’s more generic than specific to a GE topical or some other thing.

■ MEMBER FORD: Okay. Good.


MR.  TERAO: Good morning. I’m David Terao. I’m the Section Chief in the Mechanical and Civil Engineering Branch in NRR, and, first of all, I’d like to thank the ACRS for inviting the staff to present its views today on steam dryer cracking and  other EPU-related issues involved with flow-induced vibration. This is a high visibility issue that’s getting a lot of attention lately. And although the staff may not have questions—answers to all of your questions today, we are prepared to discuss and go into as much detail as you want on any particular issue. What we want to cover today are basically some of the failures that we’ve seen of the steamdryer at certain plant—certain BWR plants. We want  to discuss what corrective actions the—what corrective action these plants have taken, what the possible causes are for these failures, as well as the industry and the staff’s actions taken and/or planned to be taken to address these issues. We also understand that the ACRS has invited General Electric and I believe the BWR Owner’s Group to give a presentation sometime in the summer, perhaps getting into a little bit more technical detail on the loadings, the thermal hydraulics, and sowe aren’t prepared today to go into that level ofdetail. With me today is Tom Scarbrough, also with the Mechanical and Civil Engineering Branch, and he will be giving the bulk of the presentation. In addition, we also have a couple staff from the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, who will be presenting some of their research activities related to steamdryers. So with that, I will turn it over to Tom Scarbrough.


In the 1970s, Nuclear Reactor licensees began – ADDING PLUTONIUM


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Good morning. What we’d like to do is just give a little bit of initial background of sort of where we are today. In the 1970s, licensees began implementing power uprates to  increase their electric power output. And there’svarious categories of power uprates. You know, the lowest one is what we call the measurement uncertainty recapture, and that’s involving improved feedwater measurement to reduce the uncertainty, and it’s about one and a half percent. Then there’s a stretch power uprate, which goes up to about six percent, and that involves instrument setpoint changes, and things of that nature, just minor adjustments to attain that type of uprate. And then we go up to the higher levels, which seems to be where we’re seeing, you know, most of the problems, called the extended power uprates, or EPUs, and they go up to about  percent. And those involve major modifications—you know, turbine changeouts or generator changeouts, or pumps, things of that nature, but major—major modifications. In terms of reactor pressure vessel internals, we have had cracking issues with those components for a long time for BWR plants, and steamdryers were no exception. There have been cracking of steam dryers. Initially, as plants start up, a lot oftimes that was sort of below our radar screen, and the plants just corrected them and fixed those problems and moved on.   But recently, as we’ve gone to the poweruprates, we’ve seen additional problems with both safety-related and non-safety-related equipment. And that’s what’s getting our attention now. Specifically, with Quad Cities Units  and2, they’ve had what we’ve termed catastrophic failures of steam dryers. So they’ve had significant loose parts generated to go through. Now, the steam dryers, as you know, don’tperform a safety-related function themselves in the removal of the steam. However, they need to maintain their structural integrity, so you don’t have a problem with either it dropping down on top of the core itself or that you have numerous loose parts that might cause problems for components in the steam lines or get down into the reactor pressure vessel itself.


[ …now an’ then theses Reactors crumble to bits…]


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I might point out that one of our concerns is if you generate loose parts, even though the dryers are not safety-related, they do pass the parts pass through safety-related equipment—for example, the main steam stop valves, flow-measuring Venturis, which can be gouged and scored. They end up in the strainers of the throttle valves onthe turbine, which is not safety-related, but nonetheless important.  The greatest concern is loose parts that you can’t find. Are they in the bottom of the reactor vessel? Or in the case of the sampling nozzle, does it end up in the feed ring? Is it floating aroundwhere it can damage internal parts of the core? Did it go through the recirc pumps? And when you find all kinds of gouges in the recirc pumps, there’s a clue there. And so I think every effort ought to be extended to recovering loose parts.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir. We agree withthat, and we’ve seen a lot of that in the exampleswe’ve had so far. And that’s raising our concern aswell.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: There are loose parts out there that people haven’t found.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir.



There are loose parts out there that people haven’t found.


G.E. Loose Parts floating around the Globe with the Strontium Clouds: Here Fukushima Daichii disgruntled sub-sub-sub-supplier worker threw xtra pipes into the reactor… later found here.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: In terms of—first of all, I talk a little bit about the scope and how the scope has expanded. First, you know, this seemed tobe a steam dryer issue. But as we’ve had more events, the scope has expanded, and that’s part of our growing concern in this area.

MEMBER SHACK: Tom, can you—


MEMBER SHACK: — tell me—I mean, I see this as an engineering failure. You know, that flow-induced vibrations are not a phenomena that somebody didn’t anticipate, you know.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: That’s right.

MEMBER SHACK: They were presumably analyzed. We were told that they were analyzed, and they were okay. So there—there was an engineering failure here. Did they—are they getting the forcing functions wrong? Are they oversimplifying the stress analysis? Do we have assurance that when theybring in the new fix—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: That it won’t fail.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And it’s yes to sort of all those questions, because they—they have done evaluations initially, and we’ll get into a little bit of that as we get farther in. But that’s where the—finding out what exactly is the forcing function is part of the problem. I mean, we’ve had three failures at Quad Cities 2, one failure at Quad Cities 1. And each time we think we’re getting closer to what the answer is, but we don’t get there. And so it—yes, sir, it is an engineering problem. We don’t really—can’t get our arms around what that forcing function is and driving these failures—these failures in these steam dryers so catastrophically. And that’s whatwe’re working—that’s what our—our effort is right now is to work toward that. And we’ll get more into that as we get—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, one of the problems is when you come up with an engineered fix, and youput it in service and it fails, that means, you know,that you don’t understand the problem.

MR.  TERAO: Yes. If I may add, we’re still—we’re still wrestling with whether or not andthe extent to which this issue applies to Quad Cities, Dresden, and other BWR plants.

MEMBER SHACK: Yes. Every time you’re analyzing flow-induced vibrations. I mean, if you don’t understand the problem well enough to predict this, what gives you confidence that you’re—

MR.  TERAO: Right. And what we’re going to show you is that the catastrophic failures of the steam dryers we’ve seen—and it has only happened at Quad Cities, Units  and 2. It really hasn’t even happened at Dresden or other BWRs. So at this point, we aren’t sure if this is a generic BWR problem, or something specifically related to Quad Cities. And so what we’re trying to  understand is—as you pointed out, is the specific forcing function, the low definition that is causing the failure at Quad Cities. And that’s something that we’re pursuing with Exelon at this time.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, let me ask a clarifying question, then. Quad Cities has had failures where things have come apart. On the other hand, you found cracks that are precursors to failure at other plants. Is that not correct? But Dresden—

MR.  TERAO: Yes. But I think what—what you may see from the pictures that we’re going to  present is there is a big difference, at least in our mind, on a crack and a complete failure of the steamdryer, where you’re generating loose parts, where the dryer looks like it has been—it doesn’t look like, it has been plastically deformed—


MR.  TERAO: — and there’s a big difference between just having a crack in the dryerwhere it’s—it’s not likely to generate a loose part. That was the assumption that we had made when we first started approving the EPUs.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: When you get to that point in your presentation, I’d appreciate it if you would expand on that.

MR.  TERAO: Okay. Thank you.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Because that’s an important point to me.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Why is it an issue of  forcing function only? Couldn’t you have deterioration of the material and—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, as an example, in the first Quad Cities Unit  failure, they had only gone up to EPU operation for 90 days. So they were only up three months.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And it catastrophically failed. So in terms of that short amount of time, we don’t think it’s a normal type of degradation issue. We do see stress corrosion cracking, and that’s sort of normal. We see that in lots of steam dryers.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: That assumes that the degradation would be the result of the extended uprate. Why couldn’t you have some degradation before that was accelerated?


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I mean, is that excluded or precluded?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That might have been the case. But now for Quad Cities 2, for example, they’ve done quite a bit of inspection of the steam dryer after each failure to look for cracks and identify them.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: So, and then they have another failure, so in that short amount of time at EPU operation they have another failure. So it would have to be degradation, we feel, that occurred during that timeframe, and not something that was sort of pre existing.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Now, the forcing function is calculated using some GE guidance, is that—


[ Carpenter-Clown SCARBROUGH keeps hammering – nails ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Well, part of the problem is in terms of how they dealt with it. There was a relatively simplized method for looking at the loads across the steam dryer, in terms of the static type of valuation. And we’ve been discussing the GE expanding that evaluation to make it more dynamic to deal with the dynamic aspects of the flow effects. And that’s something that GE is working on. And I think as they—we’ll give some examples of where they’re sort of moving in this direction. I’m trying to gather more data to really nail down and look at that— ,

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But all the BWRs are using the GE guidance.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: So in June of 2002, after this three months of EPU operation; about  percent power uprate, they had a failure of the—the steamdryer coverplate, and pieces were found down on the steam separators and farther down in the steam line. And if you can show the next slide,please.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: That’s BWR 3, right?  With the flat—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, this is a square hood design. These are the square hood – -that’s—this looks like a curved design, but it’s a these are the square hoods. You can see the squarehood design there, which causes much more—let me see if this shows it better. You can see right now that this one—the plate is there. And so they repaired that, and we’ll get into what the repair techniques were in some later slides. But just let’s get—let’s go—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: How many BWR 3’s are there? They’re the most susceptible, right?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And we have Vermont Yankee, we’ve got the Dresden units, Monticello, and Pilgrim. And we’re going to talk alittle bit about those later in the presentation.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Why are they the moresusceptible, the most susceptible?

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, they’re the flat—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. We do have a slide for that.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: The later models had sloping sides.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: All right. We are pre empting his slides.



G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That’s okay. Well,  no, that’s a good question. That’s exactly what we’ve been talking about.

MEMBER RANSOM: Is that steam outlet lined up with that plate?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. It—right, right through—right up through here, right out through there.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And so that’s where they  thought a lot of the damage was, the higher flow effects right in that area as it went into that steamline. Then, about 300 days later, in June, youknow, a calendar year later, Quad Cities  had another failure of the hood, and now it’s getting—it’s more extensive. And you can see this—right through herethere was a crack right here. Well, 90 inches of crack right through this area right in here.

And they ended up with internal braces failing. They had about three or four of those and some tie bars failing as well. So they—they also had some additional cracking over on the other side, not as severe, but they had some cracking on the other side, too. So these two sides, as this—as this flow came out and whipped over this corner here, this edge, and went out that steam line, that’s where they have some severe vibration effects in the—


You know, Tom, this drawing …

… it’s not a real engineering drawing …

… It’s like a cartoon.”


[Carpenter Cartoons about your radiation?]

□ MEMBER ROSEN: You know, Tom, this drawing you have on the slide isn’t very good, and it’s not a real engineering drawing. It’s almost like a cartoon. Is there something—do you have a better drawing ofthat box and the hood and—and so we can see the details, the thickness of the materials, the construction?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: This is the one that theygave to us.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: That’s as good as they’vegot?


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: They have better drawings.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. Oh, they have better drawings. But in terms of what they give us,that’s—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Actually, that’s in two pieces. You have to push that all together.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And then, when you do that, you can’t see the detail. But it is a—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: That’s my first comment is we need to have a real drawing, real engineering drawings, of what these parts look like.


●● MR. SCARBROUGH: That’s not it.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, that’s what—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I mean, what happened between June 200 and June 2003?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: They just operated the EPUs.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Yes. But, I mean,   23they had a failure.


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Did they look into it, why, and so on? I mean, or was it—

MR.  TERAO: Well, if I could answer that question, the first failure of the coverplate was—was what we felt was an anomaly. We—they thought it was a localized—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So it was considered to be aleatory.

MR.  TERAO: They believed it was a localized effect—a localized effect. They looked at other components with the same type of frequency asthe coverplate and found there were no other components within that area of the steam dryer that had the same frequency. The failure of the coverplate in 200 was attributed to alignment of the vortex shedding frequency together with the acoustic load frequency, which matched the frequency of the coverplate itself. So that’s why they believed this was a very localized effect, and we had no evidence to contradict it or to doubt that.

So that’s why the second failure, when we had the second failure of the same unit on their steam  dryer, that—became very serious about looking intothe failures of these steam dryers, because we realized that something else was going on. And that’swhen we sent the special inspection team out to QuadCities to review the details of their calculations and get a better understanding of the technical analysis that was performed on these steam dryers.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But this could havebeen done also in 2002, couldn’t it?

MR.  TERAO: Yes. But because they fixedit, they changed the—they replaced the quarter-inch thick coverplate with a half-inch thick coverplate, they changed the frequency. At that point, we—we believed that the issue was resolved.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: They did not notic eanything during operation? Or simply the failure happened in June 2003, and then they shut down and went to see what happened?

MR.  TERAO: Yes, yes. There were some indications that something was happening in the plant, including a change in the moisture carryover levels. That was probably the biggest indication.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: But they—I mean, did they run for a period of time under these conditions? Changed condition? Or they simply, when they saw this , difference in moisture carryover, they shut down?

MR.  TERAO: Well, when they first—

CHAIRMAN BONACA: I’m trying to understand for how long they ran in this condition.

MR.  TERAO: When they first sensed the change in moisture carryover, I mean, a change in moisture carryover could be due to other reasons besides steam dryer failures. But they did monitor it, and as the moisture carryover increased, then they decided to shut down the plant and see what wasc  ausing—


MR.  TERAO: — causing it. But going backto Dr. Apostolakis’ question on what happened before June of 2003, before the second Quad Cities  steamdryer failure, they did have a spurious actuation of their safety relief valve. Or they call it PORVs at Quad 2.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: These are the target rock valves?

MR.  TERAO: It—these were the target rock PORVs—


MR.  TERAO: — I believe, yes.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: I think they’re SRVs.

MR.  TERAO: Well, no, these were called PORVs.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: No, they were—

MR.  TERAO: They were very unique.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: They were pilot-operated.

MR.  TERAO: Yes. And so these—so the valve spuriously opened and did not close.


MR.  TERAO: So they’re attributing that some of the loadings from this relief valve discharge contributed to the steam dryer failure a few month slater, in addition to the flow-induced vibration from the EPU.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, I have a question about that. When I read about that, I got the feeling that it was because of the higher flows condition and vibration in the line that may have contributed to the failure of the valve. Is that—you know, it’s a chicken-and-the-egg kind of a thing, and I couldn’t figure out from what I read which came first.


[ Significant or not? Reactors ripping to bits! ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And they have found significant vibration effects, and we found that in the Unit  failures that occurred. And so it mayhave been that vibration causing that—initiation of  that valve. So, yes, right.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: If my memory is any good, there was a broken drain line—


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — involved with that, and some support damage, and—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: We have some—a slide on that, too.


MR.  TERAO: Wait. Actually, we’re getting two events mixed up. The broken drain line was at Quad Cities 1, which happened in November.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And we’re going to get to that.



G.E. Criminal Activity:


“At General Electric subcommittee meeting

…they told us CFD-modeling will be done.”

… [ Later proven a banal fraud…]


[ Expensive $$$.$$$ CFD-modeling would likely prevent future catastrophic failures ]

[ G.E. LIED about it… ]


MEMBER LEITCH: ” We had a subcommittee meeting at General Electric in San Jose in September of 2002. And so that was between the first and second failure, just a couple months after the first failure. And we asked General Electric about this issue, and at that time they told us they were going to model (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation) the steam dryer. And I was wondering: did you—do you know if that was done?

In other words, were they in a position to predict or suspect that there may be a subsequent failure, which actually occurred in 2003? In other words, before the 2002 failure, did they really seem to understand the problem and say, “Well, the next refueling outage you’re going to have to go in there and do some additional work”? Was there some additional work planned, or do they think everything was fine, and it just failed again in 2003?


MR.  TERAO: I think that would be better left to ask General Electric. I’m not sure what they knew at that time.


“…better left to ask G.E.

—>Panel Members as Crime Accomplices…



▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, it seems to me that that’s a very difficult geometry to model from the standpoint of vibration and force as—

MEMBER LEITCH: Yes. But they told us they were going to do it.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes. But if they didn’t get it quite right, I wouldn’t be surprised. But if they didn’t do it at all, or did a superficial job,then the—



“we’re quite there yet … nailed this thing down”. ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And we’ve had four significant failures, so we don’t think that we’re quite there yet. I mean, we don’t really think they nailed this thing down.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Right. That would be a clue.

●G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. Yes. Okay. Let me go on to Dresden, bring Dresden in here.


“Yes. Yes. Okay. Let me go on …”


…to Dresden, in October of 2003, they shut down for a refueling outage inspection after two years of running at about a  17 percent Extended Power Uprate [ PLUTONIUM] EPU, and they did find some cracks. And they were sort of in the—that sort of gusset area on the diagonal—diagonal brace/brackets area, so they were—they found some cracks there. They weren’t as severe as what we’ve seen before, what had occurred at Quad Cities Unit 2, but they did see some issues. And at the same time, they found some holes in their feedwater sparger. And theydiscovered that there was a broken sample probe that was in there, and originally they thought they had problems with this before, and it was sort of a stress corrosion cracking issue.But then they had done some upgrades, but then these seemed to break off as a result of the vibration effects. And so that started us down this path, and now we have this—now we’ve moved from the steam lines into the feed lines, because they also have the increased flow. So now we’re bringing inthat other side of the plant, so our—our scope is expanding here.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Do you know for sure that the four-inch cracks that were found in Dresden  were not there prior to EPU operation?


“A lot of these older inspections were not done very thoroughly,

[eh. add Plutonium on that…]

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: No, that’s part of thesort of the learning curve that we’ve been on here. A lot of these older inspections were not done very thoroughly, and then we moved up, and then there wasa discussion of using the VT-3, sort of the visual inspection. Since it’s not code, they were then doing a best effort. So, and then they found that even that wasn’t looking—finding some of these cracks. And so we’ve had this learning curve aswe’ve gone along. Probably the best we’ve done ismost recently that Exelon has done at Quad Cities  in March where they did a VT- everywhere to see what’s going on. But that has always been a point of discussion is some of these—were some of these cracks there before and we just didn’t see them? Andwe’re learning more as we go along, so that’s part ofthe—the issue here is, where do these cracks start, and how long have they been there?

MEMBER SHACK: But the prior inspections were VT-3’s?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: If at all. I mean, they yes, they were—and some of them were—you   know, were less aggressive, especially they might doVT- on the welds themselves but VT- on the services. But as you saw, some of these go right into the base metal services themselves. They might not—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: This seems to pose the question as to whether the agency should require VT-1 prior to allowing extended power uprate operation.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: The inspection is—one of the areas we’re looking at very closely is how—how much detail they look at these steam dryers, in terms of identifying preexisting problems, so they know where they may have a problem in the future. But yes, sir, that’s something that we’regoing to be having to look at, especially sinceVermont Yankee is in now—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — to see what type of inspection they do.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: And others perhaps after that.



“General Electric also indicated…

…that there had been many incidences

…of steam dryer cracking …”


■ MEMBER FORD: When we visited General Electric in September 2002, they indicated some surprise at the issues that we are raising, because their view was that—because the VIP designation that this was not  a safety-related component. They also indicated that there had been many incidences of steam dryer cracking beyond just the stress corrosion cracking we know of the drainlines. Have you taken that into account—these ”many incidences” of steam dryer cracking? And were those locations of cracking in line with the location sthat we’re seeing now?

MR.  TERAO: Yes. Well, first, we have to go back—

■ MEMBER FORD: And then this addresses the question that MR.  Rosen was asking, was this—it was a precursor to these particular incidences, which are accelerated maybe by power uprate, but cracks were there beforehand.

MR.  TERAO: Yes. We have to understand,  first of all—and keep in mind always that these are not ASME Code class components.

■ MEMBER FORD: Correct.

MR.  TERAO: They were not constructed to ASME Code. They were constructed to standard industry practice.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, they aren’t pressure vessels either.

MR.  TERAO: They’re not pressure-retaining. So there’s very little controls on these [ CATASTROPHIC ACCIDENT CAUSING ] components. The inspections that we spoke aboutearlier that—were just visual inspections. When they removed these dryers during normal refueling  outages, they would look at them. But I would not characterize them as any type of formal visual inspections. And what Tom was referring to were—was the fact that some licensees may have done more detailed inspections than other licensees. But there were no—there was no requirement to do any visual inspection.




□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, I think that allthat’s true, and I think the presumption was thatthese things will retain their structural integrity, and there is no—no issue. And, therefore, they can be treated that way. And if that were true, that would be just exactly the way it was. But what we found through operation and experience is that they don’t retain their structural integrity under some circumstances.

So now we raise the question, which is the obvious one, is: where do the parts go? And if they go to places where they could affect safety-related functions, then we have a  business in asking: will these things retain their structural integrity? Are they—have they retained their structural integrity? We make a presumption when we agree to extended power operation—uprate operation that those things have structural integrity. And maybe—and that’s what’s being brought into question here.


[ General Electric Escapes again with Treason! ]

“…Yes, sir, we agree with that. Let me go on to now


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir, we agree with that. Let me go on to now Quad Cities Unit  in November. So they had been operating for about a year at EPU, about  percent, and they observed in late October or early November a sudden increase in the moisture carryover. And it kept increasing, and they shut down, and they found a—if you want to flip tothe next slide. You can see the significant cracking in this vertical plate, and then there was a—about a six by nine inch piece of metal that was missing, and they searched significantly for that piece of metal. I mean, they—they had their little robotic camera go in many places looking for this. Finally, they believe that it ended up inthe bottom of their reactor vessel head, and that was circumstantial, because they saw some marks on the recirculation pump propeller that weren’t there, from  their belief, during the replacement of that.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: So the pump ate the part.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. You know, it push edit—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Like the dog ate my homework.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And that’s where they ended Yes, right. Exactly. up with—that was their best guess of where it was.

MEMBER LEITCH: of the steam line relative


MEMBER LEITCH: And so it’s there now.Where is the orientation to that location? It’s right -Right there. There’s four steam lines in this unit?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: There’s like one there—

MEMBER LEITCH: apart? I mean, they’re—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: There’s one over there. Not quite 90 degrees Yes, sir, about—yes.  And so there’s one about—about right there, and that seems to be a real problem here where this flow whips out over there.

MEMBER LEITCH: And they inspected that  steam line

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. Yes. They wentdown that steam line, way down that steam line, looking for it.

MEMBER RANSOM: The flow comes out through slots in the top of this?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, it comes out the—

MEMBER RANSOM: And then flows over that ledge?

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Over the wall.

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: And into the steam line,yes. Now, they did a lost parts—now we’re into lost parts evaluation that the licensee did, and the staff did look at that and determine that there wasn’t any immediate concern from that lost part. But there was a concern that—that there might be somefuel fretting and things of that nature. And so there was concern that—that that would be left there longterm. So the licensee is, by the time the nex toutage rolls around, determine if they’re going to remove the core and get that part out of there. So that’s still under discussion now.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, this is a pretty big part. It’s, what, six by nine or something?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: It’s six by nine and ahalf-inch thick. And the next slide—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And so as far as fuel fretting is concerned, it’s too big to get up into the fuel area.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. They’re worried it might—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: But it could be rubbing down amongst control rod housings and—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, sir.Now, if you wanted to put the next slide up, please.

MEMBER RANSOM: It might not be in one piece any more, right?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. If it bends alittle bit, it could push down through and get into the jet pumps and get down there.

MR.  TERAO: That’s right. In fact, the lost part analysis assumed that the large piece broke down into different and various sizes, I think as small as half an inch. So it looked at the implications of the lost part from half an inch all the way up to its full size.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. Want to hit the next slide Now, you can see how this piece came out.You can—you can see that it’s—the metal, it just ripped right out of there. I mean, this is rolled up, and so this is not the normal type of static, you know, load across that. Something severe is happening there.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Did they look at the fracture surfaces?


[ Plutonium Turboed: “ Fractured surfaces,

… ripped steel structures …

limit switches broken to bits…” ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. And they determined it was fatigue of a type of failure. And I have aslide on that which talks about how they’ve migrated in terms of, you know, exactly the type of fatigue itwas. You can see it’s a catastrophic failure of this dryer.  Also, now we move beyond just a steamdryer, because as they did their walkdown they found in the main steam line they found electromagnetic relief valve—a drain line was leaking from this particular valve, and they took the actuator cover off, and they said it sort of fell apart in their hands.

The plunger spring had been pushed rightup through its holder, and a microswitch just was off was falling off. The ports on it were damaged, and it was inoperable. It was basically inoperable.   Now, they checked the other three ERVs,and they had some extent of damage, but they weren’t this severe. So now we’re into this severe vibrational effect into the main steam line. They also had steam line supports that were damaged, and then, although we don’t have a lot of detailed information about it, there was a HPSI MOV that had a limit switch problem in terms of the spring for the limit switch, the finger springs, were damaged by the vibration effects. And so this is—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. yes.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: This was located where?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: It’s into the HPSI steamline supply.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Which is located where—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right off the main steamlines.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: — relative to the reactor vessel?

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Well, it’s not near the vessel itself. It’s into the—it’s into the steam line going off, and it taps off for—the HPSI line taps off.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: I know it’s in the HPSI , D.C. steam line. I’m just trying to figure out, was it close to the vessel or close to the HPSI turbine, the valve we’re talking about here?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Oh, it’s farther downstream. It’s not—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: It’s way downstream.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. It’s not near the vessel.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: So this effect is propagating way downstream.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. It’s—

MEMBER LEITCH: Well, it’s in containment,isn’t it?

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. There would be one inside containment and one outside containment.

MEMBER LEITCH: Yes. So it’s not all the way down at the HPSI. It’s—but it’s not adjacent to the vessel.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. It’s not the vessel itself that—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: That’s what I’m trying to establish, what you just told me, Graham. It’s 10feet from the vessel or more?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Probably something like that, yes. It’s—well, it’s a ways down. It’s not  right next to it. It’s not like right there, because it has to tap off the main steam line and then tap off there farther. So it’s over its isolation valves for containment. So it would be next to the containment wall and—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Yes. It would be helpful if you had a drawing that showed this.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. I don’t think—I have a drawing, but I don’t have one on a slide.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: I find that a lot of what  you’ve got here is very simple. I mean, there’s verylittle detail, and you need to provide more—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, we’ll get to that when we get to a subcommittee meeting.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Well, we’re still learning.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I mean, this is—we’re still in the learning phase.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, let me ask you a question now. In this branch line, since this power uprate was essentially a constant pressure uprate, the flows in the line are the same as they were before the upgrade took place, because the pressure drop is thesame.  So that tells me that the—whatever vibration is coming is coming from the main steamline, mechanically coupled to this branch line, a sopposed to something that’s—some phenomenon that’s unique to the branch line. Is that the right kind of reasoning?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, part of it is that these have such smaller diameter steam lines. The steam flow—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes, right.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — is so great, muchg reater than the other plants, that it’s causing this and they think it—you know, some type of—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, would it have failed whether the dryer was good or bad, or you didn’t have a problem anyplace else?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And that’s an issue in terms of would—would replacing the steamdryer fix this problem? It may be that the steam flows are so great, even if you replace the steamdryer you still might have problems—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, that’s—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — these other components.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, that’s the other  issue. If you get a failure of one of these electromagnetic relief valves, the question is: did the failure—did the damage mechanism occur before the dryer failed or after the dryer failed? You know? It could be the failure of the dryer that changed the operating condition in the line, or it could be you just have a lot of steam flow and you’re wrecking supports and shaking—shaking everything a lot.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right, right.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And so have you come to a conclusion whether there’s a relationship between dryer failure and these other problems that you find,or are they independent?

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, they do shut down.As the main—the moisture carryover increases quickly, they shut down within a week or so. I mean, it’s just a few days before they shut down.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes, but it is days—


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — nonetheless.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And you can get a lot of cycles in a few days.


Owner’s Group, is sort of taking responsibility for this and …”


[…smbdy might take responsibility of your irradiation says the Clown.]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right, yes. So I—but that’s something that some testing is going on, and  we’ll talk to that later. Exelon has done quite a bit of vibration testing and evaluation to find out – – try to find out what’s going on with this. And that’spart of what they’re supposed to present to us as the Owner’s Group, is sort of taking responsibility for this and co-ordinating this.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: But they don’t have a baseline, right?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, that’s—well, they are, in terms of they were gathering data—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: At the old full power?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: No. They were—theywere doing some EPU—going up to obtain vibration data at EPU as well.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: So—right. So they’re working on it.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: All right.

MEMBER LEITCH: We had a problem starting up a BWR with—where the turbine governor valves were fluctuating and causing pressure pulsations all the way back through the main steam lines. And basically, the fix was an electronic one. We had to retune the—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Controls.

MEMBER LEITCH: — the EHC control system  with some additional capacitors and stuff to dampenout that vibration in the turbine governor valves. And this only occurred at high power. And I’m just wondering if—if there’s any possible connection here. In other words, these are now operating at higher power than they were before. Might we have moved into a region of instability in the turbine governor system? And if those turbine governor valves are sitting there fluctuating, it could be reflecting fluctuations back to and up the main steam line.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Right. Yes, andwe have seen instances where the set points all needto be adjusted under these EPU conditions and places where they had not been adjusted. So this may be something that we can raise with the licensee to see if they have gone back and adjusted those governor  valves and make sure they’re working properly.

MEMBER LEITCH: Because they should bereal stable. I mean, they can be made to be real stable. If they’re tolerating some fluctuations inthose valves, it can raise havoc, in fact, through the steam lines.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Thank you. We’ll raise that.


“…the first failure was 06/2002…

… and you will show in your next slide that …

…cracks have been found 2 years later! “.

[Ripping Reactors=business as usual]


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Well, I’m a littlebit puzzled here. The issue—I mean, the first failure was observed in June of 2002, and you will show in your next slide that cracks have been found as late as the spring of this year.


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: What is the risk significance of this? Why do we keep seeing these things and the plants keep operating and we keep finding failures? Has somebody decided that the risk significance is very low?

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Yes. I had the same question exactly.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I don’t understand why—

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Because if you go past the—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I mean, every other month you have a problem.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: So you just identify the problem, collect the broken pieces, fix it up, andstart again, and then collect the next pieces. I mean, what’s going on?

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: And then in another  plant you find similar problems. So can you tell me what the risk significance of this is? I mean, is it really low, so we don’t care?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, part of it was the sort of how it progressed. You started off with June 2002, you had a failure. It was determined that that was a—you know, a once sort of  in a lifetime sort of situation, and they—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: We can forgive the first instance.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Okay. Then we had another failure.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And then that—that was caused by—maybe it was aggravated by this initiating. So they beefed it up some more, and I—I have another slide which talks about how they beefed this piece of metal up more and more. And then we get to—you know, and now we’re into late November, and we have these other failures. And then we start saying, ”Okay. Let’s ge tthe Owner’s Group involved and solve this problem.”But it comes back to the steam dryer—you know, it’s non-safety-related, so there’s this real—


Xploding Reactor = non-safety-related to G.E. !!


□ MEMBER ROSEN: I wish you’d just stop saying that.


I wish you’d just stop saying that.



♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: That is, you know, the pre-PRA categorization. After that, we have now a tool that can give us some idea how important these things are.


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So how important are they?

CHAIRMAN BONACA: But, you see, even by itself won’t tell you the whole story, because, I mean, we don’t—we can’t predict where these parts are going. They’re going in different locations. Every time—I mean, he’ll show additional slides now that show that, you know, in following shut down for refueling, or whatever, identify additional failures, pieces located in different parts, etcetera, and—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But it’s part of the development of scenarios.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Yes, I understand that.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: In one scenario, thepart goes this way; in another, it goes that way. Andyou try to figure out, you know, what the risk is. Have you done any analysis?

MEMBER LEITCH: Pieces have been found on the turbine valves. So by definition, they have been   through the main steam isolation valves, which are safety-related. And these pieces could certainly impact the operation of the main steam line isolationvalves.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So they can have an impact on the estimated core damage frequency.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, you can have an impact on an enclosure—the successful closure frequency of the MSIVs.


□ MEMBER ROSEN: And figure that into the event sequences.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: But most of all, the point I was trying to—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: How important is that?

CHAIRMAN BONACA: — I was trying to make is that we don’t know the initiators. I mean, everytime it seems like we have a neutral price. Other pieces are missing that we didn’t expect to see, andso you may have other—you see what I’m trying tos ay is that, you know, it’s not fully contained insofar as what is breaking off and what is going. I mean, we—you know, so we can develop some scenarios, but—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Yes. But we can certainly say something about the consequences, yes, of these failures, at least the failures that have been observed. So have you done anything with this?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: There is a research—you know, some of the research activities are involved, and some of it is looking at what the consequences are of these failures. And, you know,the staff did look at—the Systems Division did look at this issue, and they’re the—they have the PRAgroup. And they determined that there wasn’t a severe immediate risk to letting them go back up, and that’s you know, that’s not a lot of—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Maybe there wasn’t—


“...the dryers are not in the scope of the license renewal...”

[ Plutonium trimmed, flow increase velocities are up to 200 feet per second compared to 15…

… Not Even In The Scope !! ]



MEMBER LEITCH: That’s another one of ourother concerns here is with our other—one of our other missions right at the moment is we’re looking at license renewal for Dresden and Quad Cities,

and we’re somewhat surprised to—to find that the dryers are not in the scope of the license renewal. And they’re there are a number of—I mean, the reason is that they’re not—they’re not safety-related. One of the other things is that—one ofthe criteria for being in the scope is to be safety-related, but another criteria is to be non-safety-related but to impact the operation of safety-related equipment.


MEMBER LEITCH: And it seems to me by definition these could impact the operation of the MSIVs, which are safety-related. So, you know, it seems to me that these things ought to be in the scope of license renewal considerations.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And there has been a lot of discussion about that, where they shouldI think right now what we’re doing is we’re trying to solve this as a current operational issue.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Not even letting it get that far into, you know—

MEMBER LEITCH: Yes, sure. Right.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — the license renewal space. It has to be solved now, and that’s why we’re dealing with it now. But you’re right, there’s been a lot of discussion whether it should be in scope or out of scope, but we’re going to solve it now. I mean, you know, that’s—that’s part of the issue now. Like Quad Cities is not at EPU now. They’re at – they’re not allowed to go up to— mean, that’s—we have more slides on that, is that is that part of this last failure in March, that was it. They cannot go up into EPU unless they get NRC approval to do that. They agreed that that would be a condition, and they’re not up, so they’re—you know, after four times, they’re staying at dual power level until they solve this problem.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Now, is there a document that documents this risk assessment—I know this is not a significant risk issue—that we can look at?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I can go back and ask if there was something that was prepared on that.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Because, you know, I find it a little bit—that we are a bit inconsistent. I mean, in the reactor oversight process, the inspectors go around and they find someminor violations or—not really violations and some minor problems. And then we have this elaborate SDPsignificant determination process—to tell uswhat the color is. Okay? And here we have real failures, and wedon’t do something like that. Or maybe you will do it, but we don’t have access to it. But it would be, I mean, an interesting—like I think this probably  is more serious than maybe finding that one siren is not operable, and, you know, going to the SDP. And here we have failures that affect the primary loop, and I would expect to see, you know, some color or some—something that says, you know,yes, this would affect the CDF and we are taking action because of that.

MR.  TERAO: Actually, the ACRS will be hearing later this morning from the Office of Research on one of their activities involving the PRA or looking at the risk significance.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: And they do this kind of thing? They do this—

MR.  TERAO: Yes. Well, I don’t know exactly what their—I will let the Research staff address that issue.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I’m not even sure it’s a research issue. I mean, you can actually see the impact title. Well, there’s a PRA Branch in NRR, isn’t there?  Any comments maybe? No? Okay.

MR.  CARUSO: Well, George—George, I just want to make a comment. I believe something likethat was done as part of the BWR VIP program. There was—this is Ralph Caruso. I’m from ACRS staff, used to work on this. And I believe there was a report that was done by a research contractor as part of the BWR VIP program to look at the consequence of vessel internal failures and the effect of pieces coming out of components in the upper part of the vessel and their impact on various different scenarios. And I don’t know if there’s anyone here from Research who remembers that, but I do remember that they had a contract which—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: When was this done? When was this done?

MR.  CARUSO: Three or four years ago.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But that was before the failures.

MR.  CARUSO: Yes. Yes, it was part of—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So now one can take that report and say, ”Okay. This actually happened. Let me see now which scenarios are possible and what frequencies they have,” right? And do an event-specific evaluation.

MR.  CARUSO: I don’t know. I don’t remember the details of it. I rememeber being involved in it a little bit.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Yes, I understand that.

MR.  CARUSO: So I don’t remember the details. Pardon?

MR.  TERAO: I’m not sure that that was a Research report. There was a—there is a report issued by the BWR VIP—it’s number 0 — that deals with this type of failures of safety-related and non-safety-related components inside the vessel, including the steam dryer. And it looked at the impact of the loose parts and the steam dryer collapsing onto the steam separators.

MR.  CARUSO: Right.

MR.  TERAO: And the staff has reviewed that report. We are still looking at it for—to see if it needs to be re evaluated in light of the recent steam dryer failures.

MR.  CARUSO: I remember that the industry did it, but I also thought the staff had Research lookat it, and they had a contractor do a study as part of their evaluation.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Wouldn’t that be the first thing you would do? You would go to a report like that or the PRA and insert these failures and try to figure out what happens and how significant these things are? Instead of talking about—this is non- safety-related or it may affect a safety-related component. I mean, I would expect to see something like that today and say, you know, for these reasons we decided to keep studying it. I mean, it’s very consistent with what the reactor oversight process does, which goes to this phased approach to the significance determination and all that. And here you have a real failure. Anyway, I think we’ve said enough about this.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, we’re still working on resolving this. Let me go on—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But one of the—ofthe objectives is—of the Commission is to maintain and even enhance public confidence in the agency. In the discussion of the last  minutes, I’m not surehow much it contributes to that.



“You know, you [ G.E. ] guys are like Caesar’s wife.

…You know what they said about her.”



♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: It’s not just the CDF that bothers me. It’s this appearance as well. You know, you guys are like Caesar’s wife. You know what they said about her.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: We shouldn’t talk about that.(Laughter.)

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I shouldn’t talk  about Caesar.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. Well, let me go on and—the other examples we have. Dresden Unit 3 shut down in December, and this is where the staff actually was actively involved in convincing Exelon to shut down the unit to do an inspection. And they found a couple of four-inch throughwall cracks in thesteam dryer, and they found two more sample probes that had problems. And also, Dresden Unit  happened to shutdown during that month, and they found one of their probes—feedwater probes also missing. So that’swhere we were with that, with Dresden.

Now, this year Quad Cities Unit 2, inMarch, now they’ve had another eight months of operation, and they shut down for a refueling outage inspection, and they found numerous problems with their steam dryer. And part of it involved where they had done repairs in the past. And if you can show the next slide there,you can see—

MEMBER LEITCH: This is eight months of operation. I’m just a little confused. Was this at the new 100 percent power level, this eight months?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: No, this is back—this  was back up to the EPU,  percent above the original—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: So they went—yes, they had eight more months of EPU operation.

MEMBER LEITCH: Yes, okay. thank you.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And so they found—one of the areas they found problems was right here wherethey had installed these gusset plates, this piece of metal, and they had a disconnect here between the old half-inch and one-inch plates, and they had a disconnect there, and that—and that failed. They found several broken tie bars up in here. There’s cracks like right in there. You can—where those were coming apart, and then they—they had a weld where there was a plate attached, and this right through this weld popped out from the vibration. So, and then down here on the tip of the gusset—I don’t know if you can see it, but you can see there’s a crack right down there. But part of the problem was they—they were finding damage where they had made repairs in the past. Now, there’s a series of things that happened since then, and we have some slides on that. Other steam dryer inspections that we’ve   had this year—Nine Mile Point has a curve to a design, and they did find an 18-inch crack along a weld right where the curved hood sort of comes together. And they determined that was a fatigue typeof crack caused by acoustic loading. But they had been operating for several years, and so that’s what they saw. They did—there was some blow by through that crack. Brunswick has been operating for a coupleof years at  percent power uprate, and it has the—sort of the slanted design, which is sort of the in between of the square and the curve. And they found some minor—some minor cracks, fatigue cracks, in their steam dryer.

MEMBER LEITCH: Just as a matter of interest, Brunswick Number  just came out of a refueling outage where they preemptively beefed up, shall we say, the dryer, and they’re now operating at the full new extended power uprate—that is, the full approximately 1 percent of the original power rating. They’ve been at that rating now for about two weeks, and, you know, so far so good. But I don’t—it has only been two weeks, as I said.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. When we talked to them, they said that they were putting some gussets—those very long gussets in to try to strengthen that—those plates. And so—and they said they were going to go up to  percent. But theyare—they are doing some extensive vibration monitoring and walkdowns, things of that nature, to try to be prepared to see if they have any problems.

■ MEMBER FORD: But following on from what Dr. Shack said at the very beginning, aren’t we just chasing this problem? If we can’t—we don’t understand it, just putting in gussets is not going tostop it, right?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, sir. And that’s getting to where we’re going with these slides.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But you told me earlier that when the Quad Cities—the first incident occurred in 2002, they only had 90 days of power uprated operation. And when I asked about degradation, you said, ”Well, gee, most likely that wasn’t the problem, because they’re forcing function.”Doesn’t the experience of—with Vermont Yankee contradict that? That they found numerous cracks at the original licensed power? Do we know that there were no—no cracks in the Quad Cities case, or it was a combination perhaps of material degradation and forcing function underestimation?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. The first failures at Quad Cities, you never really know whether or not it was something that was there before that was aggravated.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. But as they’ve done more and more inspections and they keep having more and more failures, you get to the point where they’ve inspected it sufficiently thoroughly so that they—there weren’t pre existing problems, that these really are EPU-related, and now these Vermont Yankee problems—they didn’t find them in the areas wherethe Quad Cities was failed. Not in those areas. They found them in other areas—drain channels and welds, and things like that. So they didn’t find them in the areas thatQuad Cities was failing. So we’re not quite sure if those were related to this type of sort of full effect phenomenon, or was there something else happening there with those. We won’t know yet on that, but  we’re still—because we still don’t really know whatthe forcing function was on these.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So we don’ t know, but we are convinced the risk is low, so we—they can keep operating.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, for EPU, QuadCities is not operating at EPU. I mean, they’re not. That’s—you know, now Dresden is, but that’s a different issue.

■ MEMBER FORD: All these minor and numerous cracks in this particular design, do we know how they occurred?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Some of them occurred by just stress corrosion cracking. They know that.

■ MEMBER FORD: Because the resolution to the stress corrosion cracking problem is completely different from that of fatigue.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir.

■ MEMBER FORD: So if you go with what Professor Apostolakis is posing—that many of these problems that we have which we see after power uprate are really just an acceleration of previous damage which occurred over the 20,  years of operation. But I’m struggling to come away from the conclusion that this is not an isolated occurrence to just flat-topped BWR- designs. It could be over the whole BWR fleet, if they are all—if they have all got prior damage from IGNCC or whatever.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, we haven’t limited the scope just to the square hood designs yet. I  mean, that’s where we’re seeing the severe problems, which is good that it’s sort of focusing on the area. But we haven’t said this is only a square hood. We’re making sure this is a broad look at this issue before we say, ”This is the scope.”And that’s what—that’s what our concern is, that it—the scope is not something very neat where you can say, ”Okay. This is it. If we fix this, we’re done.”

We just seem to have more problems. Now, I was going to mention briefly someof these causes that we’ve had, and this is—we’ve talked about this as we go along. But high cycle fatigue—the first QuadCities Unit  failure in 200 — it was high cycle fatigue, and there was a high frequency of resonance that aligned with the coverplate, natural frequency, and, you know, all these sorts of things that said this was like a once in a sort of blue moon situation.

But then we—a year later we have Quad Cities Unit 2 with high cycle fatigue due to the low pressure pressuring loading—low frequency pressure loading. And then, in November, Quad Cities  — wehave the high cycle fatigue with a fluctuating pressure load with acoustics. And then we have the   Dresden feedwater probes with resonant frequency vibration. So they’re all vibration fatigue-related, but they haven’t really nailed down what it is. But let me mention—we’ve talked about the dryers themselves. There are basically three—the BWRs have three dryer designs—a square hood, the older type, and the slanted, and the curved.

And GE has done an analysis of the various hood designs and has seen that the square hoods just have more stress for the same amount of flow than the slanted and the curved—significantly different for those. Quad Cities and Dresden have the disadvantage that they have smaller diameters, so their steam velocities are up around 200 feet per second compared to more the 150, 60, 70, sort of are as that we’re seeing with the other plants. So they have a lot more flow, and then on top of that Quad Cities and Dresden have these higher power uprates where they’re going up to  or so percent in the others. So they have a combination of problems. Now, the other square hood designs—Monticello, they’ve had six percent power uprate, and they’ve operated for five years without really any problem. Pilgrim only had that small 1. percent for about a year, and they haven’t seen any problems.  Vermont Yankee now—the other square hood design—wants a  percent uprate. Sothat’s—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: But they’ve already found numerous cracks—Vermont Yankee.


Numerous  -or-  ‘G.E.-SOME’ !?


[ G.E. Creates just more business when its Reactors blow up? ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, they have found some. Right.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: So it presumes they would do something about that.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: They will. They will. We will not grant that EPU uprate until we’re satisfied that issue is soft, and we told the licensee that. And they know that, and they’re here, and they’re interacting with GE, and they know they have to learn—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: The extended—I’m sorry, go ahead.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: They have to evaluate the lessons learned from Quad Cities before they determine that they’ve solved the problem for Vermont Yankee.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: The Vermont Yankeepower uprate has not been granted?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: No, sir. They just came in just recently—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — with a request. And we have a series of RAI questions that have gone out to them regarding this issue and how they’re going toresolve it.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So you will not include Vermont Yankee into this statement here—Quad Cities and Dresden and Vermont Yankee?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: They’re included, because they have—they’re requesting—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: They are not included.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, they’re included in the sense that they have—they have requested a 20 percent power uprate. Okay. They have a square hood design—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — and they have the smaller steam lines.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. So they—theyare in the most susceptible group, despite the—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So, but that’s what the slide says.

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And that’s what I was adding on here.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So Vermont Yankee could be there.


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Or would be there.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: So if we granted it, theycould be in that group.

MR.  TERAO: So that’s why we’re looking at it more closely.


MEMBER LEITCH: Can I just go back again to the experience we had with these governor valves, these turbine governor valves, and stress that it was important that the configuration and dimensions of the main steam line, because that EHC system has to be tuned to get those valves to be stable. And we found that at different plants—you know, in some plants the head end of the turbine is near the reactor. In other plants, the generator is there, and it’s a very long steam line, so it affects the dynamics of the situation and affects the tuning of that EHC system. So I just keep—it sounds to me like there is a distinct possibility, and you need to look into whether these governor valves are really stable or not. And it could vary quite a bit from plant to  plant, but depending upon the configuration and size of the main steam line, because it does affect the dynamics of that whole control loop.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. Thank you. We’ll raise that. In January, GE has—you know, has been looking at this issue, and they determined that there was a fluctuating pressure load in the acoustic range that they hadn’t evaluated before, they hadn’t really seen before, and they identified that to us. Also, Exelon has been running vibration analyses of their steam line components, their ERVsand MOVs, HPSI MOVs, and etcetera. And they found that the vibrations were so severe they could not justify the ERVs as they were at Quad Cities for a full cycle. It was just a few months that they could only justify their operation at that vibration level. So they’ve installed attachments to  strengthen those—those components to prevent them from having problems, at least until the next outage where they can refurbish them. So they’re only on a one-cycle length of time before they have to refurbish these. So there is some severe vibration going on.


G.E. Plutonium BANDAID


□ MEMBER ROSEN: Isn’t that a bandaid fix? I mean, the real problem here is not—is that the   vibration—something is causing the vibration. And what they’re doing is stiffening these components to resist the vibration. The right thing to do is to eliminate the vibration.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, sir. And that’s going back to what’s causing this, what’s causing these problems.

■ MEMBER FORD: And part of that is—is it says GE identifies. When we were visiting GE, they indicated that they were putting vibration monitors, or they had in the past, and continuing to do presumably, put vibration monitors onto the steamdryers. Is that true?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Not on the dryers themselves.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: That was the indication.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Not in the plants. Nowmaybe in their separate effects testing or something that they were doing, but not in the plants themselves. And that’s been a discussion that we’vehad.Now, in a couple of the—

■ MEMBER FORD: My question was about to go on.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I’m sorry.

■ MEMBER FORD: How have you qualified these analyses? That was the end of my conversation.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. And part of this is, you know, the staff is currently reviewing the Vermont Yankee request, and part of that review is going to be a detailed look at the GE analyses. Andwe’re setting that up now.I mean, that process to go and look at those analyses in detail is in the works. We just haven’t set the time for when the experts—and that’s not me—to go out and look at these analyses into a lot of detail and evaluate them. But the staff is getting a contractor to assist on that as well.In March, the licensee was saying at QuadCities  there was design problems with the gusset repair.

There was a discontinuity there. There were some problems with, you know, the stresses and the tiebars, how they attached them, and how they attached the stiffener plate, where they clamped it down to—and it popped out. So there are some issues here. Part of it I mean, this is not code work, so, you know, it’s not—and it’s very difficult work to do, you know, a lot of times under water and things of that nature.  So it’s a difficult repair to make, and what their explanation was is there were some design problems. But that’s not—that’s not solving the problem. That’s just explaining what—why they thought it occurred.

In terms of the corrective actions, a whole series—and this is what you have brought up, and it’s a good point. I mean, you start in July, you go from a quarter-inch thick plate to a half-inch plate, and then you go from July of 200 and you go from a half to a one, install some gussets. And then, in October, you know, Dresden 2 received a modification similar to that Quad Cities 2. And then—and if you want to look at the next slide, we’ll show you a little bit about what they’re doing. And this is what—where we showed what they installed—they cut out this piece that broke, and they installed these gussets. But they left a little gap there where they went from a half-inch to a one-inch plate, and that discontinuity it just—it wobbled on them, and it just broke, and—


” Now wait a minute. Wait a minute. They went in and


[ G.E. TEPCO-class Carpenters trimming your Plutonium-G.E.netic future. Right!? ]


□ MEMBER ROSEN: Now wait a minute. Wait a minute. They went in and put these gussets in. The obvious—it seems to me one doesn’t do that unless you have an analysis, an engineering design.


□ MEMBER ROSEN: So something—they did draw it in the design.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir. And they freely said they missed it now that they say—they still—now what they’ve done, if we flip on—you can see the plates—go to the next one. It givesyou a little closer look.You can see where—right there, you’ll see right where it—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: No. They missed—what did they miss? They missed the forcing function, what they were designing against, what was the strain to the materials they installed. We need some detailed analysis of what this is, and to do that, of course, you need engineering drawings—my earlier point.


□ MEMBER ROSEN: That these cartoons don’t do it for me.


“…these [ G.E. imelt-obamao ] cartoons don’t do it for me!



G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Right. Right. I know. That’s been part of our problem is getting the details.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Why is it your problem? Why don’t you just require them to deliver these—this information to you and where the analysis and engineering that you can review—you have the capability within the agency to do that.


□ MEMBER ROSEN: To ask them, what are the forces they’re designing to resist, and what—from what phenomena do those forces arise? And having once concluded that they’ve got the phenomena correct and the forces are right, then you can decide whether the structural fixes make any sense.



…” I mean, there’s a process. We all learn it in college….! “



□ MEMBER ROSEN: I mean, there’s a process. We all learn it in college.

[ Note: some pa$$ it by forgery ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. I agree. And the staff just missed this. I mean, we had a special inspection team that went out in July of 200 to the plant and looked at what they did, and whatever we saw we agreed that it was acceptable.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, now you know better.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And we know better.

MEMBER RANSOM: Well, is there any attempt to understand the flow dynamic forces that are causing this problem?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Oh, absolutely.

MEMBER RANSOM: Either by CFD-type calculations or wind tunnel-type experimentation?


MEMBER RANSOM: Is there anything going on in that area?


Anybody Home? ‘Everybody’ is looking into the sky…


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Absolutely. The Owner’s Group is looking at this. The staff is looking at this. We’ve asked Research to evaluate—help us evaluate, step back. You know, we’re sort of tired of being drug along here. We’ve asked Research to help us step back , look at it from a sort of first principles, and decide what’s going on with the CFD, what’s going on with the model, try to, you know, do some confirmatory look at what’s going on, so that when GE comes in again and says they’ve solved this problem we can really work from a knowledge base rather than sort of where we are now. And so that’s exactly what we’re doing. We’re trying to step back and solve this.

MEMBER RANSOM: Because once you understand the flow dynamic forces, it may turn out very simple things. We’ll eliminate the—stabilize the vortex shedding or—


MEMBER RANSOM: But you must understand it before you can do that.


“Do we have another discontinuity?”


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, sir. We agree with that. Let me go on to the next slide. Now, then, in March, you know, more failures. And if you want to flip to the next one, David, you’ll see that now we’ve gone from—now they’ve taken out the whole  plate. Now they’re putting up these large gussets here, and so, you know—and, you know, so now we have this one-inch plate, and then half-inch gussets going all the way up almost into the top and holding that in.Now, we’ve asked some questions about the design in terms of, you know, what’s going on with these edges over here.

Do we have another discontinuity? We’ve been asking all those sorts of questions about what’s going on, and they’ve strengthened those ERVs. But that’s part of what we’ll talk about in a minute is what they have said to us in their letter coming in in terms of their commitments to us,to show us exactly that they’ve nailed down this issue.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Now, these are like dramatic relief valves that are credited in the safety   analysis, correct?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: And they’re now qualified, continue to be qualified to perform their safety-related functions with these new strengthening—


□ MEMBER ROSEN: Have they tested them again or repeated the testing that they did that established their initial qualification?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I don’t know that they’vedone flow-type testing. But I know they did a lot of shaker testing on these out—that Exelon did—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: As modified.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — to demonstrate, yes,that they would hold up their capability. So—but that’s only good for the next outage. In this reactor, I mean—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, the implication is that the forces they’re worried about are forces for two years of duration. You said only good for two years.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. But—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: But what if they have an event in which the—you know, the design basis event where these valves were expected to function. They didn’t test that.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I don’t know if they went up to that high level. I don’t know if—I don’t know if they did that or not.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: That was my initial question is these valves were initially qualified to perform a safety function during accidents in transit. They have been modified, right? Will they continue to perform their function during accidents in transit is the question.



G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: The best of our knowledge, they will.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Not a very satisfactory answer.


[  Trust G.E. to guard your Safety! ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I know. In terms of industry action, GE put out a SIL in August 2002, which talked about—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Oh. It’s a services information letter. It’s a voluntary—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I guess everybodyknows that.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I’m sorry.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: We sent you some a couple , weeks ago.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Okay. So that’s why I threw it away. I didn’t know what it was.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. And it was focused on the Quad Cities Unit  event, the first one, so it only really dealt with square hood dryers, and it talked about monitoring moisture carryover and refueling outage inspections. And then, after the next failure at QuadCities 2, they put out a supplement which now it expanded to all of the BWRs at power uprate, but still focused on moisture carryover and refueling outage inspections, and mostly on external inspections for anything except the square hood design.”


Wolfpack That Stole the Sheep:


[ = Owner’s Group tookactually was GIVEN]

“And then in February of this year, the Owner’s Group took the lead. We had a meeting with them, and they took the lead in terms of evaluating the issue, and has a series of activities that they’redoing, that they’re going to be submitting a written plan. We asked for a written plan of what they’redoing. And then, in March, following the issues at Quad Cities Unit  again, Exelon did an evaluationof the Dresden plant to justify operating an EPU until their next fueling outages. And part of that was the   loads are much lower at Dresden than at Quad Cities interms of the vibration effects.”

MEMBER POWERS: Could I ask a couple of questions here?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Oh, sure.

MEMBER POWERS: When you say the loads are much lower, this is that difference between 200 and 15 feet per second?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. They still have high flow rates, but their loading that they determined, it’s much—I’d have to pull out the report that—well, the slides that they sent us. We still ask for the report. They—in their letter they sent to us in April—on April 2nd, they just said that their contractor had provided an analysis, and we’ve asked for that contractor report to find out exactly how they did that evaluation and find out what the loads were smaller.

MEMBER POWERS: Okay. So you really only have an assertion from them when you say that.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Yes, sir.

MEMBER POWERS: Okay. Could you also explain to me what you mean when you say the BWR Owner’s Group assumes the industry lead for the EPUvibration issue?


= ” Is it ok for the sheep “?


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. When we had a meeting with them in early February, we laid out what basically what we’ve told you here today, that our concerns with the scope of this issue, it kept expanding. We kept adding more metal onto these steamdryers. We kept having failures. It’s into the feedwater lines, the steam lines, and there was no unified industry effort to try to solve this problem. And that’s what we laid out.

And the Owner’s Group came back at that same meeting and said they’re going to take responsibility for solving this problem.

They’regoing to coordinate with Exelon, which seems to have most of the problems, in terms of the vibration analysis. They’re going to coordinate with GE as GEtries to get their arms around this issue and reportback to the staff. So they took the lead in terms of coordinating that. Rather than having us deal exclusively with licensees, that they would be the front people for evaluating this problem, and then they would coordinate that. And that’s what I meant by they took the lead.

MEMBER POWERS: So if you want MR.  Rosen’s drawings, you’d call BWR Owner’s Group and they’ll get them for you?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: I’m sorry. I didn’t hear the question.

MEMBER POWERS: If you want  MR.  Rosen—provide MR.  Rosen the drawings he’s asking for, you’ll just call the Owner’s Group?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That would be a way to doit, and we are—we’re trying to get more information ourselves as to these details. But the Owner’s Group is taking the lead, and that would be a fair way to contact them.


Crime Inc.: Owner’s Group hides the Technical Drawings!


[ Read: Your irradiation is done with secret G.E. Drawings ]


□ MEMBER ROSEN: It seems astonishing to me that you don’t have them already. I mean, after all, they had to build them. They have engineering drawings to build them.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, they have them.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Yes. All you have to do is ask for them.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Asking for them and getting them are two different things.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: And then they may say,”Well, they’re proprietary,” and then you say, ”Okay.Well, provide them.”

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I don’t understand what you just said—asking for them and getting are two different things.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Well, you have to—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Why would they resist?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, I don’t think they’re resisting. I think they’re evaluating it. And unless you send out a formal letter to evaluate it to ask for it, you know, it doesn’t come.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: It’s not satisfactory to us either. And it—let’s see, where are we? Okay. Next one. Exelon. Exelon came in on April 2nd in response to all the failures at Quad Cities 2, and they said they would limit Quad Cities  and  to pre-EPU power, except for some testing that they were going to do for  hours. They also provided a test plan, which talked about pressure sampling, and we have some areas of concern in there. They talked about strengthening these QuadCities Unit  release valves.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Excuse me. On pressure sampling, what did you mean by ”pressure sampling”?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: They were going measure pressure at various places in the steam lines and try to feed that back into a model that they were developing. Now, there’s—they are trying to develop—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Is this pressure sampling going to give them a trace of the high frequency pressure of circumstances? Or is—are they going to look to see if they’re seeing pressure fluctuations? They’ve established the absolute pressure and see what the range around that absolute pressure is. Is the pressure increasing and decreasing? Is it doing so in some sinusoidal repeatable manner? These are the kinds of things that force vibrations, if you find them. If you look for them, you may find them.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And we have—we raised some concerns with what their plan was, because we think it’s—it’s so far removed from the steamdryer we’re not sure that you’re going to learn enough to be able to say what’s happening with the steamdryer itself.Now, they insisted that this would be asuccessful approach. Now, they have gathered data. They have gone up to EPU for a few hours with QuadCities  and gathered this data, and they’re supposed  to come in and talk to us about what they found.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: You need to know what the pressure is doing, what its absolute magnitude is, and how it is varying as a function of time to start. So that’s what they should find out, and you need to knowthat several different places.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And that’s what they’re supposed to be doing. So—yes, so we’re not convinced yet that they are going in the right direction.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: So you’re making these measurements downstream of the dryer for the purpose of figuring out what’s going on in the dryer?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir. That was our reaction.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Good luck.


[ In essence, G.E. is here measuring “exhaust pipe to figure out where the car is heading” ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: And that’s what they’re doing. They also made some other commitments to us that they were going to send in a letter in early May, and this is sort of a laundry list of them, because we had written up some concerns with this April 2nd letter. In it they have a summary of their Dresden EPU justification, which has this sort of contractor study referenced and some qualitative discussion—a  summary.

And so we’ve asked for that; we haven’t gotten it yet. And so these were some other areas, and I you know, I don’t want to go through all of these with you, but basically you can see that we had some concerns regarding what they were telling us in terms of their commitments in terms of making sure that they capture this issue in a significantly detailed manner.

MEMBER LEITCH: Didn’t they also shake off a limit switch down by the turbine stop and control valves?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, the limit switch they—are you talking about like a valve limit switch for a valve?


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. The one they told  us about was the HPSI steam line, what they call HPSIand 5, which are the containment isolation valves. And they said that a limit switch was damaged for that valve. They said—

MEMBER LEITCH: I see. I was under the impression that was down by the turbine stop and control valve.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: There might be one down there, too. We’re getting information through slides from them. I mean—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Inside the containment?

●● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. I think this was one—they didn’t give me a number. I don’t know if this is inside or outside. I can’t say which one it was.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: But generally they’reabout six feet from the penetration, which—and the penetration is pretty solid.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. And they—so this is an area we’ve asked for information on, and we’re still—and this is all part of—before they take Quad Cities back up to EPU, they were—part of that provision was they were going to give us all this information for us to evaluate it. So right now they’re still at the pre-EPU level, and so, you know, we’ll just have to see if they want to go up to—


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — say where they are. Okay. Where they’re going from here withthe Owner’s Group, they’ve committed to submit a plan which describes these activities. GE and Exelon are working on operational improvement recommendations from all the vibration testing analyses they’ve done.  GE is working on a revision to the SIL, service information letter. Once they complete the evaluation that they’re doing to try to look at—improve their structural evaluation of these, and then the BWRVessel and Internals Project, once the—it plans to complete their steam dryer inspection guidance, that licensee can implement in September. So that’s what their plan is, but we haven’t seen it in writing. And they said they would submit it to us in May.


Just G.E. -Talkin = waiting for the next catastrophic…


■ MEMBER FORD: If you look at it, it’s September 2004, which is over two years since the first occurrence. And yet they’re still talking about plans. Is there any motion or thoughts as to what the danger might be or the safety impact of  just continuing to make plans and not do anything between over the last two years?


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. Well, I think part of it is—is, you know, right now, you know, Quad Cities  and  are at the old power level. I mean, so that’s—so they have that. But, you know, there is this—and I’ve heard, and it’s interesting that Dr. Rosen said it, because I’ve said it to licensees, too, because they would always lead off our meetings with them and say, ”This is a non-safety-related piece of equipment.”And I said the exact same thing to them. I said, ”Stop telling us that. We know that.”Because it has to maintain a structural integrity. And part of the concern is that—that it’s not. Now what we’ve seen so far is that itsfocus on these particular plants—Vermont Yankee is not going up yet, and the other plants are seeing relatively minor problems. So that’s sort of where weare.

But you’re right, this is a longer schedule. Now, we have indicated a long schedule, and this was a concern to us. And they emphasized tous that they’re working as fast as they can to try to survey the BWR licensees to determine where they’regoing to go from here, and that sort of thing. But you’re right, this schedule is unsettling, because it’s not really nailing this down. And part of it is we’re fighting this issue that it’sa non-safety-related piece of equipment, and you have to convince people that the loose parts—and we have the VIP, the Vessel Internals Project that did the study, which said that all these pieces wouldn’t cause a safety problem, and all of those issues. But you’re right, at some point you’ve to say this equipment has to maintain its structural integrity just from a common sense point of view.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: And when is that point?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That’s where we are now. I mean, that’s where we are now in terms of, you know Quad Cities is staying where they are, and they’re trying to solve this problem.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Okay. So you’ve drawn the  conclusion that it has to maintain its structural integrity. Good. Now, you’ve also got a—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: What sort of conclusion is that?

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, let me say that it leads you to—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Could it be otherwise? I don’t—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Of course not, George. I’m just glad to hear that they have concluded that these things need to stay together. Now, we’ve got a September * inspection guidance. Once you’ve concluded structural integrityis needed, one can say one needs to inspect to set—prove that these, in fact, are—have structural integrity, correct? And one needs to do it soon if  you’re going to continue operation.


xploding dryers G.E. ‘daily norm’ !?


This isn’t aquestion about uprate. This is a question about continued operation.You’re going to go in and inspect those machines, those dryers now, to say, ”Yes, they look okay. Yes, they’ve got some minor hazing cracks onthe surface, but they don’t threaten the structural integrity.” I mean, those are conclusions one would have to draw. Or the converse, one would say, ”Oh,  we’ve got lots of cracks we didn’t know about.

They do threaten structural integrity at current conditions or uprate,” depending upon how—what your calculations show. I mean, you have to go through this. So I would say your September 2004 thing is long overdue, and that it’s not—not just a question of having guidance in 2004, in September, it’s carrying out the inspections and reporting the results. So I don’t want to wait another whole cycle  until—September is a good time to do it, because that’s when the plants typically refuel, in the fall. Those are the ones that are going to refuel.


G.E. Answer to every Catastrophic Failure: ‘ Right. Right. ‘


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right, right.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: They ought to get in and do the guidance. They ought to get in and perform the   inspections in September.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Right. And that’s something we’ve emphasized to the Owner’s Group.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Now that’s a question. Now I need an answer. Are you going to have them do the inspections, or are they going to provide you a book? You know, ”Here’s the guidance.”


□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, the guidance doesn’tdo you any good unless you use it.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That’s right. That’s right.


” That’s right. That’s right.



G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes. I don’t make those decisions. Now, I would like to see them do those inspections in the fall. That’s part of what we told the Owner’s Group, that we would like to see the guidance sooner, so it could be implemented for the fall inspection.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: But that’s higher paygrade than me. The—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Actually, one round of  inspections doesn’t tell you much, because it doesn’t give you the degradation rate. So you can’t—just  from one inspection, the only thing you can make a statement about is that instant in time, and you can’t say that it’s going to stay together until the next refueling, for example.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Well, but the—I mean, you’re keeping these plans to run the pre-EPU power level.


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Quad Cities  and 2. The others are—

CHAIRMAN BONACA: So you won’t learn much by inspecting them at that point. I mean—

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: At least we’ll see if there’s any cracks. Like, for example, at Dresden 3, when they came down in December, you know, they had those four-inch cracks in there. Their first reaction when we talked to them was they were going to keep running before they shut down. And there was some pressure put on them by the staff—



Daily Cracking: G.E. Plutonium Standard



G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: — and they did shut down, and they found those cracks. And the questionis problematic whether or not those cracks would have grown if they kept running at EPU. They did—they  did a modification to their plant, and it’s actually a little better than what the other—the Quad Cities have. So, you know, there has been some action taken, but it hasn’t been maybe to the level that some would like to see on this.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, one of the problems that you have is if you want to tell the licensees togo and do the inspection, you have to show that they’re—it’s safety-related somehow or other. And so your argument needs to be pretty solid in that area.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: As to what the potential consequences of failure could be.


……………Fukushima !?




…smtg rotten ‘ere?


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And that gets back to Dr. Apostolakis’ question, you know, if there’s a safety impact, you ought to study it, write it down, and decide what it is.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Whatever work they develop here will have to be convincing enough for you to allow them to go back again to EPU power.


CHAIRMAN BONACA: And have you looked at  what you need to make the determination?


[ ” When You Dont Know, Add More Plutonium.”  by G.E. ]


G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: That’s one reason why  we’re bringing in the consultant, and we’re bringing asking Research to go back and step back and say, you know, what is it that’s happening here? What are the fundamentals here? And that—because, yes, we’ve been sort of led along on this path with just more metal being slapped onto this dryer. And, youknow—and we’ve accepted it. And at some point we’ve got to step backand say, ”Okay. What’s really happening here? Is more metal going to solve the problem, or do we need to do something, you know, just significantly different right from the outset in terms of solving this problem?” And maybe it’s something, you know—some adjustment of something needs to be made. We don’t know.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: We’ve got to draw the lineat about a three-inch plate, beyond a three-plate for __

MEMBER LEITCH: Yes. I really think youreally need to look at these—the steam line vibration, fluid vibration, because, I’ll tell you,  there is a guy who is probably 90 years old now at General Electric, and he—you know, tell me the   volume of your steam lines between the outlet of the reactor and the turbine stop valves and your flow, and I’ll give you a capacitor for this EHC system that will make it work in those situations. And what I’m saying is I think that there’s a distinct possibility that that piece of experience has been lost, and maybe we’re looking at the wrong end of this pipe to try to solve the problem. And, I mean, we may even be looking organizationally incorrectly, because I don’t know if that hypothetical guy resides in San Jose or Schenectady. That issue—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: I think I can testify that there is—I have had in my background a similar problem with an aux feedwater and a pressurized waterreactor, aux feedwater steam line with very high resonant vibrations, which had the effect of breaking off drain lines off the auxiliary feedwater steamline, which wasn’t found until the line was—thecause of it was not found until the line was instrumented with pressure recording equipment that could find the vibrations or forcing functions and deal—and eliminate the forcing function, not stiffen the drain lines. Because the more you stiffened them, they  just broke off sooner. These forcing functions are very, very intense. The idea is to eliminate them instead of trying to fight them.

MR.  TERAO: I would like to point out—

MEMBER LEITCH: And we had experience with this operating fine at 80 percent. But when you came up to 100 percent, you got this, and that’s essentially what we—we’re talking about doing here. So, I mean, I really think we really need to get them to look into that component of the problem.

MR.  TERAO: I did want to point out that Exelon has retained the expertise of Fred Moody. I don’t know if he’s 90 years old, but he has retired from General Electric. But they are looking to have him look into this issue.


When G.E. Simulation Forgeries Fail, Ask Granpa?

…but gee, first, add Plutonium.



MEMBER POWERS: He is not famous for his his expertise in vibrations, is he?

MR.  TERAO: Heat transfer I think.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, we may be getting too deeply involved in trying to solve the details of this problem now for—for an overview presentation.  So maybe we could just take all of our advice, go do it, and then we’ll move on here and you can finish up.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Good. Well, we’ll take   all the help you can give us.

MEMBER RANSOM: Do you have a date or a plan when either Research or the BWR Owner’s Group is going to give you some information on—from their research on the flow dynamic forces?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Well, they’re going tostart giving us the plan in May. It’s over the summer, and then June there’s more information coming in. And in September they’re supposed to give us the results. So it’s over this sort of time frame that they’re giving us the information. Now, Research—they have a schedule. They’ll show you their schedule when they come up. But, yes, it’s—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes. You can skip overwhat you already did and get to—


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — where you are now.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. All right. Let me skip over those. That’s what we’ve done so far interms of when we had some meetings with Research. We did send a letter back to Exelon, you know, indicating these concerns. I’m not trying to say that we have these problems solved, or even know how to solve them. But we relayed our concerns to Exelon that  they didn’t indicate that they were going to identify these forcing functions—this forcing function. They did reverse engineering to back out what it took to break the metal, but they didn’t know what the maximum level was.

I mean, so they don’t—they can’t do that, so they’re always working from reverse engineering here. The test plan talked about this pressure pulse sampling, which we weren’t clear was going to even get into the steam dryer or the potential fluids tructure interactions that might be involved here. We made this—high steam flows were into that range, so those concerns. In terms of the Dresden EPU, we were concerned about—there wasn’t really a quantitative assessment of the loadings and stresses. They were referenced in this contractor study, and they didn’t discuss any components except the steam dryer. And so we relayed these concerns back to them in a letter on April 20th, and, you know, we’ll see where that comes from.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, that’s much better. Now you’re getting into the heart of the document.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. Now, where we go from here, we have—still have to continue to review the Exelon information. That’s going to be coming in, you know, on Quad Cities and Dresden, you know, to resolve this EPU operation for Dresden.  Now, regulatory communications—we havea regulatory issue summary that we’ve been drafting to try to see if we want to try to inform licensees of all these activities that are ongoing, because it’s along, involved process that’s hard to explain just in a short amount of time. We’ve also been discussing a generic regulatory action, like a letter, which might ask the other BWRs what they’re doing to address this  issue. That’s something that’s being discussed.

Vermont Yankee, in terms of the—we’re looking at these recent inspection findings from the steam dryer to see how they affect the power uprate request and what the similarities are between Dresden, Quad Cities, and Vermont Yankee. And that has to be dealt with before they get to power uprate. And then we to go back and decide where we went wrong with our power uprate review standard and revise it to decide what—how to avoid these future problems that we might have.  That’s where we are, and, you know, as you can tell we’re just sort of getting—trying to get our arms around this issue, just like GE is, I mean, and so any assistance that ACRS can provide, we are certainly happy to take it to help resolve this.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, I think these last few slides make me feel a little better that—Tom, that you’re now beginning to head in the right direction. I would comment, though, that this is not just about power uprate, because these forces and functions are there at full power as initially licensed. So let’s not—let’s not put our blinders on about that.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Okay. Good. Thank you.



” To me, this failure has put a cloud over the whole EPU. “


[ Proven by continuing Fukushima -clouds]


CHAIRMAN BONACA: Another comment I wouldlike to make is I—the one I started at the beginning. To me, this failure has put a cloud over the whole EPU. I think it’s necessary that you look at it, because the increased flow rate has caused the failure. And I can’t understand why increased blowdowns or whatever may happen as a result of accidents in—in a powerplant which has been uprated may not come with surprises there.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, sir.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Challenging certain components. I mean, clearly here it may very well be   that these dryers already had cracks in them, and the failure has been accelerated by these vibrations, that they’ve been identified here. And the questions raised two or three years ago was: are these components as good as new? Those which are inside the vessel, for example, internals, that will have to sustain certain forces during accidents? Comparisons were made. Assumption was made that the criteria to compare against were the original criteria, which is essentially component says  no. And so I think you have to review also that issue. That’s just my thought.

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Thank you.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Now, according to your schedule here, you have Research involved in some of your activities.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Just what are they doing? Are they here to tell us?

G●E● MR. SCARBROUGH: Yes, they’re going to give you a brief summary of—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Okay. We have  minutes left, so maybe you can tell us in  minutes. Thank you very much. Hope we weren’t too   hard on you. On the other hand, it pays to be a little hard to keep you enthusiastic about pursuing this to a good end point.

MR.  MALIK: Good morning. My name is ShahMalik. I’m in the Division of Engineering Technology, Office of Research. On my left side is Don Helton. He’s in the Systems Analysis Division in the Office of Research, and we’ll—today we’d like to provide you a draft research plan, which at present we are discussing among Research at NRR to finalize it. So at the moment it is still a draft plan. The object of the research are to try to identify and determine significance of basic phenomena that can cause adverse flow effects in a steam dryer and other components of steam and feedwater flowlines, and, again, apply those phenomena to characterize failure observed or potential failure that could happen in various components in the BWR plant under power uprate condition.

And the discussion will also cover the existing power condition as well. And determine, based on those experiences, try to determine potential implications that can be drawn from those results which we obtain, and assess finally, the assess the feasibility of a tool that can be developed from this research and that can be used by NRR in reviewing those submittals. And we’ll continue to support NRR in any  BWR submittal. And as a matter of fact, we’ve been incontact with the licensee as well to get more and more information to strengthen our product.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So in which bullet will you evaluate the risk significance of this number?

MR.  MALIK: Risk significance is currently not a part of this project. It is being developed or being worked on in another project called Safety Module Project under the same division. I’m not sure or—if there is some time we can look briefly on that as well.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: But how can you determine relative significance and generic implications if we don’t have PRA context? And why is  that an issue of research? I mean, can’t you justtake a PRA and put—like the accident sequence precursor program. Is that still in existence, by theway? ASP?

MR.  LANIK: Yes.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So did they evaluate this?

MR.  LANIK: I think they have it in a preliminary stage. I’m not part of that program, but in my discussions with them I think they actually go tit entered as a preliminary but not—they haven’t done an analysis yet.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I mean, it shouldn’t be that hard to do. I’m not saying it’s a matter of an hour, but—so the ASP will tell us soon.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: No. ASP is never soon.

MR.  FLACK: I can’t speak for the ASP analysis, but I would imagine that the risk is coming in in an indirect way through loose parts and things that could be generated and thrown through the core causing other events to happen. But at this point, I don’t know where they stand on the ASP analysis itself for just the failures of the dryers. It’s going to be involving the implications and propagations—it’s going to be a difficult thing I think to quantify in the input.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Okay. Let’s leave the ASP out. But, I mean, this research program should be able to do a quick calculation, especiallyif you are going to draw any generic implications. Don’t you need to look at the accident sequence? You don’t need a separate research program for that

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I think you need that just to either grant or deny an EPU or to require a licensee to stay at the power level that he’s at. You need to know what the risk is.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: You need to know that.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: And if you don’t know what it is, you don’t have a basis to do it.


MR.  FLACK: And I think we agree that the risk is an important part of the equation.


MR.  MALIK: Okay. Next slide. This slide is the present subdivided into two phases. Phase  is essentially collecting data with the help of NRR from the licensee, as much data, plan data, and using those data to support our analysis. And the second major effort in this phase will be to procure a technical consultant in flow-induced vibration area, in particular in the CFD and flow fraction and computational structure, where we can combine all three effects.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Do you have in-house experts in these areas?

MR.  MALIK: We have a CFD—in the area we have, but not other two. Some expertise we have, but we’d like somebody who has more broad expertise, so we can combine them together.


MEMBER RANSOM: Under your first bullet you have scale model test data. Does somebody have a scale model developed?

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, scale model is—GE has some data we are trying to get. These are the kind of  information we’d like to get from the licensee and their vendors.

■ MEMBER FORD: The presumption here is that the whole degradation process is flow-induced vibration. There’s nothing here that presumes that infact—

MR.  MALIK: That is—when we start  looking at phenomena, we are looking to that—thenext phase of—

■ MEMBER FORD: Looking to what?

MR.  MALIK: Yes.

■ MEMBER FORD: Into what? You said you—in the next phase you’re going to look into?

MR.  MALIK: That the flow is what could cause this kind of phenomena.

■ MEMBER FORD: Well, it’s not so much the  I think flow-induced vibration is probably the predominant one, but I’m thinking of the initiating event, which could be stress corrosion cracking.

MR.  MALIK: Yes.

■ MEMBER FORD: Which has been occurring for 20-odd years.


…stress corrosion cracking all over the globe – 20 years


[ G.E. ‘solution’: ADD MORE PLUTONIUM ]


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: The way you expand your horizon, though, is if you fail at this approach, right? If you can show that it’s flow-induced vibration, and that you can analyze it, then, for example, arguments like MR.  Leitch’s would not be pursued, except by a licensee trying to tune up a plant.

MR.  MALIK: Okay.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: I don’t know whether that’s right or—the right way or the wrong way to attack the problem. I’d probably do it that way, but others would do it a different way. Go ahead.

MR.  MALIK: Okay. The phase 2, which is  the—where we are doing that, once we have aconsultant or consultants on board. We’re going to start looking at things that are of concern, such as thermal hydraulic models, and things such as stress corrosion cracking. And we’ll use those in trying to  predict what kind of flow-induced vibration or other loading conditions can exist using thermal hydraulic models . Also, in the process we will try to determine what is the significance of flow interaction with high flow velocity interacting with the components that are—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So this overlaps what degree with what the industry is doing?

MR.  MALIK: It will be our introductory program, and it will go on a longer term basis, unless they come up within the six months to a nine month to a year timeframe of—we are going to be doing it in a much more comprehensive way. Yes, there will besome overlap in that.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So you will have the benefit, then, of their work.

MR.  MALIK: Yes. And we’ll be interacting to get more and more data, and they’ll benefit from us as well.


MR.  MALIK: Okay. Once we have determined flow-induced vibration and conditions, we’ll apply those to current—the model to perform analysis to find the stressors that are—


MR.  MALIK: — things like that.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Sir, you’ll have to talk into the microphone.

MR.  MALIK: Sorry.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: So the recorder can pick you up.

MR.  MALIK: Thank you. And based on those analyses, we’ll try to predict component failure as well as operating condition and potential concern that may come up fromthose analyses results. okay. Then, the next step will be the task—the next task will be for generic implication. As you can see, this plan is essentially on a deterministic basis, and we may have to modify it to bring the probabilistic aspects out of—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I noticed that. I agree with you.

MR.  MALIK: Yes.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So you agree with me, too?

MR.  MALIK: Yes.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Oh, that was quick. (Laughter.)  The usual answer is, ”We’ll think about it.”’



□ MEMBER ROSEN: John, here you are presenting what looks to me like a—you know, a cohesive plan to build—to get the agency up to speed on something that’s established technology. Imean, flow-induced vibration that—these kinds ofthings, is not unknown. It’s not a research subject.

MR.  FLACK: Well, I would say it’s applied research. We never learn enough about things as they age, so I wouldn’t say necessarily it’s—it’s not part of research.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: It’s just the way we do business in the agency. We call this research, but people have been doing—have known about flow induced vibration for a long time. They’ve known about resonance and what resonances can do to powerplants, piping, aircraft wings, all kinds of things.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Yes. But this is regulatory research.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes. This is—


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — probably rather new to the agency, because they ordinarily don’t get involved in these kinds of work—this kind of work.

MEMBER SHACK: Somebody has clearly beenh aving a problem with the interfering of this problem.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Everybody so far.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Well, presumably, you will review the literature and talk to other people’s experience and build on it, right?

MR.  MALIK: Yes.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Okay. Go ahead.

MR.  MALIK: Okay. The final task under this phase would be development of a potential screening tool that NRR can use in reviewing those submittals. Let me go on the next page. We will tryto give a draft schedule for these activities.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So let me—I can’tfiscal year ’06, develop potential screening tool. So you will be denying power uprate requests until then?

MR.  MALIK: No. That’s why we have put on the last bullet, ”Continue providing additionalguidance to NRR based on the information we collect up  to that point.” So—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So it’s conceivable, then, we’ll approve an EPU in the next two months? Even though this research is going on? Yes, it is conceivable.

MR.  MALIK: In the supplies for NRR, you know, how much they give—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Perhaps if they come to us with a request for that kind of thing, am I to expect some questions in this area?

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Do you think there will be some questions?

□ MEMBER ROSEN: I suspect it, yes.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: I’m sorry. But  it’s a natural reaction.

MR.  MALIK: Yes. I understand that. One other thing that’s driving this schedule is that  procuring—if we can get within the DOE lab area, that will be a shorter period. Otherwise, it’s showing up like for a six-month time from May 2003 to September 2004. Commercial contracts take that long to go through the process.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: Of course, Dr.Paperiello told us yesterday that he would like to see most of the work in the Office of Research done in-house.

MR.  MALIK: Yes.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So I don’t know how consistent that is with that.

MR.  MALIK: Well, there will be a—

MEMBERAPOSTOLAKIS: I’m sorry. Go ahead.

MR.  HELTON: Some of this work is going to be done in-house. For instance, the CFD work that’s on there is planned for in-house, and some of the finite element work is also planned for in-house. But there is some of it that will have to be contracted out.


MR.  MALIK: All right. Okay.

MEMBER POWERS: I think that’s an important point. We have—this flow-induced vibration is known technology. It is by no means trivial technology. And it’s a highly specialized field.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Right. Yes, it is.

MEMBER POWERS: You’re not going to find people with expertise. And these gentlemen face aparticular difficult problem, whereas you can do flow-induced vibration on a wall, or a structure, they have to look at the whole piping system as an integral   whole. And I—

MEMBER KRESS: It won’t be an easy task. We are not going to—

MEMBER POWERS: Not by CFD it’s not going to be an easy task.

MEMBER KRESS: It’s not going to be easy to find the resonant frequency of the components. [ = next to impossible ]

MEMBER POWERS: Yes. Without some good—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Not with that kind of geometry.

MEMBER POWERS: Without some good experimental data on the actual system of interest, they’re going to get nowhere with this study.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: It seems to me that you’vegot your finger right on it. You need to do some measurements.

MEMBER KRESS: And that won’t be easy.


I mean, they can—they can learn their computer codes

’til the cows come home…


[ Or just plain G.E. hoax ? ]

MEMBER POWERS: I mean, they can—they can learn their computer codes ’til the cows come home. They’re not going to get anything out of this.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Okay. Why don’t we go on.

MR.  MALIK: Okay. We say that the 2004 –in early 2005 we’ll be doing some of the initial scoping studies. And once we have the consultants onboard, we are going to be trying to come up determining various mechanisms that could cause failure of flow-induced vibration. A nd, again, in 2005, try to predict flow-induced vibration loading via thermal hydraulic analysis. And, similarly, fluid extraction as well as circulations will be done during FY05. And using all that information, during FY06, we will try to build up some generic implication as well as potential screening tools.


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: So the initial [ catastrofic ] event occurred in 2002, and you’re going to get the resultin 2006?

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: That doesn’t sound good. Doesn’t sound good.


” That doesn’t sound good. Doesn’t sound good.


[ pronounced: Fukushima ? ]


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, that’s when you’re going to decide—

MEMBER POWERS: It sounds vastly overly optimistic as a matter of fact.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Yes. Which one you’regoing to decide whether you’re giving more EPUs. Butby then everybody will have one, right?

MEMBER POWERS: We presumably have the sump as a standard.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, anyway—I’m just curious,

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: though. inspectionsmatrix. do we have understand regulatory matrix.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — it’s not swift.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: When we dos and we find things, we have an action

CHAIRMAN BONACA: It is important.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: When failures occur, an action matrix? No. Should we? I don’t

MEMBER SHACK: It gets attention, George, even without  increased an action



[ Dont Ask, Dont Tell: Add More Plutonium ! ]


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: If this is increased regulatory attention, I would like to see what decreased attention is.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Without the risk analysis, I’m not sure how you—


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — how you make increased—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: You would need the—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — happen.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: You would need the equivalent of a significance determination process.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: You would think.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: *That’s it. Well—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: But this is pretty complex to put through that, particularly when you don’t know what the consequences of all of these—

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, wait a minute, Jack. It’s much simpler than that. You’re making this—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: It’s much simpler than that, yes.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: You know the consequences, potential failure of the main steam isolation valves. That’s one.  Just take that. One can go into existing PRAs and conclude the importance of that.


[ You know the G.E. Consequences billowing in Fukushima = add more Plutonium]


▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, yes, that’s—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: And then you may come to—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: That’s a pretty gross wayto do it, but there’s all kinds of—

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: This should give it some—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: — by design they fail different ways.

□ MEMBER ROSEN: Well, failure to close is what I’m talking about.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Well, we’re wasting on that. You guys knows how to do it.

♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: This is not their job to do that.


♥ MEMBER APOSTOLAKIS: So we are not—

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Okay. Would you like to conclude?

MR.  MALIK: Yes. We hope to continue getting more information from the industry, as much aspossible, and that’s the push we are trying to do tobegin this program.

▲ MEMBER SIEBER: Okay. Does anybody have any questions they’d like to ask the staff before we wrap this up? Well, I’d like to thank the staff for making the presentation. This is important to us . It’s a matter of concern. I think we ought to be thinking about a subcommittee meeting or maybe even the full committee prior to one of our regular meetings, so we can spend some more time to understand the details of the problem. And I think that the staff is getting their arms around it, but I think the problem is far from solved at this point.So with that,

MR. CHAIRMAN, I would turn it back to you. And we’re almost on schedule.

CHAIRMAN BONACA: Yes, thank you. Thank you to the presenters. And at this point we will take a break of minutes, and get back at  of 11:00.

(Whereupon, the proceedings in theforegoing matter went off the record at10:30 a.m.)





Do all the General Electric Future Frauds look ir radiating for us?

No difference, the eternal 20000 ton Fukushima wastepools will still sit on top of the reactor, most vulnerable quake spot on earth. Lets hope all theses are built on tsunamibeaches, riverbanks…

Will our genetically G.E. ngineered-radiated children see theses doubledecker Bombs on beaches?


Please see the Fukushima etc NUCLEAR expose at http://wp.me/pwIAV-19




Another NRC 2004 memo:

The Big Picture / Duke Power; Weapons Grade MOX Fuel Physical Characteristics

All nuclear power reactors are already using Pu fuel:
About 850 kg plutonium In Catawba LEU core at end of cycle (compared to -80 kg In four lead assemblies)
– About 50% core power from plutonium fissions at end of cycle
• A similar MOX fuel lead assembly program was safely conducted at Ginna in the early 1980
• European nuclear power reactors have demonstrated the safety of using MOX fuel:
– More than thirty reactors In four countries over 25 year
[ Plutonium Causes Potentially Catastrophic ] Up to 36% core fractions
• This program 4 assemblies out of 193 (2.1 % of core)

…MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Program: Plutonium Disposition Program: 1994 National Academy of Sciences Report -surplus weapons material poses a “clear and present danger”. September 2000 -U.S.-Russian agreement that each country will dispose of 34 tonnes of its surplus weapons grade plutonium…



5 1 2 th A C R S Meeting May 5-8, 2004; ‘The Big Picture’

…Mr. Nesbit summarized his presentation with the observation that all nuclear power reactors are already using Plutonium (mox) fuel


Fucu Meltdown precursor – auto shutdowns from localized meltdowns – have a long history; here questions from 2004:
Mr. Sieber: “Plutonium produce hot spots in the pellet –> cladding hot spots: “how this was accounted for?”
Mr. Nesbit: “no local cladding analysis never done, temperatures are averaged = effects are not visible.”

 –> no see, no hear, no smell – happy NRC = it is not there!

That was 2004 … today

Emergency Shutdowns, Almost Weekly NEWS:

05-Oct-2011 Kyushu Electric, Genkai nuclear power plant, had a problem with the condenser unit  that triggered automatic shutdown, but the reactor stopped the utility said; by Nytimes.com. At the moment 44 Japanese reactors are unusable (total 54).

Dr. Powers opened the session with a description of the issue. It relates to the national policy program to dispose of weapons-grade Plutonium in nuclear power plants. There is some significant experience with Plutonium mix/MOX in European reactors, but it uses reactor-grade Plutonium, not the weaponsgrade material that will be used here.

Mr. Steve Nesbit, Duke Power, presented the program that has been proposed for Plutonium disposition. The first part of the program includes the insertion of 4 Lead Test Assemblies (LTAs) at Catawba. This program is the focus of the Plutonium-disposition program. He described the LTA program, which includes preparation of Plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), fabrication of pellets and rods at Caderache, assembly fabrication at MELOX, irradiation at Catawba, and hot cell PIE at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Dr. Apostolakis asked about transport of the material. Mr. Nesbit explained that US transport will be by the Department of Energy (DOE) secure transport, by PNTL ship transport across the Atlantic, and by truck in France.


The end.




Read all texts, download .pdf’s


Albert0 R i v e r a ‘s testament


Biography of Albèrt0 Rìvèra, the fmr jèsuìt prìèst from Vatìcan.

Comics? This ossyary will freeze your guts; You Have been warned! Now click to see sm real life…












Pilgrimage to the st Peters Basilica.

The true cat-holy cult nature, IHS = Isis Horus Seth revealed – See this stolen from Egypt Obelisk Osiris-heretic view.

Repulsive Vatican Occultism revealed.












Nuclear Holocaust is ongoing: birds dropping dead from the nuclear polluted skies …“mystery, unexplainable, must be the evil cars…”

As if melted japanese reactors – all over Japan – would not be enough, the scientists who created these plutonium beach bombs regardless of warnings, are now adding new earth splinterin, ground water polluting power by the billion$.

The year that all Japanese plutonium reactors blew – was most succesful fiscal/production year in history. How come? The secret fact revealed: plutonium factories consume 10x the power they are alleged to ‘produce’. When these hogs vanish – instantly the oil-fule is released – all for FREE!


Humankind has gone through hundreds Nuclear Wars already. At left, the guinea pigs (your mama etc.) are being tested with secret nuclear bomb fallout in 1955:  Total ‘tests’ now over 12.000 – and contiunuing. (2700 atmospheric nuclear blasts)




(This is another copy from current page)


NRC 512th Meeting – Public discussion archive revealed with illustrations.

Read how Catastrophic failures due to uprating (adding Plutonium) cause only mild discussion. All ‘Catastrophic’ upratings rubber stamped by G.E. mules… Shaky control processes, including banal G.E. fraud – revealed. Causes no action…

Readability enhanced Public Domain document derived from NRC archives.

NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission http://www.nrc.gov/


It’s the nuke-normal: Those loose bits floating inside reactors …

Has there been any improvement? Nope, the product is flawless (depopulation) … by open-pit fukudesign









Oh how this following book fits here as a Post Scriptum. Try to identify the figures…






A book by Edm0nd P@ris :

The History of Jۤuits



short link on this page http://wp.me/pwIAV-1




Foreword by Edm0nd Paris. 7
Section I The Founding of the jۤuit 0rder
1. Ignatius of L0y0la. 15
2. The Spiritual Exercises. 20
3. The Founding of the Company. 23
4. The Spirit of the 0rder. 25
5. The Privileges of the Company. 28
Section II The jۤuits in Europe during the 16th and 17th Centuries.
1. Italy, Portugal, Spain. 31
2. Germany. 34
3. Switzerland. 38
4. Poland and Russia. 40
5. Sweden and England. 42
6. Fränce. 45
1. India, Japan, China. 50
2. The Americas: The jۤuit State of Paraguay. 55
1. The teaching of the jۤuits. 59
2. The morals of the jۤuits. 63
3. The Eclipse of the Company. 67
4. Rebirth of the s0ciety of Jۤus during the 19th Century. 73
5. The Second Empire and the Falloux Law — The War of 1870. 76
6. The j€§uits in R0me — The Syllabus. 82
7. The j€§uits in fränce from 1870 until 1885. 88
8. The jۤuits and General Boulanger. 95
The jۤuits and the Dreyfus Affair.
9. The Years before the War — 1900-1914. 110
Section IV The jۤuits in the European s0ciety
Section III Foreign Missions
1. The First World War. 116
2. Preparations for the Second World War. 123
3. German Aggression and the jۤuits. Austria РPoland Р139
Czechoslovakia – Yugoslavia.
4. The j€§uit movement in fränce before and during 155
the 1939-1945 War.
5. The Gestapo and the s0ciety of Jۤus. 163
6. The Death Camps and the Anti-Semitic Crusade. 172
7. The jۤuits and the Colleqium Russicum. 177
8. P0pe John X X III removes the mask. 183
Conclusion 191
Bibliography 199
Section V The Infernal Cycle

Publisher’s Introduction
There is no other person more qualified to introduce Edm0nd P@ris’ book,
“The Secret History of the j€§uits,” than Dr. Albert0 Riverä, a former j€§uit
priest under the extreme oath and induction, who was trained in the
Vat i can and briefed on the history of the jۤuits.
The information in this book is factual and fully documented, and it
should be read by every Bible-believing Christian in the United States and
Canada. The Bible says, “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge.” (Hosea 4:6)
J.T. C

Dr. R i v e r a’s Introduction
The most dangerous of men are those who appear very religi0us,
especially when they are organized and in a position of authority. They have
the deep respect of the people who are ignorant of their ungodly push for
power behind the scenes.
These religi0us men, who pretend to love God, will resort to murder, incite
revolution and wars if necessary to help their cause. They are crafty,
intelligent, smooth religi0us politicians who live in a shadowy world of
secrets, intrigue, and phony holiness. This pattern, seen in “The Secret
History of the j€§uits,” spiritually speaking can be seen in the Scribes,
Pharisees and Sadducees at the time of Jۤus Christ. This same evil spirit
directed the R0man emperors to issue the ten murderous decrees to
persecute the early Christian church.
The “Early fäthers” observed most of the ancient Babylonian system plus
Jewish theology and Greek philosophy. They all perverted most of the
teachings of Christ and His apostles. They paved the way for the R0man
Cath0lic machine that was to come into existence. Piously, they attacked,
perverted, added to and took away from the Bible. This religi0us antichrist
spirit working through them is seen again when Ignatius de L0y0la
created the jۤuits to secretly accomplish two major goals for the R0man
Cath0lic Institution: 1) universal political power, and 2) a universal church,
in fulfillment of the prophecies of Revelation 6, 13, 17 and 18.
By the time Ignatius de L0y0la arrived on the scene, the pr0testant
Reformation had seriously damaged the R0man Cath0lic system. Ignatius de
L0y0la came to the conclusion that the only way his “church” could survive
was by enforcing the canons and doctrines on the temporal power of the P0pe
and the R0man Cath0lic institution; not by just destroying the physical life of
the people alone as the Dominican priests were doing through the
Inquisition, but by infiltration and penetration into every sector of life.
pr0testantism must be conquered and used for the benefit of the P0pes. That
was Ignatius de L0y0la’s personal proposal, among others, to P0pe Pa ul III.
jۤuits immediately went to work secretly infiltrating ALL the pr0testant
groups including their families, places of work, hospitals, schools, colleges,
etc. Today, the jۤuits have almost completed that mission.
The Bible puts the power of a local church into the hands of a Godly pastor. But
the cunning jۤuits successfully managed over the years to remove that
power into the hands of denomination headquarters, and have now pushed
almost all of the pr0testant denominations into the arms of the Vat i can.
This is exactly what Ignatius de L0y0la set out to accomplish: a universal
church and the end of pr0testantism.
As you read “The Secret History of the j€§uits,” you will see there is a
parallel between the religi0us and political sectors. The author, Mr. Paris,
reveals the penetration and infiltration of the jۤuits into the governments
and nations of the world to manipulate the course of history by setting up
dictatorships, and weakening democracies such as the United States of
America, by paving the way for social, political, moral, military, educational
and religi0us anarchy.

The man, Edm0nd P@ris
In the prophetical works of the Book of Revelation, Edm0nd P@ris became a
martyr for Jۤus. In exposing such a conspiracy, he put his life at stake for
truth of the prophetical signs to be known. Edm0nd P@ris never knew me, but
I knew him without meeting him personally when I, with other jۤuits
under the extreme oath and induction, was being briefed on the names of
institutions and individuals in Europe who were dangerous to the goals of
the R0man Cath0lic Institution. His name was given to us.

A last century writer, Adolphe Michel, recalled that Voltaire estimated the
number of works published over the years, on the jۤuits, to be about six
thousand. “What number have we reached a century later?”, asked Adolphe
Michel, only to conclude immediately: “No matter. As long as there are
jۤuits, books will have to be written against them. There is nothing new left
to be said on their account, but new generations of readers come every day…
Will these readers search old books?”(l)
The reason just mentioned would be enough to justify us taking up again this
oft-told subject. In fact, most early books retracing the history of the jۤuits
cannot be found any more. Only in public libraries can they still be consulted,
which makes them out of reach for most readers. With the aim of succinctly
informing the public at large in mind, a summary of these works seemed
There is another reason, as good as the one just mentioned. At the same
time as new generations of readers come, new generations of jۤuits come to
light. And these work today with the same tortuous and tenacious methods,
which so often in the past set to work the defensive reflexes of nations and
governments. The sons of L0y0la are today—and may we say more than
ever—the leading wing of the R0man Church. As well if not better
disguised than of old, they remain the most eminent “ultramontanes”,
the discreet but efficacious agents of the H0ly See throughout the world, the
camouflaged champions of its politics, the “secret army of the Papacy”.
For this reason, the subject of the jۤuits will never be exhausted and, even
though the literature concerning them is so plentiful, every epoch will have the
duty to add a few pages to it, to mark the continuity of this occult system
started four centuries ago “for the great glory of God”, but in fact
(1) Adolphe Michel: “Les j€§uites” (Sandoz et Fischbacher, Paris 1879).


for the glory of the P0pe. In spite of the general move towards an ever
increasing “laicization”, in spite of the ineluctable progress of rationalism
which reduces a little more every day the domain of “dogma”, the R0man
Church couldn’t give up the great purpose which has been her goal from the
beginning: to gather under her crozier all the nations of the universe. This
monumental “mission” must go on, whatever happens, amongst “pagans” as
well as amongst “separated Christians”. The secular clergy having, in
particular, the duty to hold the acquired positions (which is quite arduous
nowadays), it is up to certain regular 0rders to increase the flock of the
faithful by converting the “heretics” and “pagans”, a work even more
arduous. The duty is to preserve or acquire, to defend or attack, and at the
front of the battle there is that mobile force of the “s0ciety of J€§us”—the
jۤuits. Properly speaking, this s0ciety is not secular, nor regular in terms of
its Constitution, but a kind of subtle company intervening where and when it
is convenient, in the church and outside the church, in short “the agent most
skilful, most persevering, most fearless, most convinced of the papäl
authority…”, as wrote one of its best historians.(2)
We will see how this body of “janissaries” was formed, what service
without price it rendered the papacy. We will see also how so much
effectual zeal was to make it indispensable to the institution it served,
exerting such an influence over it that its General was named with good
reason the “black P0pe”, as it became more and more difficult to
distinguish, in the government of the church, the authority of the white P0pe
and that of its powerful coadjutor.
It is then at the same time a retrospective and a bringing up to date of the
history of “j€§uitism” which is found in this book. As the majority of works
regarding the jۤuits do not refer to the paramount part they took in the
events which have subverted the world during the past fifty years, we
thought it was time to fill up the gap or, more precisely, to start with our
modest contribution a deeper study into the subject, and do this without
concealing the obstacles which will be met by the non-apologist authors
wanting to make public writings on this burning subject.
Of all the factors which have played a part in the international life of a
century full of confusion and upheavals, one of the most decisive—
nevertheless best recognized—resides in the ambition of the R0man
Church. Her secular desire to extend her influence towards the East made her
the “spiritual” ally of Pan-Germanism and its accomplice in the attempt to gain
supreme power which twice, in 1914 and 1939, brought death and ruin to the
peoples of Europe.(2a)
(2) A. Michel, op.cit.
(2a) See Edm0nd Paris: Le Vat i can contre l’Europe (Fischbacher, Paris), (also P.T.S.,
London), and L. Duca “L’Or du Vat i can” (Laffront, Paris).

The public is practically unaware of the overwhelming responsibility
carried by the Vat i can and its j€§uits in the start of the two world wars—a
situation which may be explained in part by the gigantic finances at the
disposition of the Vat i can and its jۤuits, giving them power in so many
spheres, especially since the last conflict.
In fact, the part they took in those tragic events has hardly been
mentioned until the present time, except by apologists eager to disguise it.
It is with the aim of rectifying this and establishing the true facts that we
present in this and other books the political activity of the Vat i can during
the contemporary epoch—activity which mutually concerns the j€§uits.
This study is based on irrefutable archive documents, publications from
well-known political personalities, diplomats, ambassadors and eminent
writers, most of whom are Cath0lics, even attested by the imprimatur.
These documents bring to light the secret actions of the Vat i can and its
perfidious actions in creating conflicts between nations when it served its
interests. With the help of conclusive articles, we show the part played by
the “church” in the rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe.
These testimonies and documents constitute a crushing indictment and,
so far, no apologist has tried to disprove them.
On the first of May 1938, the “Mercure de fränce” reminded us of what
had been said four years earlier:
“The Mercure de fränce of the 15th of January 1934 said—and nobody
contradicted it—that it was Pi us X II who ‘made’ hit ler. He came to power,
not so much through legal means, but because the P0pe influenced the
Centrum (german Cath0lic party)… Does the Vat i can think it made a
political error in opening the way to power to hit ler? It doesn’t seem so…”
It didn’t seem so when that was written, which was on the day following
the “Anschluss’ when Austria was united to the third Reich—nor later
when Nazi aggressions multiplied—nor during the whole of the Second
World War. In fact, on the 24th of July 1959 the successor of Pi us X II,
John X X III, conferred on his personal friend fränz Von Papen the
honorary title of secret chamberlain. This man had been a spy in the United
States during the first world war and one of those responsible for the
hit ler’s dictatorship and the Anschluss. One must suffer from a peculiar
kind of blindness not to see such plain facts.
Mr. Joseph Rovan, Cath0lic writer, comments on the diplomatic
agreement between the Vat i can and the nazi Reich on the 8th of July 1933:
“The C0nc0rdat brought to the national-socialist government,
considered nearly everywhere to be made up of usurpers, if not brigands,
the seal of an agreement with the oldest international power (the Vat i can).
In a way, it was the equivalent of a diploma of international honorability”.
(Le Cath0licisme politique en Allemagne, Paris 1956, p.231, Ed. du Seuil).
Thus the P0pe, not satisfied with giving his “personal” support to hit ler,


granted in this way the moral support of the Vat i can to the nazi Reich! At
the same time as the terror was beginning to reign on the other side of the
Rhine and was tacitly accepted and approved, the so-called “Brown shirts”
had already put 40,000 persons into concentration camps. The pogroms were
multiplying to the accents of this nazi march: “When the Jewish blood
streams from the knife, we feel better again.” (Horst-Wessel-Lied).
In the following years, Pi us X II saw even worse without being stirred. It is
not surprising that the Cath0lic heads of Germany vied with each other in their
servility towards the nazi regime, encouraged as they were by their R0man
“Master”. One must read the dishevelled ravings and verbal acrobatics of
opportunist theologians such as Michael Schmaus. He was later made a
“prince of the church” by Pi us X II, and described as “the great theologian of
Munich” by the publication “La Cr0ix” on the 2nd of September 1954—
or again a certain book entitled Katholisch-Konservatives Erbgut, of
which someone wrote:
“This anthology brings together texts from the main Cath0lic theorists of
Germany, from Gorres to Vogelsang; it makes us believe that nationalsocialism
was born purely and simply out of Cath0lic ideas.” (Gunther
Buxbaum, “Mercure de fränce”, 15th of January 1939).
The bish0ps, made to take an oath of allegiance to hit ler by the
C0nc0rdat, always tried to excel each other in their “devotion”:
“Under the nazi regime, we constantly find the fervent support of the
bish0ps in all the correspondence and declarations from ecclesiastical
dignitaries”. (Joseph Rovan, op.cit. p.214).
In spite of the obvious difference between Cath0lic universalism and
hit lerian racism, these two doctrines had been “harmoniously reconciled)),
according to fränz Von Papen; the reason for this scandalous accord was
because “Nazism is a Christian reaction against the spirit of 1789”.
Let us come back to Michael Schmaus, professor at the Faculty of
Theology in Munich, who wrote:
“Empire and church is a series of writings which should help the building up
of the third Reich as it unites a national-socialist State to Cath0licchristianity…
“Entirely German and entirely Cath0lic, these writings explore and
favour relations and meetings between the Cath0lic Church and nationalsocialism;
they open the way for a fruitful cooperation, as outlined in the
C0nc0rdat… “The national-socialist movement is the most vigorous and
massive protest against the spirit of the 19th and 20th centuries… The idea of a
people of one blood is the focal point of its teachings and all Cath0lics who
obey the instructions of the German bish0ps will have to admit that this is
so… The laws of national-socialism and those of the Cath0lic Church have the
same aim…” (Begegnungen zwischen Kath0lischem Christentum


und nazional-sozialistischer Weltanschauung Aschendorff, Munster 1933).
This document proves the primordial part played by the Cath0lic
Church in the rise to power of hit ler; in fact, it was a pre-established
arrangement. It illustrates fully the kind of monstrous agreement between
Cath0licism and nazism. The hatred of liberalism, which is the key to
everything, comes out very clearly.
In his book “Cath0liques d’Allemagne”, Mr Robert d’Harcourt of the
French Academy writes:
“The most vulnerable point, in all the episc0pal declarations which
followed the triumphant elections of the 5th of March 1933, is found in the
first official document from the church containing the signatures of all the
German bish0ps. We are referring to the pastoral letter of the 3rd of June
1933, in which the whole of the German episc0pate is involved.
“What form does this document take?” How does it start? On a note of
optimism and with this cheerful declaration: ‘The men at the head of this new
government have, to our great joy, given us the assurance that they place
themselves and their work on Christian ground. A declaration of such deep
sincerity deserves the gratitude of all Cath0lics’. ” (Paris, Plon, 1938, p. 108).
Since the start of the first world war, several P0pes have come and gone, but
their attitude has been invariably the same towards the two factions which
confronted each other in Europe.
Many Cath0lic authors couldn’t hide their surprise—and grief—when
writing about the inhuman indifference shown by Pi us X II in the face of the
worst kind of atrocities committed by those in his favour. Amongst many
testimonies, we will quote one of the most moderate in its wording, brought
against the Vat i can by Mr. Jean d’H0spital, correspondant of “Monde”:
“The memory of Pi us X II is surrounded with misgiving. First of all, there is
this burning question asked by observers from every nation, and even within
the walls of the Vat i can: Did he know of certain atrocities committed
during this war, started and led by hit ler?
“Having at his disposition at all times, and from every quarter, the
regular reports from the bish0ps… could he ignore what the german
military heads could never pretend to: the tragedy of the concentration
camps—the civilians condemned to deportation—the cold-blooded
massacres of those who ‘stood in the way’—the terror of the gas chambers
where, for administrative reasons, millions of Jews were exterminated? And
if he knew about it why didn’t he, as trustee and first chorister of the Gospel,
come out dressed in white, arms extended in the shape of the cross, to
denounce a crime without precedent, to shout: No!?…
“Pious souls will search in vain encyclical letters, speeches and addresses


of the late P0pe; there is no trace of any condemnation of this ‘religi0n of
blood’ instituted by hit ler, this Antichrist… they will not find the
condemnation of racism, which is an obvious contradiction to the Cath0lic
dogma”. “R0me en confidence” (Grasset, Paris 1962, pp.91 ss).
In his book “Le silence de Pie X II” published by du R0cher, Monaco
1965, the author Carlo Falconi writes in particular:
“The existence of such monstrosities (exterminations en masse of ethnic
minorities, prisoners and deported civilians) overthrows every standard of
good and evil. They defy the dignity of their individual being and s0ciety in
general to such an extent that we are compelled to denounce those who
could have influenced public opinion, be they ordinary civilians or Heads of
“To keep quiet in the face of such outrages would amount in fact to
downright c0llaboration. It would stimulate the villainy of the criminals,
stirring up their cruelty and vanity. But, if every man has the moral duty to
react when confronted with such crimes, it is doubly so of the religi0us
societies and their heads, and above all the head of the Cath0lic Church.
“Pi us X II never expressed a direct and explicit condemnation of the war of
aggression, even less about the unspeakable crimes commited by the
Germans or their accomplices during that war.
“Pi us X II did not keep quiet because he did not know what was
happening: he knew of the gravity of the situation from the start, maybe
even better than any other head of state in the world…” (pp.12 ss).
There is better still! The Vat i can gave a helping hand to the carrying out of
these crimes by “lending” some of its prelates to be made into pro-nazi
agents; these were Messeigneurs Hlinka and Tiso. It also sent to Croatia its
own legate—R.P. Marcone—who, with the help of Monseigneur ste pinac,
had to keep an eye on the “work” of Ante Pavelitch and his 0ustachis.
Wherever we look, the same “edifying” spectacle presents itself.
As we have already shown, it is not only this monstrous partiality and
complacency that we object to. The Vat i can’s unpardonable crime lies in the
decisive part played in the bringing about of two world wars.(3)
Listen to what Mr. Alfred Grosser, professor at the Institute of political
studies of Paris University, says:
“The very concise book of Guenter Lewy “The Cath0lic Church and nazi
Germany” (New York McGrawhill-1964) says that all the documents agree to
show the Cath0lic Church cooperating with the hit ler regime…
“In July 1933, when the C0nc0rdat forced the bish0ps to swear an oath of
allegiance to the nazi government, the concentration camps were already
open… the reading of quotations compiled by Guenter Lewy proves this
overwhelmingly. We find in them some crushing evidence from
(3) E. Paris, “The Vat i can against Europe” (P.T.S. London)


personalities such as Car dinal Faulhaber and the jۤuit Gustav
Only empty words can be found to oppose this stack of evidence which
proves the culpability of the Vat i can and its jۤuits. Their help was the main
force behind the lightning rise of hit ler who, together with muss0lini and
fränco, who in spite of appearances were but war pawns manipulated by the
Vat i can and its jۤuits.
The thurifers of the Vat i can must bow their heads in shame when an
Italian member of parliament cries out: “The P0pe’s hands are dripping with
blood”. (Speech by Laura Diaz, member of parliament for Livourne,
delivered at Ortona on the 15th of April 1946), or when the students of
Cardiff University College choose as the theme for a conference: “Should the
P0pe be brought to trial as a war criminal?” (“La Cr0ix”, 2nd of April 1946).
* * *
Here is how P0pe John X X III expressed himself when referring to the
j€§uits: “Persevere, dear sons, in the activities which have already brought you
well-known merits.. In that way, you will gladden the Church and will grow
with untiring ardour: the path of the just is as the light of dawn… “May that
light grow and illuminate the moulding of the adolescents… In that way, you
will help to carry out our spiritual wishes and concerns… “We give our
Apostolic Blessing with all our heart to your Superior General, to you and
your coadjutors, and to all the members of the s0ciety of J€§us”. And from
P0pe Pa ul VI:(5).
“From the time of its restoration, this religi0us family enjoys the sweet help
of God, and has enriched herself very quickly with great progress… the
members of the s0ciety have accomplished many important deeds, all to the
glory of God and for the benefit of the Cath0lic religi0n… the church needs
soldiers of Christ with valour, armed with a dauntless faith, ready to confront
difficulties… that is why we have great hope in the help your activity will
bring… may the new era find the s0ciety on the same honorable path it
trod in the past…
“Given in R0me, near St. Peter, on the 20th of August 1964, during his
second year as P0pe”.(6)
• • •
On the 29th of October 1965, “l’Osservatore R0mano” announced: “The
Very Reverend fäther Arrupe, General of the j€§uits, celebrated H0ly Mass
for the Ecumenical Council on the 16th of October 1965”.
(4) Saul Friedlander: “Pie X II et le IIIe Reich”, (Ed. du Seuil, Paris 1964)
(5) L’Osservatore R0mano, 20th of October 1961.
(6) L’Osservatore R0mano, 18th of September 1964.

Here is the apotheosis of “papäl ethics”: the simultaneous
announcement of a project to beatify Pi us X II and John X X III. “To
strengthen ourselves in our striving for a spiritual renewal, we have decided to
start the canonical proceedings for the beatification of these two great and
godly pontiffs who are so dear to us”.(7)
P0pe Pa ul VI * * ♦
May this book reveal to all those who read it the true nature of this
R0man Master, whose words are as “mellifluous” as his secret actions are
(7) L’Osservatore R0mano, 26th of November 1965.

15 Section I
The Founding of the jۤuit 0rder

Chapter 1
Ignatius of L0y0la

The founder of the s0ciety of Jۤus, the Spanish Basque don Inigo Lopez de
Recalde, was born at the castle of L0y0la, in the province of Guipuzcoa, in
1491. He was one of the strangest types of monk-soldier ever engendered by the
Cath0lic world; of all the founders of religi0us 0rders, he may be the one
whose personality has left the strongest mark on the mind and behaviour
of his disciples and successors. This may be the reason for that “familiar
look” or “trade-mark”, a fact which goes as far as physical resemblance. Mr.
Folliet disputes this fact (1), but many documents prove the permanence of a
“j€§uit” type through the ages. The most amusing of these testimonies is
found at the Guimet museum; on the golden background of a 16th century
screen, a Japanese artist portrayed, with all the humour of his race, the
landing of the Portuguese, and of the sons of L0y0la in particular, on the
Nipponese islands. The amazement of this lover of nature and bright colours
is obvious in the way he depicted those long, black shadows with their
mournful faces on which is congealed all the arrogance of the fanatic ruler. The
likeness between the work of the oriental artist of the 16th century and our
Daumier of 1830 is there for all to see.
Like many other saints, Inigo—who later R0manised his name and
became Ignatius—looked far from being the one predestined to enlighten his
contemporaries (2). His stormy youth was filled with mistakes and even
“heinous crimes”. A police report said he was “treacherous, brutal,
vindictive”. All his biographers admit that he yielded to none of his boon
companions regarding the violence of the instincts, then a common thing.
“An unruly and conceited soldier”, said one of his confidants—”he led a
dis0rderly life as far as women, gambling and duels were concerned”,
(1) “La Cr0ix”, 31 st of July 1956.
(2) Like Saint Augustine, Saint fräncis of Assisi and many others.


added his secretary Polanco (3). All this is related to us by one of his
spiritual sons, R.P. Rouquette, who tried somewhat to explain and excuse this
hot temper which was eventually turned “ad majorem Dei gloriam”. (To the
greater glory of God).
As is the case for many heroes of the R0man Cath0lic Church, a violent
physical blow was necessary to change his personality. He had been pageboy to
the treasurer of Castille until his master’s disgrace. Then he became a gentleman
in the service of the Viceroy of Navarre; having lived the life of a courtier until
then, the young man started the life of a soldier by defending Pampeluna
against the French commanded by the Count de Foix. The wound which
decided his future life was inflicted during that siege. A leg broken by a bullet,
he was taken by the victorious French to his brother Martin Garcia, at the
castle of L0y0la. Now starts the martyrdom of surgery without anaesthesia,
through which he had to go a second time as the work had not been done
properly. His leg was broken again and reset. In spite of all this, Ignatius was
left with a limp. One can understand that he only needed an experience such as
this to cause him a nervous breakdown. The “gift of tears” which was then
bestowed on him “in abundance”—and in which his pious biographers see a
favour from on high—is maybe only the result of his highly emotional nature,
henceforth to affect him more and more.
His sole entertainment, while lying wounded and in pain, was the reading of
the “Life of Christ” and the “Life of the Saints”, the only books found in the
As he was practically uneducated and still affected by that terrible shock,
the anguish of Christ’s passion and the martyrdom of the saints had an
indelible impact on him; this obsession led the crippled warrior on to the road of
“He put the books to one side and day-dreamed. A clear case of the
wakeful dream, this was a continuation into the adult years of the
imaginary game of the child… if we let it invade the psychic realm, the result is
neurosis and surrender of the will; that which is real takes second
At first sight, this diagnosis seems hardly to apply to the founder of such an
active 0rder, nor to other “great mystics” and creators of religi0us societies,
all of whom had apparently great capacities for organization. But we find that
all of them are unable to resist their over-active imaginations and, for them,
the impossible becomes possible.
Here is what the same author says on this subject: “I want to point out the
(3) R.P. j€§uit Robert Rouquette, “Saint Ignace de L0y0la” (Ed. Albin Michel, Paris 1944,
(4) R.P. jۤuit Robert Rouquette, op.cit., p.9.

obvious outcome of the practice of mysticism by someone possessing a
brilliant intelligence. The weak mind indulging in mysticism is on
dangerous ground, but the intelligent mystic presents a far greater danger, us
his intellect works in a wider and deeper way… When the myth takes over from
the reality in an active intelligence, it becomes mere fanaticism; an infection
of the will which suffers from a partial enlargement or distortion”.(5)
Ignatius of L0y0la was a first-class example of that “active mysticism” and
“distortion of the will”. Nevertheless, the transformation of the gentlemenwarrior
into the “general” of the most militant 0rder in the R0man Church
was very slow; there were many faltering steps before he found his true
vocation. It is not our intention to follow him through all those different
stages. Let us recall the main points: in the spring of 1522, he left the ancestral
castle, with his mind made up to become a saint similar to those whose
edifying exploits he had been reading about in that big “gothic” volume.
Besides, did not the Madona herself appear to him one night, holding in her
arms the child Jۤus? After a thorough confession at the monastry of
Montserrat, he was planning to go to Jerusalem. The plague was rife in
Barcelona and, as all maritime traffic had stopped, he had to stay at Manresa
for nearly a year. There, he spent his time in prayers, orisons, long fasts,
flagellating himself, practicing all the forms of maceration, and never
failing to appear before the “tribunal for penance”, even though his
confession at Montserrat had apparently lasted three whole days; such a
thorough confession would have been sufficient to a less scrupulous sinner. All
this depicts quite clearly the mental and nervous state of the man. At last
delivered from that obsession of sin by deciding it was only a trick of Satan, he
devoted himself entirely to the varied and plentiful visions which were
haunting his feverish mind.
“It is because of a vision”, says H. Boehmer, “that he started eating meat
again; it is a whole series of visions that revealed to him the mysteries of the
Cath0lic dogma and helped him to truly live it: in that way, he meditates
upon the Trinity under the shape of a musical instrument with three cords; the
mystery of the creation of the world through “something” hazy and light
coming out of a ray of sunshine; the miraculous descent of Christ into the
Eucharist as flashes of light entering the consecrated water, when the priest
held it up while praying; the human nature of Christ and the H0ly Virgin
under the form of a dazzling white body; and finally Satan as a serpentine and
shimmering shape similar to a multitude of sparkling and mysterious eyes
(6).” Is not this the start of the well-known j€§uitic image-making?
(5) Dr Legrain, “Le Mysticisme et la folie” (Ed. de l’ldee Libre, Herblay (S.-et-O.) 1931, pp.

Mr. Boehmer adds that the deep meaning of the dogmas was revealed to
him, as a special favour from on-high, through transcendental intuitions.
“Many mysteries of Faith and science became suddenly clear to him and later
he pretended to have learned more in those short moments than during the
whole of his studies; however, he was never able to explain what these
mysteries were which suddenly became clear to him. There was only a hazy
recollection left, a feeling of something miraculous as if, at that moment, he
had become “another man with another intelligence”.(7)
All this may be the result of a nervious dis0rder and can be identified with
what happens to smokers of opium and eaters of hashish: that enlargement
or extension of the ego, that illusion of soaring up beyond what is real, a
flashing sensation leaving only a dazed recollection.
Blissful visions and illuminations were constant companions of this
mystic throughout his life.
“He never doubted the reality of these revelations. He chased Satan with a
stick as he would have done a mad dog; he talked to the H0ly Spirit as one does
to another person actually; he asked for the approval of God, the Trinity and
the Madonna on all his projects and would burst into tears of joy when they
appeared to him. On those occasions, he had a foretaste of celestial bliss; the
heavens were open to him, and the Godhead was visible and perceptible to
Is not this the perfect case of an hallucinated person? It will be this same
perceptible and visible Godhead that the spiritual sons of L0y0la will
constantly offer to the world—not only for political reasons, leaning on and
flattering the deep-rooted inclination in the heart of man for idolatry— but also
by conviction, having been well and truly indoctrinated. From the start,
mediaeval mysticism has prevailed in the s0ciety of Jۤus; it is still the great
animator, in spite of its readily assumed worldly, intellectual and learned
aspects. Its basic axiom is: “All things to all men”. The arts, literature,
science and even philosophy have been mere means or nets to catch souls, like
the easy indulgences granted by its casuists and for which laxity they were so
often reproved. To this 0rder, there is not a realm where human weakness
cannot be worked upon, to incite the spirit and will to surrender and go
back to a more childish and restful devotion. So they work for the bringing
about of the “kingdom of God” according to their own ideal: a great flock
under the H0ly fäther’s crozier. That learned men could have such an
anachronic ideal seems very strange, yet it is undeniably so and the confirmation
of an oft-disregarded fact: the pre-eminence of the emotions in the life of the
spirit. Besides, Kant said that every philosophy is
(6) and (7) H. Boehmer, professor at the University of Bonn, “Les j€§uites” (Armand Colin,
Paris 1910, pp. 12-13).
(8) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p. 14.

but the expression of the philosopher’s temperament or character.
Apart from individual methods, the j€§uitic “temperament” seems more or
less uniform amongst them. “A mixture of piety and diplomacy, asceticism
and worldly wisdom, mysticism and cold calculation; as was L0y0la’s
character, so is the trade-mark of this 0rder”.(9).
In the first place, every jۤuit chose this particular 0rder because of his
natural dispositions; but he really becomes a “son” of L0y0la after rigorous
tests and systematic training lasting no less than fourteen years.
In that way, the paradox of this 0rder has continued for four hundred
years: an 0rder which endeavours to be “intellectual” but, simultaneously, has
always been, within the R0man Church and s0ciety, the champion of the
strictest disposition.
(9) J. Huber, professor of Cath0lic theology in Munich, “Les j€§uites” (Sandoz et
Fischbacher, Paris 1875, p. 127).

20 Section I
.Chapter 2
The Spiritual Exercises

When the time came at last for Ignatius to leave Monresa, he couldn’t
foresee his destiny, but the anxiety concerning his own salvation was not his
main concern any more; it is as a missionary, and not as a mere pilgrim, that
he left for the H0ly Land in March 1523. He arrived in Jerusalem on the 1st
of September, after many adventures, only to leave again soon after, on the
0rders of the fränciscan’s provincial who was not desirious to see the
precarious peace between Christians and Turks endangered by an untimely
The disappointed missionary passed through Venice, Genoa, and
Barcelona on his way to the University of Alcala where he started
theological studies; it is there also that his “cure of souls” amongst
voluntary listeners began.
“In these conventicles, the most common manifestations of piety
amongst the fair sex were fainting fits; by that, we realise how hard he
applied his religi0us methods, and how such a fervent propaganda would
soon arouse the curiosity and then the suspicion of the inquisitors… “In
April 1527, the Inquisition put Ignatius in prison to try him on the grounds of
heresy. The inquiry examined those peculiar incidents amongst his
devotees, the strange assertions of the accused concerning the wonderful
power his chastity conferred on him, and his bizarre theories on the
difference between mortal and venial sins; these theories had striking
affinities with those of jۤuit casuists of the subsequent epoch.(lO)
Released but forbidden to hold meetings, Ignatius left for Salamanque
and soon started the same activities. Similar suspicions amongst the
inquisitors led to imprisonment again. Release was only on condition of
desisting from such conduct. Thus it was, he journeyed to Paris to continue
his studies at the college of Montaigu. His efforts to endoctrinate his
(10) H. Boehmer, op.cit. pp.20-21, 25.


fellow-students according to his peculiar methods brought him into trouble
again with the Inquisition. Becoming more prudent,he met with just six of his
college friends, two of which will become highly esteemed recruits:
Salmeron and Lainez.
What did he have in himself that so powerfully attracted young people to an
old student? It was his ideal and a little charm he carried on himself: a small
book, in fact a very minute book which is, in spite of its smallness, amongst
those which have influenced the fate of humanity. This volume has been
printed so many times that the number of copies is unknown; it was also the
object of more than 400 commentaries. It is the textbook of the jۤuits and at
the same time the resume of the long inner development of their master: the
“Spiritual Exercises”.(11)
Mr Boehmer says later:
“Ignatius understood more clearly than any other leader of men who
preceded him that the best way to raise a man to a certain ideal is to become
master of his imagination. We “imbue into him spiritual forces which he
would find very difficult to eliminate later”, forces more lasting than all the best
principles and doctrines; these forces can come up again to the surface,
sometimes after years of not even mentioning them, and become so
imperative that the will finds itself unable to oppose any obstacle, and has to
follow their irresistible impulse”.(12)
Thus all the “truths” of the Cath0lic dogma will have to be, not only
meditated, but lived and felt by the one who devotes himself to these
“Exercises”, with the help of a “director”. In other words, he will have to see and
relive the mystery with the greatest possible intensity. The candidate’s
sensitiveness becomes impregnated with these forces whose persistence in his
memory, and even more so in his subconscious, will be as strong as the effort
he made to evoke and assimilate them. Beside sight, the other senses such as
hearing, smell, taste and touch will play their part. In short, it is mere
controlled auto-suggestion. The angels’ rebellion, Adam and Eve driven out
of Paradise, God’s tribunal, the evangelical scenes and phases of the Passion
are, as one would say, relived in front of the candidate. Sweet and blissful
scenes alternate with the most sombre ones at a skilfully arranged rythm. No
need to say that Hell has the prominent part in that “magic lantern show”,
with its lake of fire into which the damned are thrown, the awful concert of
screams, the atrocious strench of sulphur and burning flesh. Yet Christ is
always there to sustain the visionary who doesn’t know how to thank him for
not having thrown him already into hell to pay for his past sins.
Here is what Edgar Quinet wrote:
“Not only visions are pre-arranged, but also sighs, inhalings, breathing
(11) and (12) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.25, 34-35.


are noted down; the pauses and intervals of silence are written down like on a
music sheet. In case you do not believe me, I will quote: “The third way of
praying, by measuring the words and periods of silence”. This particular
manner of praying consists of leaving out some words between every
breath; and a little further: “Make sure to keep equal gaps between every
breath and choking sob and word”. (Et paria anhelituum ac vocum
interstitia observet), which means that the man, being inspired or not,
becomes just a machine which must sigh, sob, groan, cry, shout or catch
one’s breath at the exact moment and in the 0rder which experience shows to
be the most profitable”. (12a)
It is understandable that after four weeks devoted to these intensive
Exercises, with a director as his only companion, the candidate would be
ripe for the subsequent training and breaking.
This is what Quinet has to say when referring to the creator of such an
hallucinatory method:
“Do you know what distinguishes him from all the ascetics of the past?
The fact that he could observe and analyse himself logically and coldly in that
state of rapture, while for all the others even the idea of reflection was
Imposing on his disciples actions which, to him, were spontaneous, he
needed just thirty days to break, with this method, the will and reasoning, in
the manner in which a rider breaks his horse. He only needed thirty days
“triginta dies”, to subdue a soul. Note that j€§uitism expanded together with
modern inquisition: while the inquisition dislocated the body, the spiritual
Exercises broke up the thoughts under L0y0la’s machine”.(12b)
In any case, one could not examine his “spiritual” life too deeply, even
without the honour of being a j€§uit; L0y0la’s methods are to be
recommended to the faithful and ecclesiastics in particular, as we are
reminded by commentators such as R.P. Pinard de la Boullaye, author of
“Mental prayer for all”; inspired by saint Ignatius, this very valuable aid for the
soul would, we think, be more explicit if the title read “alienation” instead of
(12a) Michelet et Guinet: “Des j€§uites”, (Hachette, Pa ulin, Paris 1845, pp.185-187). (12b)
Michelet et Guinet: “Des j€§uites”, (Hachette, Pa ulin, Paris, 1845, pp.185-

Section 1

Chapter 3
The founding of the Company

“The s0ciety of J€§us” was constituted on Assumption Day in 1534, in the
chapel of Notre-Dame de Montmartre.
Ignatius was then forty-four years old. After communion, the animator and
his companions vowed to go to the H0ly Land, as soon as their studies were
finished, to convert the infidels. But the following year found them in R0me
where the P0pe, who was then organising a crusade against the lurks with the
German Emperor and the Republic of Venice, showed them how impossible
their project was because of it. So Ignatius and his companions
dedicated themselves to missionary work in Christian lands; in Venice, his
apostolate roused again the suspicions of the Inquisition. The Constitution of
the Company of Jۤus was at last drafted and approved in R0me, by Pa ul III,
in 1540, and the jۤuits put themselves at the disposition of the P0pe,
promising him unconditional obedience, Teaching, confession, preaching
and charitable work were the field of action for this new 0rder, but foreign
missions were not excluded as, in 1541, fräncis X avier and two companions
left Lisbon to go and evangelise the Far East. In 1546, the political side of their
career was launched, when the P0pe chose Lainez and Salmeron to represent
him at the Council of Trent in the capacity of “pontifical theologians”.
Mr Boehmer writes:
“Then, the 0rder was employed by the P0pe only on a temporary basis. But
it performed its functions with so much promptitude and zeal that, already
under Pa ul III, it had implanted itself very firmly into all chosen kinds of
activities and won the confidence of the Curia for all time”.(12d)
This confidence was fully justified; the jۤuits, and Lainez in particular,
together with their devoted friend Car dinal Morone, became the cunning and
untiring champions of pontifical authority and intangibility of the
( l 2 d ) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.47-48.


dogma, during the three sessions of that Council ending in 1562. By their
clever manoeuvres and dialectics, they succeeded in defeating the
opposition and all “heretic” claims including marriage of priests,
communion with the two elements, use of the vernacular in services and,
especially, reform of the papacy. Only the reform of convents was retained on
the agenda. Lainez himself, by a forceful counter-attack, upheld pontifical
infallibility which was promulgated three centuries later by the Vat i can
Council. (13) The H0ly See emerged strengthened from the crisis where it
nearly foundered, thanks to the steadfast actions of the jۤuits. The terms
chosen by Pa ul III to describe this new 0rder in his Bull of Authorisation
were then amply justified: “Regimen Ecclesiae militantis”.
The fighting spirit developed more and more as time went on as, beside
foreign missions, the activities of L0y0la’s sons started to concentrate on the
souls of men, especially amongst ruling classes. Politics are their main field of
action, as all the efforts of these “directors” concentrate on one aim: the
submission of the world to the papacy, and to attain this the “heads” must be
conquered first. And to realise this ideal? Two very important weapons: to be
the confessors of the mighty and those in high places and the education of their
children. In that way, the present will be safe while the future is prepared.
The H0ly See soon realised the strength this new 0rder would bring. At first,
the number of its members had been limited to sixty, but this restriction was
promptly lifted. When Ignatius died, in 1556, his sons were working amongst
pagans in India, China, Japan, the New World, but also and especially in
Europe: fränce, Southern and Western Germany, where they fought against
the “heresy”, in Spain, Portugal, Italy and even England, getting in by way of
Ireland. Their history, full of vicissitudes, will be of a “R0man” network they
will constantly try to spread over the world, whose links will be forever torn
and mended.
(13) Vat i can Council (1870).


Section I
The Spirit of the 0rder

“Let us not forget, writes the j€§uit Rouquette, that, historically,
“ultramontanism” has been the practical affirmation of “universalism”… This
necessary universalism would be an empty word if it did not result in a practical
cohesion or obedience of Christianity: this is why Ignatius wanted this team to
be at the disposition of the P0pe… and be the champion of Cath0lic unity,
unity which can be assured only through an effective submission to Christ’s
The jۤuits wanted to impose this monarchical absolutism on the
R0man Church and they maintained it in civil s0ciety as they had to look
upon the s0vereigns as temporal representatives of the H0ly fäther, true head
of Christianity; as long as those monarchs were entirely docile to their
common lord, the jۤuits were their most faithful supporters. On the other
hand, if these princes rebelled, they found in the jۤuits their worst
In Europe, wherever R0me’s interests required the people to rise against their
king, or if these temporal princes had taken decisions embarrassing for the
Church, the Curia knew she would not find more able, cunning, or daring
outside the s0ciety of Jۤus when it came to intrigue, propaganda or even open
We have seen, through the spirit of the “Exercises”, how the founder of this
Company was behind his time in his simplistic mysticism, ecclesiastic
discipline and, generally speaking, his conception of subordination. The
“Constitutions” and “Exercises”, fundamentals to this system, leave us
without any doubts on that subject. No matter what his disciples may say—
especially today as modern ideas on this subject are totally different—
(l3a) R.P. jۤuit Rouquette, op.cit. p.44.
( 1 4 ) Rene Fulop-Muler: “Les j€§uites et le secret de leur puissance” (Librairie Plon, Paris
1933. p.61).


obedience has a very special place, in fact incontestably the first, in the
summary of the 0rder’s rules. Mr. Folliet may pretend to see in it nothing
more than “religi0us obedience”, necessary to any congregation; R.P.
Rouquette writes boldly: “Far from being a diminution of man, this
intelligent and willing obedience is the height of freedom… a liberation from
oneself s bondage…”; one only has to read those texts to perceive the extreme,
if not monstrous character of this submission of soul and spirit imposed to
the j€§uits, making them always docile instruments in their superiors’ hands,
and even more from their very beginning the natural ennemies of any kind
of liberty.
The famous “perinde ac cadaver” (as a corpse in the undertaker’s hands), can
be found in all “spiritual literature”, according to Mr. Folliet, and even in the
East, in the Haschichins’ Constitution; the j€§uits are to be in the hands of
their superiors “as a staff obeying every impulse; as a ball of wax which can be
shaped and stretched in any direction; as a small crucifix being lifted and
moved at will”; these pleasant formulas are none the less very enlightening.
Remarks and explanations from the creator of this 0rder leave us without
any doubt as to their true meaning. Besides, amongst the jۤuits, not only
the will, but also reasoning and even moral scruple, must be sacrificed to the
primordial virtue of obedience which is, according to Borgia, “the strongest
rampart of s0ciety”.
“Let us be convinced that all is well and right when the superior
commands it”, wrote L0y0la. And again: “Even if God gave you an animal
without sense for master, you will not hesitate to obey him, as master and
guide, because God ordained it to be so.”
And something even better: the jۤuit must see in his superior not a
fallible man, but Christ Himself. J. Huber, professor of Cath0lic theology in
Munich and author of one of the most important works on the jۤuits, wrote:
“Here is a proven fact: the “Constitutions” repeat five hundred times that one
must see Christ in the person of the General”.(15)
The discipline of the 0rder, assimilated so often to that of the army, is then
nothing compared to the reality. “Military obedience is not the equivalent of
jۤuitic obedience; the latter is more extensive as it gets hold of the whole man
and is not satisfied like the other, with an exterior act, but requires the
sacrifice of the will and laying aside of one’s own judgment”.(16)
Ignatius himself wrote in his letter to the Portuguese j€§uits: “We must see
black as white, if the Church says so”.
Such is this “height of freedom” and “liberation from one’s own
bondage”, praised earlier on by R.P. Rouquette. Indeed, the j€§uit is truly
(15) J. Huber. “Les j€§uites” (Sandoz et Fischbacher, Paris 1875, pp. 71 & 73).
(16) J. Huber: “Les j€§uites” (Sandoz et Fischbacher, Paris 1875, pp. 71 & 73).

liberated from himself as he is totally subjected to his masters; any doubt or
scruple would be imputed to him as sin.
Mr. Boehmer writes:
“In the additions to the “Constitutions”, the superiors are advised to
command the novices, as God did with Abraham, things apparently
criminal, to prove them; but they must proportion these temptations to
each one’s strength. It is not difficult to imagine what could be the results of
such an education”.(17)
The 0rder’s life of ups and downs—there is not one country from which it
wasn’t expelled—testifies that these dangers were recognised by all
governments, even the most Cath0lic. By introducing men so blindly
devoted to their cause to teaching among the higher classes, the
Company—champion of universalism, therefore ultra-montanism—was
inevitably recognised as a threat to civil authority, as the activity of the
0rder, by the mere fact of their vocation, turned more and more towards
In a parallel way, what we call the jۤuitic spirit was developing amongst
its members. Nevertheless, the founder, inspired mainly by the needs of
foreign and home “missions”, had not neglected skilfulness. He wrote in his
“Sententiae asceticae”: “A clever carefulness together with a mediocre
purity is better than a greater holiness coupled with a less perfect
skilfulness. A good shepherd of souls must know how to ignore many
things and pretend not to understand them. Once he is master of the wills,
he will be able wisely to lead his students wherever he may choose. People
are entirely absorbed by passing interests, so we must not speak to them too
pointedly about their souls: it would be throwing the hook without the
Even the desired countenance of L0y0la’s sons was emphatically stated:
“They must hold their heads slightly down, without bending it to the left or
right; they must not look up, and when they speak to someone, they are not
to look them straight in the eyes so as to see them only indirectly…”(18)
L0y0la’s successors retained this lesson well in their memory, and
applied it very extensively in the pursuit of their plans.
(17) Gabriel Monod, in Introduction aux “j€§uites”, de H. Boehmer, p. X VI (Armand Colin,
Paris) (18) Pierre Dominique: “La politique des j€§uites” (Grasset, Paris 1955, p.37).


28 Section I
The privileges of the Company

After 1558, Lainez, the subtle tactician of the Council of Trent, was made
general of the Congregation with the power to organise the 0rder as he was
inspired. The “Declarations” which he himself composed with Salmeron,
were added to the “Constitutions” to form a commentary; they accentuated
even more the despotism of the general elected for life. An admonitor
procurator and assistants, residing in R0me too, will help him generally to
administer the 0rder divided then into five congregations: Italy, Germany
fränce, Spain, England and America. These congregations were
themselves divided into Provinces grouping the different establishments of the
0rder. Only the admonitor (or overseer) and assistants are nominated by the
Congregation. The general appoints all other officials, promulgates the
ordinances which are not to modify the Constitutions, administers the wealth
of the 0rder according to his own wishes and directs its activities for which he is
responsible to the P0pe only.
To this militia so tightly knit in the hand of its chief and which needs the
greatest autonomy to make its actions effective, the P0pe concedes
privileges which may seem exorbitant to other religi0us 0rders.
By their Constitutions, the jۤuits were exempt from the cloistered rule
which applied to monastic life in general. In fact, they are monks living “in
the world” and, outwardly, nothing distinguishes them from the secular
clergy. But, contrary to this and other religi0us congregations, they are not
subjected to the bish0p’s authority. As early as 1545, a bull of Pa ul II
enabled them to preach, hear confession, dispense the sacraments, and say
mass; in short, exercise their ministry without having to refer to the bish0p The
solemnisation of marriages is the only thing they are not allowed to
They have the power to give absolution, change vows for others which are
easier to fulfil, or even cancel them.
Mr Gaston Bally writes:


Chapter 5


(19) Gaston Bally: “Les j€§uites” (Chambery, Imprimerie Nouvelle, 1902, pp.11-13). (20)
Gaston Bally, op.cit., pp.9-10, 16-17. (21) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.37.
“The general’s power concerning absolution and dispensations is even wider.
He can lift all punishment inflicted on the members of the s0ciety before or after
them entering the 0rder, absolve all their sins, even the sin of heresy and
schism, the falsification of apostolic writings, etc… “The general absolves, in
person or through a delegate, all those who are under his obedience, of the
unhappy state arising from excommunication, suspension or interdict, provided
these censures were not inflicted for excesses so enormous that others, beside
the papäl tribunal, knew about them.
He also absolves the irregularity issuing, from bigamy, injuries done to
others, murder, assassination… as long as these wicked deeds were not publicly
known and the cause of a scandal”.(19)
Finally, greg0ry X III bestowed on the Company the right to deal in
commerce and banking, a right it made use of extensively later on.
These dispensations and unprecedented powers were fully guaranteed to
“The P0pes called even upon princes and kings to defend these privileges; they
threatened with the great excommunication “latae sententiae” all those who
would try to infringe them. In 1574, a bull of Pi us V gave the general the right to
restore these privileges to their original scope, against all tempts to alter or
curtail them, even if such curtailments were authoritatively documented by
papäl revocation… By granting the j€§uits such exorbitant privileges which run
counter to the Church’s antiquated constitution, the papacy wanted, not only to
supply them with powerful weapons to fight the “Infidels”, but especially use
them as a bodyguard to defend her own unrestricted power in the Church and
against the Church”. “To preserve the spiritual and temporal supremacy they
usurped during the middle ages, the P0pes sold the Church to the 0rder of Jۤus
and, in consequence, surrendered themselves into their hands… If the papacy
was supported by the jۤuits, the whole existence of the jۤuits depended on the
spiritual and temporal supremacy of the papacy. In that way, the interests of
both parties were intimately bound together”.(20)
But this select cohort needed secret auxiliaries to dominate civil s0ciety: this
role fell on those affiliated to the Company called j€§uits. “Many important
people were connected in that way with the s0ciety: the emperors Ferdinand II
and Ferdinand III, Sigismond III, king of Poland, who had officially belonged to
the Company; Car dinal Infant, a duke of Savoy. And these were not the least


It is the same today; the 33,000 official members of the s0ciety operate all
over the world in the capacity of her personnel, officers of a truly secret army
containing in its ranks heads of political parties, high ranking officials,
generals, magistrates, physicians, Faculty professors, etc., all of them striving
to bring about, in their own sphere, “l’Opus Dei”, God’s work, in reality the
plans of the papacy.


Section II
The jۤuits in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries


Chapter 1 Italy, Portugal, Spain

“fränce”, wrote Mr. Boehmer, “is the cradle of the s0ciety of J€§us, but in
Italy it received its programme and constitution. Therefore in Italy it first took
root and from there it spread abroad”.(l)
The author notes the increasing number of colleges and jۤuit academies
(128 and 1680); “but”, says he, “the history of Italian civilisation during the
16h and 17th centuries shows the results of it most strikingly. If a welllearned
Italy thus embraced again the faith and ordinances of the Church,
received a new zeal for asceticism and missions, composed again pious
poems and hymns for the Church, dedicated conscientiously the painters’
brushes and sculptors’ chisels to exalt the religi0us ideal, is it not because
the cultivated classes were instructed in j€§uits’ colleges and
Gone were “childish simplicity, joy, vivacity and the simple love of
The j€§uits’ pupils are far too clerical, devout, absorbed to preserve
these qualities. They are taken up with ecstatic visions and illuminations;
they literally get drunk with the paintings of frightful mortifications and
the martyrs’ atrocious torments; they need the pomp, glittering and
theatrical. From the end of the 16th century on, Italian art and literature
reproduce faithfully this moral transformation… The restlessness, the
ostentation, the shocking claim which characterise the creations of that
period promote a feeling of repulsion instead of sympathy for the beliefs
they are supposed to interpret and glorify”.(3)
It is the mark sui generis of the Company. This love for the distorted,
finicky, glittering, theatrical could seem strange amongst mystics formed by
the “Spiritual Exercises” if we did not detect in it this essentially
( 1 ) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.82.
(2) and (3) Boehmer, op.cit., p.82-83.


j€§uitical aim to impress the mind. It is an application of the maxim: “The
end justifies the means” applied with perseverance by the j€§uits in the arts,
literature as well as politics and morals.
Italy had been hardly touched by the Reformation. Nevertheless, the
Waldenses, who had survived since the middle ages in spite of persecutions
and established themselves in the north and south of the peninsula, joined the
Calvinist Church in 1532. On a report from the jۤuit Possevino, Emmanuel
Philibert of Savoy launched another bloody persecution against his
“heretic” subjects in 1561. The same thing happened in Calabria, at Casal
di San Sisto and Guardia Fiscale. “The j€§uits were implicated in these
massacres; they were busy converting the victims…”(4)
As for fäther Possevino: “… he followed the Cath0lic army as their
chaplain, and recommended the extermination by fire of the heretic pastors as a
necessary and H0ly act”.(5)
The jۤuits were all powerful in Parma, at the court of the Farnese, as well
as in Naples during the 16th and 17th centuries. But in Venice, where they had
been loaded with favours, they were banished on the 14th of May 1606, “as
the most faithful servants and spokesmen of the P0pe…”
They were nevertheless allowed to return in 1656, but their influence in the
Republic was to be from now on but a shadow of the one they had in the
Portugal was a choice country for the 0rder. “Already under John III
(1521-1559), it was the most powerful religi0us community in the
kingdom”.(6) Its influence grew even more after the revolution of 1640
which put the Braganza on the throne. “Under the first king of the house of
Braganza, fäther Fernandez was a member of the government and, under the
minority of Alphonse VI, the counsellor most heeded by the regent Queen
Louise. fäther de Ville was successful in overthrowing Alphonse VI in 1667,
and fäther Emmanuel Fernandez was made a deputy to the “Cortes” in
1667 by the new King Peter II… In spite of the fact that the fäthers were
not fulfilling any public duty in the kingdom, they were more powerful in
Portugal than in any other country. Not only were they spiritual
advisers to all the royal family, but the king and his minister consulted
them in all important circumstances. From one of their own testimonies,
we know that not one place in the administration of the State and Church
could be obtained without their consent; so much so that the clergy, the
high classes and the people contended with each other to win their favours
and approval. Foreign politics were also under their influence. Any
sensible man would see that such a state of affairs was
(4) J. Huber, op.cit., p. 165.
(5) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.89.
(6) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.85, 86, 87, 88.

unprofitable to the good of the kingdom”.(7)
In fact, we can see the results by the decadent state into which this
unfortunate land fell. All the energy and perspicacity of the marquess of
Pombal, in the middle of the 18th century, were needed to tear Portugal out of
the 0rder’s deadly grip.
In Spain, the 0rder’s penetration was slower. The higher clergy and the
Dominicans opposed it for a long time. The s0vereigns themselves, Charles V
and Philip II, while accepting their services, distrusted these soldiers of the
P0pe and feared encroachments on their authority. But, with much craftiness,
the 0rder eventually defeated this resistance. “During the 17th century, they
are all-powerful in Spain, among the high classes and at Court. Even
fäther Neidhart, former German cavalry officer, fully governed the
kingdom as Counsellor of State, prime minister and Grand Inquisitor… In
Spain as in Portugal, the kingdom’s ruin coincided with the rise of the
This is what Edgar Quinet had to say about it:
“Wherever a dynasty dies, I can see, rising up and standing behind her, a
kind of bad genie, one of those dark figures that are the confessors, gently
and paternally luring her towards death…”(9)
Indeed, one cannot impute Spain’s decadence to this 0rder only.
“Nevertheless, it is true that the Company of J€§us, together with the
Church and other religi0us 0rders, hastened her fall; the richer the 0rder
became, the poorer Spain was, so much so that when Charles II died, the
State’s coffers did not even contain the necessary amount to pay for 10,000
masses usually said for the salvation of a deceased monarch’s soul.”(10)
(7) and (8) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.85, 86, 87, 88.
(9) Michelet et Quinet, op.cit., p.259.
( 1 0 ) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.85, 86, 87, 88.


34 Section II
Chapter 2 Germany

“It was not southern Europe, but central Europe: fränce, Holland,
Germany, Poland, which were the site for that historical struggle between
Cath0licism and pr0testantism. So these countries were the main fields of
battle for the s0ciety of J€§us.” (11)
The situation was particularly grave in Germany. “Not only notorious
pessimists, but also thinking and wise Cath0lics considered the old church’s
cause in all German lands as almost lost. In fact, even in Austria and
Bohemia, the break with R0me was so general that the pr0testants could
reasonably hope to conquer Austria within a few decades. Then how is it this
change did not take place and the country was divided into two sections
instead? The Cath0lic party, at the close of the 16th century, had no
hesitation in answering this question, for it always acknowledged that the
Witelsbach, Habsburg and jۤuits were responsible for this happy turn of
Rene Fulop-Miller wrote about the j€§uits’ role in these events: “The
Cath0lic cause could hope for a real success only if the fäthers were able to
influence and guide the princes, at all times and in all circumstances. The
confessionals offered the jۤuits the means to secure a lasting political
influence, therefore an effectual action” .(13)
In Bavaria, the young duke Albert V, son of a zealous Cath0lic and
educated at Ingolstadt, the old Cath0lic city, called on the jۤuits to
combat effectively the heresy:
“On the 7th of July 1556, 8 fäthers and 12 j€§uit teachers entered
Ingolstadt. It was the start of a new era for Bavaria… the State itself
received a new Seal…. the R0man Cath0lic conceptions directed the politics of
princes and the behaviour of the high classes. But this new spirit got hold
(11) and (12) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.89, 104, ,112, 114. (13) Rene
Fulop-Miller, op.cit., II, pp.98, 102.


of the higher classes only. It did not gain the hearts of ordinary people…
Nevertheless, under the iron discipline of the State and the restored Church, they
again became devout Cath0lics, docile, fanatic, and intolerant towards any
“It may seem excessive to attribute such prodigious virtues and actions to a mere
handful of strangers. Yet, in these circumstances, their force was in inverse ratio to
their numbers and they were immediately effective as no obstacles were met.
L0y0la’s emissaries won the country’s heart and mind from the start… From the
next generation on, Ingolstadt became the perfect type of the german jۤuit
city”.(14) One can judge the state of mind the fäthers introduced to this
stronghold of faith by reading the following:
“The j€§uit Mayrhofer of Ingolstadt taught in his “Preacher’s mirror”: “We will not
be judged if we demand the killing of pr0testants, any more than we would by
asking for the death penalty on thieves, murderers,
counterfeiters and revolutionaries.”(15)
The successors of Albert V, and especially Maximilian I (1597-1651), completed
his work. But Albert V already was conscientious in his “duty” of assuring his
subjects’ “salvation”.
“As soon as the fäthers arrived in Bavaria, his attitude towards pr0testants and
those favourable to them became more severe. From 1563 on, he pitilessly
expelled all recalcitrants, and had no mercy for the anabaptists who had to suffer
drownings, fire, prison and chains, all of which were praised by the jۤuit
Agricola… In spite of all this, a whole generation of men had to disappear before
the persecution was crowned a complete success. As late as 1586, the moravian
anabaptists managed to hide 600 victims from the duke Guillaume. This one
example proves that there were thousands and not hundreds who were driven out,
an awful breach into a thinly populated country.
“But”, said Albert V to the Munich City council, “God’s honour and the salvation
of souls must be placed above any temporal interests”. 16)
Little by little, all teaching in Bavaria was placed in the j€§uits’ hands, and that
land became the base for their penetration in eastern, western and northern
“From 1585 on, the fäthers converted the part of Westphalia depending on
Cologne; in 1586, they appear in Neuss and Bonn, one of Cologne’s archbish0p’s
residences; they open colleges at Hildesheim in 1587 and Munster in 1588. This
particular one already had 1300 pupils in 1618… A large part of western Germany
was reconquered in that way by Cath0licism,
(14) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.89, 104, 112, 114. (15)
Rene Fulop-Miller, op.cit., II, pp.98, 102. (16) H.
Boehmer, op.cit., pp.89, 104, 112, 114.

thanks to the Wittelsbach and jۤuits.
“The alliance between the Wittelsbach and j€§uits was maybe even more
important for the “Austrian lands” than for western Germany”.(17)
The archduke Charles of Styrie, last son of emperor Ferdinand, married
in 1571 a Bavarian princess “who brought into Gratz castle the narrow
Cath0lic tendencies and the friendship for the jۤuits which prevailed at the
Court of Munich”. Under her influence, Charles worked hard to “extirpate the
heresy” from his kingdom and when he died, in 1590, he made his son and
successor, Ferdinand, swear that he would go on with this work. In any case,
Ferdinand was well prepared for this. “For five years, he had been a pupil of
the jۤuits at Ingolstadt; besides, he was so narrow-minded that, to him,
there was no nobler task than the reestablishment of the Cath0lic Church in
his hereditary States. That this task was advantageous or not to his lands was
of no concern to Him. “I prefer”, said he, “to reign over a country in ruins,
than over one which is damned”. (18)
In 1617, the archduke Ferdinand was crowned king of Bohemia by the
emperor. “Influenced by his j€§uit confessor Viller, Ferdinand started at once
to combat pr0testantism in his new kingdom. This signalled the start of that
bloody war of religi0n which, for the next thirty years, kept Europe in
suspense. When, in 1618, the unhappy events in Prague gave the signal for
open rebellion, the old emperor Mathias tried at first to compromise, but he
did not have enough power to make his intentions prevail against king
Ferdinand, who was dominated by his jۤuit confessor; so, the last hope to
settle this conflict amicably was lost”. “At the same time, the lands of Bohemia
had taken special measures and solemnly decreed that all jۤuits should be
expelled, as they saw in them promoters of civil war”.(19)
Soon after, Moravia and Silesie followed this example, and pr0testants of
Hungary, where the jۤuit Pazmany ruled with a rod of iron, rebelled also.
But the battle of the White Mountain (1620) was won by Ferdinand, who had
been made emperor again after the death of Mathias.
“The j€§uits persuaded Ferdinand to inflict the most cruel punishment on
the rebels; pr0testantism was rooted out of the whole country by means too
terrible for words… At the end of the war, the country’s material ruin was
“The j€§uit Balbinus, Bohemia’s historian, wondered how there could still
be some inhabitants left in that country. But moral ruin was even more
terrible… The flourishing culture found amongst the nobles and middle
classes, the rich national literature which could not be replaced: all this had been
destroyed, and even nationality had been abolished. Bohemia was
(17) and (18) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.117, 120. (19) J.
Huber, op.cit., pp. 180-183.

open to the j€§uits’ activities and they burned Czech literature en-masse; under
their influence, even the name of the nation’s great saint: John Huss, gradually
grew dimmer until it was extinct in the hearts of the people… “The height of the
j€§uits’ power”, said Tomek, “coincided with the country’s greatest decadence in
her national culture; it is because of the influence that 0rder had, that this
unfortunate land’s awakening came about one century too late…”
“When the Thirty Years War came to an end, and a peace was concluded assuring
German pr0testants the same political rights enjoyed by the Cath0lics, the jۤuits
did their uttermost to continue the fighting; it was in vain”.(20)
But they obtained from their student Leopold the First, then reigning
emperor, the promise to persecute the pr0testants in his own lands, and
especially in Hungary. “Escorted by imperial dragoons, the j€§uits
undertook this work of conversion in 1671. The Hungarians rose to action and
started a war which was to last for nearly a whole generation… But that
insurrection was victoroius, under the leadership of fräncis Kakoczy. The
victor wanted to drive the jۤuits out of all the countries which fell under his
power; but influencial protectors of the 0rder managed to adjourn these
measures, and the expulsion did not take place until 1707…
“Prince Eugene blamed, with a harsh fränkness, the politics of the
imperial house and the intrigues of the jۤuits in Hungary. He wrote:
“Austria nearly lost Hungary because of their persecuting of the
pr0testants”. One day, he bitterly exclaimed that the morals of the Turks
were far superior to those of the j€§uits, in practice at least. “Not only do they
want to dominate consciences, but also to have the right of life and death over
“Austria and Bavaria reaped the fruits of j€§uit domination in full: the
compression of all progressive tendencies and the systematic stultification of
the people”.
“The deep misery which followed the war of religi0n, the powerless
politics, the intellectual decadence, the moral corruption, a frightful
decrease in the population and impoverishment of the whole of Germany:
these were the results of the 0rder’s actions”.(21)
(20) Rene Fulop-Miller, op.cit., II, pp. 104-105.
(21) J. Huber, op.cit., pp.183-186.


38 Section II

Chapter 3 Switzerland

It was only during the 17th century that the jۤuits succeeded in
establishing themselves successfully in Switzerland, after having been
called, then banished, by a few cities of the Confederation, during the
second half of the 16th century.
The archbish0p of Milan, Charles BorR0mee, who had favoured their
installation at Lucerne in 1578, soon realised what the results of their
actions would be, as we are reminded by J. Huber: “Charles BorR0mee
wrote to his confessor that the Company of Jۤus, governed by heads more
political than religi0us, is becoming too powerful to preserve the necessary
moderation and submission… She rules over kings and princes, and
governs temporal and spiritual affairs; the pious institution has lost the
spirit which animated her originally; we shall be compelled to abolish
At the same time in fränce, the famous legal expert Etienne Pasquiet
wrote: “Introduce this 0rder in our midst and, at the same time, you will
introduce dissension, chaos and confusion”.(23)
Is it not this identical complaint heard over and over again, and in all
countries, against the Company? It was the same in Switzerland, when the
evidence of her evil deeds broke through the flattering appearances with
which she excelled in covering herself.
“Wherever the j€§uits managed to take root, they seduced great and
small, young and old. Very soon, the authorities would start consulting
them in important circumstances; their donations started flowing in, and it
was not long before they occupied all the schools, the pulpits of most
churches, the confessionals of all high ranking and influential people
(22) J. Huber op.cit., p.131.
(23) Cite by H. Fulop-Miller: “Les j€§uites et le secret de leur puissance” (Plon, Paris 1933

Confessors looking after the education of all classes of s0ciety, counsellors and
intimate friends of members of the Council, their influence grew day after day,
and they did not wait long before exercising it in public affairs. Lucerne and
Fribourg were their main centres; from there, they conducted the exterior
politics of most Cath0lic cantons…
“Any plan forged in R0me, or by other foreign powers, against
pr0testantism in Switzerland was assured of the j€§uits’ full support…
“In 1620, they were successful in making the Cath0lic population of the
Veltlin rise against the pr0testants and they slaughtered six hundred. The
P0pe gave indulgence to all those who took part in that horrible deed.
“In 1656, they kindled civil war between members of the various
confessions… Later again a new war of religi0n was started by the j€§uits.
“In 1712, peace was being discussed in Aarau; Lucerne and Uri had just
accepted it when the jۤuits, on an 0rder from R0me, did all they could to
reverse things. They refused absolution to all those who would hesitate to
take up arms. They proclaimed loudly from their pulpits that one was not
obliged to keep his word, when it was given to heretics; they made moderate
councillors to suspect, tried to remove them from their posts and provoked,
in Lucerne, such a threatening uprising of the people against the
government that the supreme authority resigned herself to break the peace.
The Cath0lics were defeated in the fight which followed and signed an
ponerous peace.
Since that time, the 0rder’s influence in Switzerland became smaller and
Today, article 51 of the Swiss constitution forbids the s0ciety of Jۤus to hold
any cultural or educative activity on the territory of the
Confederation, and efforts made to abolish this rule have always been
(24) J. Huber, op.cit., pp.188 ss.

40 Section II

Chapter 4 Poland and Russia

jۤuit domination was nowhere as deadly as it was in Poland. This is
proved by H. Boehmer, a moderate historian who does not bear any
systematic hostility towards the s0ciety.
“The j€§uits were entirely responsible for Poland’s annihilation. The
accusation so worded is excessive. The decadence of the Polish State had
started before they came on the scene. But they undoubtedly hastened the
kingdom’s decomposition. Of all the States, Poland, who had millions of
0rthod0x Christians in her midst, should have had religi0us tolerance as one
of the most essential principles of her interior politics. The jۤuits did not
allow that. They did worse: they put Poland’s exterior politics at the service
of Cath0lic interests in a fatal manner”.(25)
This was written at the end of the last century; it is very similar to what
Colonel Beck, former Polish Foreign-Affairs minister from 1932 to 1939
said after the 1939-1945 war:
“The Vat i can is one of the main causes of the tragedy of my country. I
realised too late that we had pursued our foreign politics just to serve the
interests of the Cath0lic Church”.(26)
So, with several centuries in-between, the same disastrous influence has
made its mark once again on that unfortunate nation.
In 1581 already, fäther Possevino, pontifical legate in Moscow, has
done his best to bring together the Czar Ivan the Terrible and the R0man
Church. Ivan was not strictly against it. Full of glad hopes, Possevino made
himself, in 1584, the mediator of the peace of Kirewora Gora between
Russia and Poland, a peace which saved Ivan from inextricable difficulties
This is just what the crafty s0vereign had hoped for. There was no more talk of
converting the Russians. Possevino had to leave Russia without having
(25) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.135.
(26) Declaration of the 6th of February 1940.

obtained anything. Two years later, an even better opportunity offered itself
to the fäthers to get a hold on Russia: Grischka Ostrepjew, an unfrocked
monk, revealed to a jۤuit that he actually was Dimitri, son of Czar Ivan,
who had been assassinated; he declared himself ready to subdue Moscow for
R0me if he was master of the Czars’ throne. Without thinking it over first, the
jۤuits took it into their hands to introduce Ostrepjew to the Palatine of
Sandomir who gave him his daughter in marriage; they spoke on his behalf
to King Sigismond III and the P0pe regarding his expectations, and
succeeded in making the Polish army rise against the Czar Boris
Godounov. As a reward for these services, the false Dimitri renounced the
religi0n of his fäthers at Crascovie, one of the j€§uits’ houses, and
promised the 0rder an establishment in Moscow, near the Kremlin, after his
victory over Boris.
“But it was these favours from the Cath0lics which unleashed the hatred of
the Russian 0rthod0x Church against Dimitri. On the 27th of May 1606,
he was massacred with several hundred Polish followers. Until then, one could
hardly speak of a Russian national sentiment; but now, this feeling was
very strong and took immediately the form of a fanatical hatred for the R0man
Church and Poland.
“The alliance with Austria and the offensive politics of Sigismond III
against the Turks, all of which were strongly encouraged by the 0rder, were just
as disastrous for Poland. To put it briefly, no other State suffered as much as
Poland did under the j€§uits’ domination. And in no other country, apart
from Portugal, was the s0ciety so powerful. Not only did Poland have a
‘king of the j€§uits’, but also a j€§uit King, Jean-Casimir, a s0vereign who had
belonged to the 0rder before his accession to the throne in 1649…
“While Poland was heading fast towards ruin, the number of j€§uit
establishments and schools was growing so fast that the General made
Poland into a special congregation in 1751 “.(27)
(27) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.135 ss.

42 Section II
Chapter 5 Sweden and England

“In the Scandinavian countries”, wrote Mr. Pierre Dominique,
“Lutheranism submerged everything else and, when the j€§uits made their
counter-attack, they did not find what was found in Germany: a Cath0lic
party already in the minority, but still strong”.(28)
Their only hope then was in the conversion of the s0vereign who was
secretly in favour of Cath0licism; also, this king, Jean III Wasa, had
married in 1568 a Polish princess, Catherine, a R0man Cath0lic. In 1574,
fäther Nicolai and other j€§uits were brought to the recently established
school of theology where they became fervent R0man proselytizers, while
officially assuming Lutheranism. Then, the clever negotiator Possevino
secured the conversion of Jean III and the care of educating his son
Sigismond, the future Sigismond III, king of Poland. When the time came to
submit Sweden to the H0ly See, the king’s conditions: marriage of priests,
use of the vernacular in services and communion in both kinds, all of which
had been rejected by the R0man Curia, brought the negotiations to a dead
end. In any case, the king, who had lost his first wife, had remarried a
Swedish Lutheran. The jۤuits had to leave the country.
“Fifty years later, the 0rder won another great victory in Sweden. Queen
Christine, daughter of Gustave-Adolphe, the last of the Wasas, was
converted under the teaching of two jۤuit professors, who had managed to
reach Stockholm pretending to be travelling Italian noblemen. But, in 0rder
to change her religi0n without conflicts, she had to abdicate on the 24th of
June 1654”.(29)
In England, on the other hand, the situation seemed more faviourable to the
s0ciety and it could hope, for a while at least, to bring this country back under
the H0ly See’s jurisdiction.
(28) Pierre Dominique, op.cit, p.76.
(29) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.137, 138, 139.

“When Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558, Ireland was still entirely
Cath0lic and England 50 per cent so… In 1542 already, Salmeron and Broet had
been sent by the P0pe to survey Ireland”.(30)
Seminaries had been created under the j€§uits’ direction in Douai, Pont-a-
Mousson and R0me, with a view to train English, Irish and Scottish
missionaries. In agreement with Philip II of Spain, the R0man Curia
worked at overthrowing Elizabeth in favour of the Cath0lic Mary Stuart. An
Irish uprising, provoked by R0me, had been crushed. But the jۤuits, who
had arrived in England in 1580, took part in a large Cath0lic assembly at
“Then, under diverse disguises, they spread from county to county, from
country house to castle. In the evening, they would hear confession; in the
morning, they would preach and give communion, then they would
disappear as mysteriously as they had arrived. For, from the 15th of July,
Elizabeth had proscribed them”.(31)
They printed and distributed secretly virulent pamphlets against the
Queen and the Anglican Church. One of them, fäther Campion, was
caught, condemned for high treason and hanged. They also plotted at
Edinburgh to win to their cause King James of Scotland. The result of all
these disturbances was the execution of Mary Stuart in 1587.
Then came the Spanish expedition, the invincible Armada, which made
England tremble for a while and brought about the “sacred union” around
Elizabeth’s throne. But the Company pursued none the less her projects and
was training English priests at Valladolid, Seville, Madrid and Lisbon, while
her secret propaganda continued in England under the direction of fäther
Garnett. After the Gunpowder Plot against James I, successor of Elizabeth,
this fäther Garnett was condemned for complicity and hanged, like fäther
Under Charles I, then in Cromwell’s Commonwealth, other j€§uits paid for
their intrigues with their lives. The 0rder thought it would triumph under
Charles II who, together with Louis X IV, had concluded a secret treaty at
Dover, pledging to restore Cath0licism in the land.
“The nation was not fully informed of these circumstances, but the little that
transpired was enough to create an unbelievable agitation. All
England shuddered before L0y0la’s spectre and the j€§uits’
A meeting of them in the palace itself brought popular fury to a head.
“Charles II, who enjoyed the life of a king and did not want to go on
another ‘journey across the seas’, hanged five fäthers for high treason at
(30) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.137-139.
(31) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.140-142.
(32) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.140, 142.


Tyburn… This did not abate the j€§uits.. However, Charles II was too
prudent and too cynical for their liking, always ready to drop them. They
thought victory was in sight when James II acceded to the throne. In fact, the
king took up Mary Tudor’s old game, but used softer means. He pretended
to convert England and established for the jۤuits, at the palace of Savoy, a
college where four hundred students immediately took residence. A
downright camarilla of j€§uits took over the Palace…
“All these combinations were the main cause for the 1688 revolution. The
jۤuits had to go against a stream too powerful. Then, England had twenty
pr0testants for each Cath0lic. The king was overthrown; all the members of
the Company put in prison or banished. For some time, the jۤuits
recommenced their work of secret agents, but it was nothing more than a
futile agitation. They had lost the cause”.(33)
(33) Pierre Dominique, op.cit, pp.101, 102.

Section II

Chapter 6 France

In 1551, the 0rder started to establish itself in fränce, which was
seventeen years after its foundation in the chapel Saint-Denis at
Indeed, they presented themselves as effective adversaries of the
Reformation which had won about one seventh of the French population,
but people mistrusted these soldiers too devoted to the H0ly See. So, their
penetration on French soil was slow at first. As in all other countries where
general opinion was not in their favour, they insinuated themselves first
amongst people at Court, then, through them, into the upper classes. But in
Paris, the Parliament, the University and even the clergy remained hostile.
It came out clearly when they first attempted to open a college there.
“The Faculty of Theology, whose mission is to safeguard the principles of
religi0n in fränce, decreed on the 1 st of December 1554, that ‘this s0ciety
appears to be extremely dangerous regarding the faith, she is an enemy of the
Church’s peace, fatal to the monastic state and seems to have been born
to bring ruin rather than edification’ “.(34)
The fäthers were nevertheless allowed to settle at Billom, in a corner of
Auvergne. From there, they organised a great action against the
Reformation in the provinces of southern fränce. The famous Lainez, the man
at the Council of Trent, distinguished himself in polemics, especially at the
Colloquy of Poissy, in an unhappy attempt to conciliate the two doctrines
Thanks to the Queen-Mother Catherine of Medici, the 0rder opened its
first Parisian establishment, the College of Clermont, which was in
competition with the University. The opposition from this university, the
clergy and the parliament was more or less pacified with concessions,
verbal at least, made by the Company who promised to conform to the
(34) Gaston Bally, op.cit., p.69.


common right; but the University had fought hard and long against the
introduction of “men bribed at the expense of fränce to arm themselves
against the King”, according to Etienne Pasquier, and whose words were
proved right not long after.
There is no need to ask if the j€§uits “consented” to the Saint
Bartholomew Massacre (1572). Did they “prepare” it? Who knows?… The
Company’s politics, subtle and supple in their proceedings, have very clear
aims; it is the P0pes’ politics: “destray heresy”. Everything must be
subordinated to this major aim. “Catherine of Medici worked towards this aim
and the Company could count on the Guises”.(35)
But this major design, helped so much by that massacre on the night of the
24th of August 1572, provoked a terrible blaze of fratricidal hatred.
Three years later, it was the League, after the assassination of the duke de
Guise, nicknamed “the king of Paris”, and the appeal to His Most Christian
Majesty to fight the pr0testants.
“The shrewd Henry III did his best to avoid a war of religi0n. In
agreement with Henry of Navarre, they gathered the pr0testants and most of
the moderate Cath0lics against Paris, the League and these partisans, mad
R0mans backed by Spain…
“The j€§uits, powerful in Paris, protested that the king of fränce had
surrendered to heresy… The directing committee of the League deliberated at
the j€§uits’ house in the Street Saint-Antoine. Was Spain holding Paris?
Hardly. The League? The League was only an instrument in skilful hands…
“This Company of J€§us who had been fighting in the name of R0me for
thirty years now… This was Paris’s secret master”.
“So, Henry III was assassinated. As the heir was a pr0testant, the
murder seemed at first glance to have been for other than political reasons; but
is it not possible that those who planned it and persuaded the Jacobin
Clement to carry it out were hoping for an uprising of Cath0lic fränce
against the Huguenot heir? The fact is that a little later Clement was called an
“angel” by the j€§uit Camelet, and Guignard, another j€§uit who was
eventually hanged, gave his students as a means of moulding their opinions
tyrannicidal texts as subjects for their latin exercises”.(36)
Amongst other things, these school exercises contained this: “Jacques
Clement has done a meritorious act inspired by the H0ly Spirit… If we can
make war against the king, then let us do it; if we cannot make war against
him, then let us put him to death…” And this: “We made a big mistake at the
Saint-Bartholomew; we should have bled the royal vein”.(37)
In 1592, a certain Barriere who tried to assassinate Henry IV confessed that
fäther Varade, rector of the j€§uits in Paris, had persuaded him to do
(35) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.84.
(36) and (37) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., pp.85, 86, 89.

France 47

In 1594, another attempt was made by Jean Chatel, former pupil of the jۤuits
who had heard his confession just before carrying it out. It was on that occasion
that the previously mentioned school exercises were seized at the house of fäther
Guignard. “The fäther was hanged at Greve while the king confirmed an edict of
Parliament banishing the sons of L0y0la from the kingdom, as “corrupters of
youth, disturbers of public peace and enemies of the State and crown of fränce…”.
The edict was not carried out fully and, in 1603, it was revoked by the
king against the advice of Parliament. Aquaviva, the general of the jۤuits,
had been clever in his manoeuvres and led king Henry IV to believe that the
0rder, reestablished in fränce, would loyally serve national interests. How
could he, subtle as he was, believe that these fanatical R0mans would
indeed accept the Edict of Nantes (1498) which determined the rights of
pr0testants in fränce, and, even worse, they would back up his projects
against Spain and the Emperor? The fact is, Henry IV chose as his
confessor and tutor for the Dauphin one of the most distinguished
members of the Company, fäther Cotton (38a). On the 16th of May 1610,
on the eve of his campaign against Austria, he was murdered by Ravaillac
who confessed having been inspired by the writings of fäthers Mariana
and Suarez. These two sanctioned the murders of heretic “tyrants” or those
insufficiently devoted to the papacy’s interests. The duke of Epernon, who
made the king read a letter while the assassin was lying in wait, was a
notorious friend of the jۤuits, and Michelet proved that they knew of this
attempt. “In fact, Ravaillac had confessed to the j€§uit fäther d’Aubigny
just before and, when the judges interrogated the priest, he merely replied
that God had given him the gift to forget immediately what he heard in the
Parliament, persuaded that Ravaillac had only been a tool for the Company,
0rdered the executioner to burn Mariana’s book.
“Fortunately, Aquaviva was still there. Once again, this great general schemed
well; he condemned most severely the legitimacy of tyrannicide. The Company
always had authors who, in the silence of their studies, exposed the doctrine in all
its rectitude; she also possessed great politicians who, when necessary, would put
the right masks on it”.(39)
Thanks to fäther Cotton who took the situation in hand, the s0ciety of J€§us came
out of the storm unscathed. Her wealth, the number of her
establishments and adherents grew rapidly. But when Louis X III came to the
throne, and Richelieu took the affairs of State in hand, there was a clash of wills.
The Car dinal would not let anyone oppose his politics. The jۤuit
(38a) His adversaries used to say that he had “cotton” in his ears! (38)
Henri Fulop-Miller, op.cit., p. 113. (39) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.95.

Caussin, confessor of the king, was able to find that out when he was put in
prison at Rennes, on Richelieu’s 0rder, as a State criminal. This act
produced the best results. In 0rder to stay in fränce, the 0rder went as far as
collaborating with the redoubtable Minister.
H. Boehmer wrote this about it: “The lack of consideration for the Church
always shown by the French government, since Philippe le Bel, in the conflicts
between national and ecclesiastic interests had been, once again, the best
The accession of Louis X IV marked the start of the most prosperous time
for the 0rder. The “laxism” of j€§uit confessors, this clever leniency they used
to attract sinners not very anxious to make penance, was employed
extensively amongst ordinary people as well as at Court, especially with the
king who was more a ladies’ man than devout.
His Majesty had no intention of renouncing his amorous affairs, and his
confessor was careful to keep off the subject, in spite of it being plain
adultery. So, all the royal family was soon provided with jۤuit confessors
only, and their influence grew more and more amongst the high s0ciety. The
priests of Paris attacked in their “Writings” the loose morals of the famous
Company’s casuists, but to no avail. Pascal himself intervened, in vain, in
favour of the Jansenists, during the great theological quarrel of that time; in his
“Provincial letters”, he exposed their too worldly opponents, the j€§uits, to
eternal ridicule.
In spite of it, the secure place they held at Court assured them of victory, and
those of Port-Royal succumbed. The 0rder was to win another great victory
for R0me, whose consequences were against national interests. It goes
without saying that they had only unwillingly accepted the religi0us peace
assured through the Edict of Nantes, and had continued a secret war against the
French pr0testants. As Louis X IV was getting older, he turned more and more
to bigotry under the influence of Madame de Maintenon and fäther La
Chaise, his confessor. In 1681, they persuaded him to restart the persecution
against the pr0testants. Finally, on the 17th of October 1685, he signed the
“Revocation of the Edict of Nantes”, making those of his subjects who
refused to embrace the Cath0lic religi0n outlaws. Soon after, to accelerate
the conversions, those famous “dragonnade” started; that sinister name
became part of all subsequent attempts to proselytize by fire and chains.
While the fanatics cheered, the pr0testants fled from the kingdom en-masse.
According to Marshal Vauban, fränce lost in that way 400,000 inhabitants
and 60 million fräncs. Manufacturers, merchants, shipowners, skilful
artisans went to other countries and brought them the benefit of their
“17th of October 1685 was a day of victory for the j€§uits, the final
(40) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p. 100.

fränCE 49
reward for a war which had gone on for one hundred and twenty-five years
without respite. But the State paid the cost of the j€§uits’ victory. “The
depopulation, the reduction of national prosperity were the acute material
consequences of their triumph, followed by a spiritual
impoverishment which could not be cured, even by the best jۤuit school. This
what fränce suffered and the s0ciety of J€§us had to pay for very dearly
During the century following, the sons of L0y0la saw, not only fränce,
but all the european countries reject them from their midst—but, once
again, it was only for a while; these fanatical janissaries of the papacy had
not finished to accumulate ruins in the pursuit of their impossible dream.
(41) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.103.


Section III
Foreign missions
Chapter 1 India, Japan, China

The conversion of “pagans” had been the first objective of the s0ciety of
J€§us’ founder. Even though the necessity to combat pr0testantism in
Europe involved its disciples more and more, and this political as well as
religi0us action, of which we just gave a short summary, became their main
task, they still pursued the evangelisation of distant lands.
Their theocratic ideal: to bring the world under the H0ly See’s authority,
required that they should go into all the regions of the globe, in the
conquest of souls.
fräncis X avier, one of Ignatius’ first companions who, like him, was
canonised by the Church, was the great promoter of Asia’s evangelisation. In
1542, he disembarked at Goa and found there a bish0p, a cathedral and a
convent of fränciscans who, together with some Portuguese priests, had
already tried to spread around them the religi0n of Christ. He gave that
first attempt such a strong impetus that he was surnamed the “Apostle of
India”. Actually, he was more a pioneer and “exciter” than one who really
accomplished something lasting. Fiery, enthusiastic, always on the look-out
for new fields of action, he showed the way more than he cleared the
ground. In the kingdom of Travancore, at Malacca, on the islands of
Banda, Macassar and Ceylon, his personal charm, and his eloquent
speeches did wonders and, as a result, 70,000 “idolaters” were converted
especially amongst the low caste. To obtain this, he did not despise the
political and even military support of the Portuguese. These results, more
showy than solid, were bound to rouse interest for the missions in Europe as
well as throwing a brilliant lustre over the s0ciety of Jۤus.
The untiring but little persevering apostle soon left India for Japan, then
China, where he was about to enter when he died at Canton, in 1552.
His successor in India, Robert de Nobile, applied in that country the
same methods the jۤuits used in Europe very successfully. He appealed to
the higher classes. To the “untouchables”, he gave the consecrated water


only on the end of a stick.
He adopted the clothes, habits and way of living of the Brahmins, mixed
their rites with Christian ones, all with the approval of P0pe greg0ry X V.
Thanks to this ambiguity, he “converted”, so he claimed, 250,000 Hindus.
But, “about a century after his death, when the intransigent P0pe ben edict
X IV forbade the observance of these Hindu rites, everthing collapsed and
the 250,000 pseudo-Cath0lics disappeared”.(l)
In the north Indian territories ofthe Great Mogol Akbar, a tolerant man
who even tried to introduce into his States a religi0us syncretism, the
j€§uits were allowed to build an establishment at Lahore in 1575. Akbar’s
successors granted them the same favours. But Aureng-Zeb (1666-1707),
and 0rthod0x Moslem, put an end to this enterprise.
In 1549, X avier embarked for Japan with two companions and a
Japanese he had converted at Malacca called Yagiro. The beginnings were
not very promising. “The Japanese have their own mortality and are rather
reserved; their past has set them in paganism. The adults look at those
strangers with amusement and the children follow them, jeering”.(2)
Yagiro, a native, managed to start a small community of one hundred
adherents. But fräncis X avier, who did not speak Japanese very well,
could not even obtain an audience from the Mikado. When he left that
country, two fäthers stayed behind who eventually secured the conversion
of the daimos of Arima and Bungo. When this particular one so decided in
1578, he had been considering the matter for 27 years. The following year,
the fäthers settled at Nagasaki. They pretended to have converted 100,000
Japanese. In 1587, the internal situation of the land, torn apart by clan
wars, changed entirely. “The j€§uits had taken advantage of that anarchy
and their close relations with Portuguese merchants.”(3) Hideyoshi, a
man of low birth, had usurped power and taken the title of Taikosama. He
distrusted the j€§uits’ political influence, their association with the Portuguese
and their connections with the great and wild vassals, the Samourai.
In consequence, the young Japanese Church was violently persecuted, six
fränciscans and three j€§uits were crucified; many converts were
murdered and the 0rder was banished.
Nevertheless, the decree was not carried out. The jۤuits continued their
apostolate in secret. But, in 1614, the first Shogun, Tokugawa Yagasu,
became uneasy with their occult actions and the persecution started again.
Besides, the Dutch had taken the place of the Portuguese at the business’
counters and were closely watched by the government. A profound distrust
(1) “Les j€§uites”, in “Le Crapouillot”, Nr. 24, 1954, p.42. (2)
“Le Crapouillot”, op.cit., p.43. (3) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.162.


of all foreigners, ecclesiastics or laymen inspired from then on the conduct of
leaders and, in 1638, a rebellion of the Nagasaki Christians was drowned in
blood. For the jۤuits, the Japanese adventure had come to an end, and was to
remain so for a long time.
We can read in the remarkable work of Lord Bertrand Russell “Science and
religi0n” the following racy passage about fräncis X avier the miracle worker:
“He and his companions wrote many long letters which were kept; in them, they
gave accounts of their labours, but none of those written in his lifetime made
any mention of miraculous powers. Joseph Acosta, the jۤuit who was so
much troubled by Peru’s animals, expressly denied that these missionaries had
been helped by miracles in their efforts to convert the pagans. But, soon after
X avier’s death, stories of miracles started to abound. It was said that he had
the gift of tongues, even though his letters were full of allusions to the
difficulties he had to master the Japanese language or find good interpreters.
“Stories were told of how, when his friends had felt thirsty at sea, he had
changed salt water into fresh. When he dropped his crucifix into the sea, a crab
brought it back to him. According to a later version, he had thrown the
crucifix into the sea to still a tempest. When he was canonised in 1622, it was
proved, to the satisfaction of the Vat i can authorities, that he had
accomplished miracles, as no one can become a saint without them. The P0pe
gave his official guarantee to the gift of tongues and was particularly
impressed by the fact that X avier had made the lamps burn with H0ly water
instead of oil.
“This same P0pe, Urban VIII, refused to believe Galileo’s statements. The
legend continued to improve: a biography by fäther Bonhours, published in
1682, tells us that the saint had resuscitated fourteen persons during his
lifetime. “Cath0lic authors still attribute to him the gift of miracles; in a
biography published in 1872, fäther Coleridge of the s0ciety of J€§us restated
that he had the gift of tongues”.(4)
Judging by the exploits just mentioned, saint fräncis X avier well
deserved his halo.
In China, the sons of L0y0la had a long and favourable time with only a few
expulsions in-between; they obtained this on condition they woud work
there mainly as scientists and bow to the thousands of years old rite of this
ancient civilisation.
“Meteorology was the main subject. fräncis X avier had already foud out
that the Japanese did not know the earth was round and were very
interested in what he taught them on that and other similar subjects. “In
China, it became official and, as the Chinese were not fanatical, things
developed peaceably.” “An Italian, fäther Ricci, was the initiator of it.
(4) Lord Bertrand Russell: “Science and religi0n” (Ed. Gallimard, Paris 1957, pp.84-85


Having made his way to Peking, he played the part of an astronomer before
the Chinese scientists… Astronomy and mathematics were an important
part of Chinese institutions. These sciences enabled the s0vereign to date
their various seasonal religi0us and civil ceremonies… Ricci brought
information which made him indispensable and he used this opportunity to
speak about Christianity… He sent for two fäthers who amended the
traditional calendar, establishing the accord between the course of the stars
and earthly events. Ricci helped with lesser tasks as well; for instance, he
drew a mural map of the empire, where he carefully put China at the center
of the universe…”(5)
This was the j€§uits’ main work in that Celestial Empire; as for the
religi0ns side of their mission, the interest in it was minute. It is rather
amusing to think that, in Peking, the fäthers were busy rectifying the
astronomical mistakes of the Chinese, while, in R0me, the H0ly See
persistently condemned the Copernican system, and that until 1822!
In spite of the fact that the Chinese had very little inclination for
mysticism, the first Cath0lic church opened at Peking in 1599. When Ricci
died, he was replaced by a German, fäther Shall von Bell, an astronomer
who also published some remarkable tracts in the Chinese language; in
1644, he was given the title of “President of the mathematical Tribunal”,
which created jealousy amongst the mandarins. In the meantime, the
Christian communities organised themselves. In 1617, the emperor must
have foreseen the dangers of this pacific penetration when he decreed the
banishment of all foreigners. The good fäthers were sent to the Portuguese
at Macao in wooden cages. But, soon after, they were called back. They
were such good astronomers!
In fact, they were just as good as missionaries with 41 residences in
China ,159 churches and 257,000 baptised members. But a new reaction
against them called for their banishment and fäther Shall was condemned
to death. No doubt he had not incurred this sentence merely for his work in
mathematics! An earthquake and the burning of the imperial palace,
cleverly presented as a sign of wrath from heaven, saved his life and he died
peacefully two years later. But his companions had to leave China.
In spite of all, the esteem for the jۤuits was so great that emperor Kang-
Hi felt obliged to call them back in 1669, and 0rdered solemn funerals for
the remains of Iam Io Vam (Jean-Adam Shall). These unusual honours
were only the start of exceptional favours”.(6)
A Belgian fäther, Verbiest, followed Shall at the head of the missions— and
also the Imperial mathematical Institute. He was the one who gave to Peking’s
Observatory those famous instruments whose mathematical
(5) “Le Crapouillot”, op.cit. p.44. (6)
H. Boehmer, op.cit., p. 168.


precision is concealed by chimeras, dragons, etc. Kang-Hi, “the
enlightened despot”, who reigned for 61 years, appreciated the services of that
scientist who gave him wise advice, accompanied him to war and even managed
a foundry for cannons. But this profane and war-like activity was directed “ad
majorem Dei gloriam”, as the good fäther reminded the emperor in a note he
sent him before his death: “Sir, I die happy as I used nearly every moment of
my life to serve Your Majesty. But I pray Him very humbly to remember, after
my death, that my aim in all I did was to procure a protector for the most
H0ly religi0n in the universe; and this protector was you, the greatest king in
the East”.(7)
However, in China as in Malabar, this religi0n could not survive without
some artifice. The jۤuits had to bring the R0man doctrine to the chinese
level, identify God with heaven (Tien) or the Chang-Ti (Emperor from onhigh),
blend Cath0lic rites with Chinese rites, accept Confucian teachings, the
cult of the ancestors, etc.
P0pe Clement X I, who was told of it by rival 0rders, condemned this
doctrinal “laxism” and, as a result, all the missionary work of the j€§uits in the
Celestial Empire collapsed.
The successors of Kang-Hi proscribed Christianity and the last fäthers left
in China died there and were never replaced.
(7) “Correspondence” of Verbiest (Brussels 1931, p.551).


Section III
Chapter 2
The Americas: The jۤuit State of Paraguay

The missionaries of the s0ciety of Jۤus found the New World much
more favourable to their proselytism than Asia. There, they found no old
and learned civilisations, no religi0ns solidly established, nor any
philosophical traditions, but only poor and barbarian tribes, unarmed
spiritually as well as temporally before the white conquerors. Only Mexico
and Peru, with the memory of Aztec and Inca gods still fresh in their minds,
resisted this imported religi0n for quite a long time. Also, the Dominicans
and fränciscans had already established themselves solidly. It was then
amongst the wild tribes, nomadic hunters and fishermen, that the sons of
L0y0la exercised their devouring activity; the results they
obtained varied according to the fierceness and opposition of the various
In Canada, the Hurons, peaceful and docile, accepted easily their
catechism, but their enemies, the Iroquois, attacked the stations created
around Fort Sainte-Marie and massacred the inhabitants. The Hurons
were practically exterminated within ten years and, in 1649, the jۤuits had
to leave with about three hundred survivors.
They did not make a strong impression when they went through the
territories which, today, make up the United States, and it was only during
the 19th century that they started putting some roots down in that part of
the continent.
In South America, the j€§uits’ action met with some good and bad
fortunes, In 1546, the Portuguese had called them to work in the territories
they possessed in Brazil; while converting the natives, they encountered
many conflicts with civil authority and other religi0us 0rders. The same
thing happened in New Granada. But Paraguay was the land for the great
“experience” of j€§uitical
colonisation; this country spread then from the Atlantic to the Andes and
comprised territories which, today, belong to Brazil, Uruguay and

Argentina. The only means of access through the virgin jungle was on the
Paraguay and Parana rivers. The population of that land was made up of
nomadic and docile Indians, ready to bow to anyone’s domination as long as
they were supplied with enough food and a little tobacco.
The jۤuits could not find better conditions to establish, away from the
corruption of whites and half-castes, the perfect type of colony, a city of
God according to their heart’s desire. At the start of the 17th century,
Paraguay was made into a Province by the general of the 0rder who had
been given all powers by the Court of Spain, and the “j€§uit State”
developed and flourished.
These good savages were duly catechised and trained to live a sedentary life
under a discipline as gentle as it was strong: “as an iron hand in a velvet glove”.
These patriarchal societies deliberately ignored liberties of any kind. “All
that a Christian possesses, and uses, the hut in which he lives, the fields he
cultivates, the livestock which provide his food and clothes, thie arms he
carries, the tools he works with, even the only table knife given to every young
couple when they set up home, is “Tupambac” God’s property From the same
conception, the “Christian” cannot dispose of his time and person freely. The
suckling child is under his mother’s protection. As soon as he can walk, he is in
the fäthers’ or their agents’ power… When the child grows up, it learns, if it is a
girl, to spin and weave, and if it is a boy, to read and write, but only in guarani;
for Spanish is severely prohibited so as to prevent all trading with the
corrupted Creoles… As soon as a girl is fourteen and a boy sixteen years of age,
they are married, as the fäthers are anxious not to see them fall into some
carnal sin… None of them can become priest monk, and even less j€§uit… They
have practically no liberty left. But they are obviously very happy,
materially speaking… In the morning, after mass, each gang of workers go
to the fields one after another, singing and preceded by some H0ly image; in
the evening, they come back to the village in the same manner, to hear the
catechism or recite the rosary. The fäthers have also thought out some honest
entertainments and recreations for the “christians” …
“The j€§uits watch over them like fäthers; and, like fäthers also, they
punish the smallest mistakes… The whip, fasting, prison, pillory on the
public square, public penance in the church, these are the chastisements
they use… So, the “red” children of Paraguay know no other authority than that
of the good fäthers. They do not even vaguely suspect that the king of Spain is
their s0vereign”.(8)
Is this not a picture somewhat caricatured the perfect picture of the ideal
theocratic s0ciety?
But let us consider how it affected the intellectual and moral
(8) and (9) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp. 197 ss.


advancement of the beneficiaries of that system, these “poor innocents” as
they were called by the marquess de Loreto: “The missions’ high culture is
nothing more than an artificial product from an hot-house, carrying in
itself a seed of death. Because, in spite of all this breaking in and training, the
Guarani remained deep down what he was: a lazy savage, narrow-minded,
sensual, greedy and sordid. As the fäthers themselves say, he only works when
he feels the overseer’s goad behind him. As soon as they are left to themselves,
they are indifferent to the fact that the harvest is rotting in the field,
implements are deteriorating and the herds are scattered; if he is not watched
when working in the fields, he can even suddenly unyoke an ox
and butcher it on the spot, light a fire with the wood of the plough and, with his
companions, start eating the half-cooked flesh until none of it is left. He knows
that he will get 25 lashings of the whip for it, but also that the good fäthers
would never let him starve to death”.(9)
In a book recently published, we can read the following concerning the
j€§uits’ punishments: “The culprit, dressed in the clothes of a penitent, was
escorted to church where he confessed his fault. Then he was whipped on the
public square according to the penal code… The culprits always received
this chastisement, not only without murmurs, but also with thanksgivings…”
“The guilty one, having been punished and reconciled, kissed the hand of the
one who struck him, saying: “May God reward you for freeing me, by this
light punishment, from the eternal sorrows which threatened me”.(10)
After reading this, we can understand Mr. H. Boehmer’s conclusion:
“The Guarani’s moral life enriched itself very little under the fäthers’
discipline. He became a devout and superstitious Cath0lic who sees
miracles everywhere and seems to enjoy flagellating himself until blood
appears; he learned to obey and was attached to the good fäthers, who
cared so well for him, with a filial gratitude which, even though not very
deep, was nevertheless very tenacious. This not very brilliant result proves that
there was some important defect in the educative methods of the fäthers.
What was that defect? The fact that they never tried to develop, in their “red”
children, the inventive faculties, the need for activity, the feeling of
responsibility; they themselves invented games and recreations for their
christians, they thought for them instead of encouraging them to think for
themselves; they merely submitted those who were under their care to a
mechanical “breaking in” instead of educating them”.(11)
How could it be otherwise when they themselves had gone through a
“breaking in” lasting fourteen years? Were they going to teach the Guaranis and
their white pupils to “think for themselves”, when they were absolutely
(10) Clovis Lugon: “La Republique communiste chretienne des Guaranis” p.197. (11) H.
Boehmer, op.cit. pp.204-205.


forbidden to do so?
It is not a j€§uit of old, but a contemporary one who writes: “He (the j€§uit)
will not forget that the characteristic virtue of the Company is total obedience
of the action, the will, and even the judgement… All the superiors will be
bound in the same way to higher ones and the fäther General to the H0ly
fäther… It was so arranged as to render the H0ly See’s authority universally
efficacious, and saint Ignatius was sure that teaching and education would
henceforth bring back to Cath0lic unity a Europe torn apart”.
It is with the hope of “reforming the world”, wrote fäther Bonhours, “that
he particularly embraced this means: the instruction of youth…” (12)
The education of Paraguay’s natives was done on the same principles the
fäthers used to apply, now apply and will apply on everyone and
everywhere; their aim, deplored by Mr. Boehmer, but which is ideal to the
eyes of those fanatics: the renouncement of all personal judgement, all
initiative, a blind submission to the superiors. Is it not that “height of
freedom”, “the liberation from one’s own bondage” praised by R.P.
Rouquette and which we mentioned earlier on?
In fact, the good Guaranis had been “liberated” so well by the j€§uitical
method for more than one hundred and fifty years that, when their masters left
during the 18th century, they went back into their forests and returned to their
ancient customs as if nothing had happened.
(12) F. Charmot, s.j.: “La Pedagogie des j€§uites” (Edit. Spes, Paris 1943, p.39).


Section IV
The jۤuits in the European s0ciety


Chapter 1 The Teaching of the jۤuits


“The pedagogic method of the Company”, wrote R.P. Charmot, S.J., “consists first
of all of surrounding the pupils with a great network of prayers…”
Later, he quotes the j€§uit fäther Tacchini: “May the H0ly Spirit fill them as
alabasters are filled with perfumes; may He penetrate them so much that, as time
goes on, they will be able to breathe in more and more celestial fragrance and the
perfume of Christ!”
fäther Gandier also has a contribution: “Let us not forget that education, as seen
by the Company, is the ministry most similar to that of
angels”. (1)
Later, fäther Charmot has this to say: “Let us not be anxious as to where
and how mysticism is inserted into education!…” “It is not done through a
system or artificial technique, but by infiltration, by “endosmosis”. The
children’s souls are impregnated because of their being in close “contact
with masters who are literally saturated with it”.(2)
From the same author, here is “the aim of the j€§uit professor”: “Through his
teaching, he aims to form, not an intellectual Christian elite, but elite
These few quotations tell us enough about the principal aim of these
educators. Let us see now how they form these elite Christians, and what
kind of mysticism is “inserted” (or inoculated), “infiltrated” or “pumped
into” children submitted to their educational system.
At the front—it is characteristic of this 0rder—we find the Virgin Mary.
“L0y0la had made the Virgin the most important thing in his life. The
Worship of Mary was the base of his religi0us devotions and was handed
down by him to his 0rder. This worship developed so much that it was
often said, and with good reason, that it was the j€§uits’ real religi0n”.(4)

(1,2,3) F. Charmot, S.J. op.cit., pp.413, 415, 417, 442, 493..

This was not written by a pr0testant, but by J. Huber, professor of
Cath0lic theology.
L0y0la himself was convinced that the Virgin had inspired him when he had
drawn up his “Exercises”. A j€§uit had a vision of Mary covering the s0ciety
with her mantle as a sign of her special protection. Another one, Rodrigue de
Gois, was so enraptured with her inexpressible beauty that he was seen soaring
into the air. A novice of this 0rder, who died in R0me in 1581, was sustained
by the Virgin in his fight against the devil’s temptations; to strengthen him,
she gave him a taste of her Son’s blood from time to time and “the comfort
of her breasts”.(5)
Duns Scot’s doctrine of the Immaculate Conception” was
enthusiastically adopted by the 0rder which was successful in having it
made into a dogma by Pi us IX  in 1854.
“Erasmus satirically depicted the worship of Mary of his time. During the
fourth century, the tale of Loretto’s house had been invented; this house had
apparently been brought from Palestine by angels. The jۤuits welcomed
and defended this legend. Canisius went as far as producing letters from
Mary herself and, thanks to the 0rder, great wealth started to pour in at
Loretto (as at Lourdes, Fatima, etc..)
“The j€§uits brought forth all kinds of relics of the Mother of God. When they
made their entrance into the church of Saint-Michael at Munich, they offered to
the veneration of the faithful pieces of Mary’s veil, several tufts of her hair and
pieces of her comb; they instituted a special cult, consecrated to worship these
“This worship degenerated into licentious and sensual manifestations, in
particular in the hymns dedicated to the Virgin by fäther Jacques
Pontanus. The poet knew of nothing more beautiful than Mary’s breasts,
nothing sweeter than her milk and nothing more delightful than her
One could multiply these citations endlessly. Ignatius wanted his
disciplies to have a “perceptible”, or even sensual piety, similar to his own,
and they obviously succeeded. No wonder they were so successful with the
Guaranis; this erotic fetichism suited them perfectly. But the good fäthers
always thought it would suit the “whites” just as well. As the foundation of
their doctrine is an utter contempt for people as human beings, “whites” or
“reds” were just the same, and both had to be treated as if they were
So they work relentlessly at propagating this spirit and these idolatrous
practices; because of the influence they hold over the H0ly See, which
cannot do without them, they force them on the R0man Church, in spite of
(4) and (5) J. Huber, op.cit., pp.98-99.
(6) “Oeuvres completes” de Bucher (Munich 1819, II, p.477 ss.)


the resistance which has gradually decreased.
“fäther Barri wrote a book entitled: “Paradise opens through one
hundred devotions to the Mother of God”. In it, he expounds the idea that
the way by which we enter paradise is not important: the important thing is
to enter. He enumerates exercises of exterior piety to Mary which open
heaven’s doors. Amongst other things, these exercises consist of giving to
Mary morning and evening salutations; frequently charging the angles to
greet her; expressing the desire to build her more churches than all those
built by monarchs put together; carrying day and night a rosary as a
bracelet, an image of Mary, etc…
“These practices are enough to assure our salvation and if the devil, when
we are about to die, makes claims on our souls, we just have to remind him
that Mary is responsible for us and he must sort things out with her”.(7)
In his “Pietas quotidiana erga S.D. Mariam”, fäther Pemble
recommends the following: “To beat or flagellate ourselves, and offer each
blow as a sacrifice to God, through Mary to carve with a knife the H0ly
name of Mary on our chest: to cover ourselves decently at night so as not to
offend the chaste gaze of Mary; to tell the Virgin you would be willing to
offer her your place in heaven if she didn’t have her own; to wish you had
never been born or go to hell if Mary had not been born; to never eat an
apple, as Mary had been kept from the mistake of tasing of it”.(8)
All this was written in 1764, but one only has to glance through similar
works published today in great numbers, or just the Cath0lic press, to
establish the fact that, for two hundred years, this wild idolatry had done
nothing but grow and embellish. The late P0pe Pi us X II distinguished
himself as far as the ownership of Mary is concerned. Under his rule, a large
part of the R0man Church followed suit.
Moreover, the sons of L0y0la, who are always anxious to conform to the
spirit of the age, try to today to accommodate these mediaeval puerilities,
and there are several tracts published by some of these good fäthers under
the grand auspices of the “Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique”
If we add to this the scapulars of various colours with their appropriate
virtues, the worship of saints, images, relics, the apology of the “miracles”,
the adoration of the Sacred Heart, we will have some idea of the
“mysticism” with which “the children’s souls are impregnated” through
their contact with masters “who are saturated with it”—as R.P. Charmot
wrote in 1943.
There is no other way to form “elite Christians”.
Nevertheless, if they were to win their fight against the Universities, the jۤuit
colleges had to expand their teaching and include secular subjects, as
(7) and (8) J. Huber, op.cit., 106-108.


the Renaissance had awakened a thirst for learning. We know that they
gladly carried it out while taking all the necessary precautions to prevent this
learning going against the aim of their teaching: maintaining the minds in
complete obedience to the Church.
That is why their pupils are first of all “surrounded” by this “great web of
prayers”, which would not be sufficient if the learning imparted was not
carefully purged from all heterodox spirit and ideas. So, Greek and Latin,
(Latin is regarded very highly in these colleges), were studied for their
literary value; but the “antique” 0rthod0x thought was expounded just
enough to establish the so-called superior scholastic philosophy. These
“humanists” they were training were able to compose discourses and latin
verses, but the only master of their thoughts was saint Thomas Aquinas, a
monk of the 13th century
Listen to “Ratio Studiorum”, fundamental treatise of j€§uit pedagogy,
quoted by R.P. Charmot: “We will carefully discard secular subjects which do
not favour good morals and piety. We will compose poems; but may our
poets be Christians and not followers of pagans who invoke Muses,
mountain nymphs, sea-nymphs, Calliope, Apollo, etc… or other gods and
goddesses. What’s more, if these are to be mentioned, may it be with the view
to caricature them, as they are only demons…”(9)
So, all sciences—and especially natural sciences—will be “interpreted” in
like manner.
In fact, R.P. Charmot doesn’t even try to hide it in what he said about the
j€§uit professor in 1943: “He teaches sciences, not for themselves, but only
with the view to bring about God’s greatest glory. It is the rule laid down by
Saint Ignatius in his “Constitutions”. 10)
And again: “When we speak of a whole culture, we do not mean that we
teach all subjects and sciences, but we give a literary and scientific
education which is not purely secular and impermeable to the lights of
The instruction dispensed by the jۤuits was therefore bound to be more
flashy than profound, or “formalistic” as it is often called. “They did not
believe in liberty, which was fatal as far as teaching is concerned”, wrote H.
“The truth is that the relative merits of the j€§uits’ teaching diminished
while science and the methods of education and instruction progressed and
developed, on the basis of a wider and deeper conception of Humanity.
Buckle said: “The more civilisation advanced, the more the j€§uits lost
ground, not merely because of their own decadence, but because of all the
modifications and changes in the minds of those around them… During the
16th century, the jۤuits were ahead, but during the 18th century, they were
behind their time”.(12)
(9,10,11) F. Charmot, S.J. op.cit., pp.318-319, 508-509, 494. (12) J.
Huber, op.cit., II, p.177.

Section IV

Chapter 2
The morals of the jۤuits


The conquering spirit of their s0ciety, the burning desire to attract consciences and
hold them under their exclusive influence, could only induce the jۤuits to be more
lenient with the penitents than confessors of other 0rders or the secular clergy.
“We do not catch flies with vinegar”, rightly says the proverb.
As we have already seen, Ignatius expressed the same idea in different terms and
his sons drew their inspiration from it. “The extraordinary activity deployed by the
0rder in the field or moral theology already shows that this subtle science had, for
him, a much greater practical importance than the other sciences”.(13)
Mr. Boehmer, who wrote the phrase we just quoted, reminds us that
confession was very rare during the Middle Ages and the faithful resorted
to it only in the gravest cases. But the domineering character of the R0man
Church made the practice of it spread and grow more and more. In fact,
during the 16th century, confession had become a religi0us duty which had
to be diligently observed. Ignatius considered it most important and
recommended to his disciplies that as many of the faithful as possible
should observe it regularly.
“The results of this method were extraordinary. The j€§uit confessors
soon enjoyed everywhere the same consideration shown to the jۤuit
professors, and the confessional was considered by all as the symbol of the
0rder’s power and activity, as were the professorial chair and the latin

“If we read Ignatius’ Instructions regarding confession and moral theology, we
must admit that, from the beginning, the 0rder was prepared to treat the sinner
kindly, that as time went on, it showed more and more indulgence until this
kindness degenerated into slackness…
(13) and (14) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.244-246.


“We can understand easily why this clever leniency made them such
successful confessors. This is how they won the favours of the nobles and
high-ups of this world who always needed the condescension of their
confessors more than the mass of ordinary sinners.
“The Courts of the Middle Ages never had any all-powerful confessors.
This characteristic figure appeared in the life of the Courts only in modern
times and it is the j€§uit 0rder which implanted it everywhere”.(14)
Mr Boehmer wrote: “During the 17th century, these confessors not only
obtained an appreciable political influence everywhere, but even accepted,
and sometimes openly, political posts or functions. It is then that fäther
Neidhart took the direction of Spanish politics as ‘prime minister and
Grand Inquisitor’; fäther Fernandez sat and was entitled to speak and vote in
the Portuguese Council; fäther La Chaise and his successor held the
functions of ministers for Ecclesiastical Affairs at the Court of fränce.
“Let us remember also the part played by the fäthers in general politics,
even outside the confessional: fäther Possevino as pontifical legate in
Sweden, Poland and Russia; fäther Petre, a Minister in England; fäther
Vota as intimate counsellor of Jean Sobieski of Poland, as ‘maker of kings’ in
Poland, as mediator when Prussia was made into a kingdom; —one must
admit that no other 0rder showed so much interest and talent for politics,
and deployed so much activity in it than the j€§uit 0rder”.(15)
“If the ‘indulgence’ of these confessors towards their august penitents
helped greatly the interests of the 0rder and the R0man Curia, it was the
same in the more modest spheres where the fäthers used similar convenient
methods. With their meticulous, and even meddlesome spirit, which they
inherited from their founder; the famous “casuists” such as Escobar,
Mariana, Sanchez, Busenbaum, etc., applied themselves to studying each
rule in particular and their applications to all the cases which could be
presented at the tribunal of penance; their tracts on “moral theology” gave the
Company a universal reputation as their subtlity to distort and pervert the
most evident moral obligations was so apparent.
Here are some examples of these acrobatics: “The divine Law prescribes
“You shall not bear false witness”. “There is false witness only if the one
who took the oath uses words which he knows will deceive the judge. The
use of ambiguous terms is therefore allowed, and even the excuse of mental
reservation in certain circumstances…” “If a husband asks his adulterous
wife if she has broken the conjugal contract, she can say “no” without
hesitation as that contract still exists. Once she has obtained absolution at
the confessional, she can say: “I am without sin”, if, while she says it, she
thinks of that absolution which took the load of her sin. If her husband is
still incredulous, she can reassure him by saying that she has not committed
(15) and (16) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.247-248, 238 ss.


adultery, and if she adds (under her breath) adultery she is obliged to
It is not hard to imagine that such a theory was successful with their
beautiful penitent ladies!
In fact, their gallant escorts were treated just as well: “The Law of God
commands: “You shall not kill”. “But it doesn’t mean that every man who
kills sins against this precept. For example, if a nobleman is threatened
with blows or beating, he can kill his aggressor; but of course this right is
only for the nobleman and not the plebeian, as there is nothing
dishonourable for a common man to receive a beating… “In the same way,
a servant who helps his master seduce a young girl is not committing a
mortal sin if he can fear serious disadvantages or bad treatment in case he
refuses. If a young girl is pregnant, a miscarriage can be induced if her fault
is the cause of dishonour for herself or a member of the clergy.”(17)

As for fäther Benzi, he had his hour of fame when he declared: “it is only a slight
offence to feel the breasts of a nun”, and, because of it, the j€§uits
were nicknamed the “mamillary theologians”.
But, as far as that is concerned, the famous Casuist, Thomas Lanchz,
deserves the prize for his tract “De Matrimonio”, in which the pious author
studies with outrageous details all the varieties of “carnal sin”.
Also, let us study further these convenient maxims as far as politcs are
concerned, especially those relative to the legitimacy of assassinating
“tyrants” found guilty of lukewarmness towards the sacred interests of the
H0ly See. Mr. Boehmer has this to say: “As we have just seen, it is not
difficult to guard against mortal sin. Depending on circumstances, we only have
to use the excellent means permitted by the fäthers: “equivocation, mental
reservation, the subtle theory of the direction of intentions,” and we will be able
to commit, without sin, acts which are considered criminal by the ignorant
masses, but in which even the most severe fäther will not be able to find an
atom of mortal sin”.(18)
Amongst the most criminal jۤuitic maxims, there is one which roused
public indignation to the highest point and deserves to be examined; it is: “A
monk or priest is allowed to kill those who are ready to slander him or his
So, the 0rder gives itself the right to eliminate its adversaries and even those
of its members who, having come out of it, are too talkative. This pearl is
found in the “Theology of fäther L’Amy”.
There is another case where this principle finds its application. For, this
same j€§uit was cynical enough to write: “If a fäther, yielding to
temptation, abuses a woman and she publicises what has happened, and,
because of it, dishonours him, this same fäther can kill her to avoid
(17) and (18) H. Boehmer, op.cit., pp.238, 241.


Another son of L0y0la, quoted by “Le grand flambeau” Caramuel, thinks
that this maxim must be upheld and defended: “the fäther can use it as an
excuse to kill the woman and so preserve his honour”.
This monstrous theory was used to cover many crimes committed by
ecclesiastics and probably was, in 1956, the reason if not the cause for the
lamentable affair of the priest of Uruffe.

Section IV
Chapter 3
The Eclipse of the Company

The successes the s0ciety of Jۤus obtained in Europe and far-off lands,
even though interspersed by some misfortunes, assured it a preponderant
situation for a long time. But, as we have already mentioned, time was not
working in its favour. As ideas evolved and the progress of sciences tended
to liberate the minds, ordinary people and monarchs found it more and
more difficult to endure the ascendancy of these champions of “theocracy”.
Also, many abuses, born out of its successes, impaired the s0ciety
inwardly. Apart from politics in which it was deeply involved as one has
seen, to the detriment of national interests, its devouring activity had soon
made itself felt in the domain of economics.
“The fäthers became involved too much in affairs which had nothing to
d o wi t h religi0n, in commerce, exchange, as liquidators of bankruptcies.
The R0man College, which should have remained the intellectual and
moral model of all jۤuit colleges had cloth made in huge quantities at
Macerata and sold it in fairs at a low price. Their centres in India, Antilles,
Mexico and Brazil soon started trading in colonial products. At
Martinique, a procurator created vast plantations which were cultivated by
negro slaves”.(19)
This is the commercial side of Foreign Missions which is just the same today.
The R0man Church never scorned at extracting a temporal profit from her
“spiritual” conquests. As far as that is concerned, the j€§uits were just like all
other religi0us 0rders; they even surpassed them. In any case, we know that,
recently, the White fäthers were amongst the richest landowners in North
The sons of L0y0la were as intensely active at making the best of the
“pagan’s” labours as at winning their souls. “In Mexico, they had silver
mines and sugar refineries; in Paraguay, tea
(19) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., pp.190-191.


and cacao plantations, carpet factories; they also reared cattle and
exported 80,000 mules every year”.(20
As we can see, the evangelisation of their “red children” was a good source
of revenue. And to make an even bigger profit, the fäthers did not hesitate to
defraud the state treasury, as seen in the well-known story of the so-called boxes
of chocolate unloaded at Cadix which were full of gold powder.
bish0p Palafox, sent as apostolic visitor by P0pe Innocent VIII, wrote to him
in 1647 “All the wealth of South America is in the hands of the j€§uits”.
Financial affairs were just as advantageous. “In R0me, the coffers of the
0rder made payments to the Portuguese embassy in the name of the
Portuguese government. When Auguste le Fort went to Poland, Vienna’s
fäthers opened a credit account for this needy monarch with the j€§uits of
Varsovie. In China, the fäthers lent money to the merchants at 25, 50 and
even 100% interest”.(21)
The scandalous greediness of the 0rder, its loose morals, its ceaseless
political intrigues and also its encroachings upon the prerogatives of the
secular and regular clergy had stirred up mortal enmity and hatred
everywhere. Amongst the higher classes, it had been brought into complete
disrepute and, in fränce at any rate, its efforts to maintain the people in a
formalist and superstitious piety gave way to the inevitable emancipation of
the minds.
Nevertheless, the material prosperity enjoyed by the s0ciety, the
acquired positions at the Courts and especially the support of the H0ly See
which they thought immovable, maintained the jۤuits in their complete
assurance, even on the eve of their ruin. Had they not already gone through
several storms, suffered about thirty expulsions from the time of their
foundation until the middle of the 18th century? Nearly every time, they had
been back sooner or later to reoccupy their lost positions.
But this new eclipse threatening them was to be nearly total, this time, and
last for more than forty years.
The strange thing is that the first assault against the powerful s0ciety
came from the very Cath0lic Portugal, one of their principal strongholds in
Europe. The influence exercised over that country by England since the
beginning of the century was prqbably one of the causes of this uprising.
A treaty fixing the boundaries in America, concluded between Spain and
Portugal in 1750, had given the Portuguese a vast territory east of the river
Uruguay where the j€§uits were working. In consequence, the fäthers had to
retreat with their converts on this side of the new frontier, on Spanish
territory. So they armed their Guaranis, led a long guerilla war and finally
(20) Andre Mater, quoted by Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.191.
(21) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.191.


remained masters of the land which was given back to Spain.
The marquess of Pombal, Portuguese prime minister, felt really insulted.
besides, this former pupil of the j€§uits had not kept their “trade-mark” and
drew his inspiration from French and English philosophers rather than from his
old educators. In 1757, he drove out the jۤuit confessors of the Royal family
and forbade the members of the s0ciety to preach. After several quarrels
with them, he issued pamphlets to the public—one of
which was “Short account of the j€§uits’ kingdom in Paraguay” which
made a great noise—obtained an inquiry into their conduct by P0pe
ben edict X IV and finally banished the s0ciety from all his territories.
The affair caused a sensation in Europe, and especially in fränce where,
soon after, the bankruptcy of fäther La Valette broke out; he was a
“businessman” handling huge transactions in sugar and coffee for the
Company. Its refusal to pay the fäther’s debts was fatal. The Parliament,
not content with a civil condemnation, examined its Constitutions,
declared its establishment in fränce illegal and condemned twenty four
works of its principal authors. On the 6th of April 1762, it issued a
‘statement of arrest’ (Indictment) in the following terms: “The said Institute
is inadmissible in any civilised State, as its nature is hostile to all spiritual
and temporal authority; it seeks to introduce into the Church and States,
under the plausible veil of a religi0us Institute, not an 0rder truly
desirous to spread evangelical perfection, but rather a political body
working untiringly at usurping all authority, by all kinds of indirect, secret
and devious means…” In conclusion, the j€§uits’ doctrine was described as
follows: “perverse, a
destroyer of all religi0us and honest principles, insulting to Christian
morals, pernicious to civil s0ciety, hostile to the rights of the nation, the
royal power, and even the security of the s0vereigns and obedience of their
subjects; suitable to stir up the greatest disturbances in the States, conceive
and maintain the worst kind of corruption in men’s hearts”. In fränce, the
s0ciety’s properties were confiscated for the benefit of the Crown and none of
its members was allowed to stay in the kingdom unless he enounced his vows
and swore to submit to the general rules of fränce’s clergy.
In R0me, the j€§uits’ general, Ricci, obtained from P0pe Clement X III a
bull confirming the 0rder’s privileges and proclaiming its innocence. But it
was too late. In Spain, the Bourbons suppressed all the establishments of
the s0ciety, the metropolitan ones as well as the colonial ones. So ended
Paguay’s j€§uit State. The governments of Naples, Parma, and even the
Grand-Master of Malta also banished the sons of L0y0la from their
territories. The 6,000 who were in Spain had a strange experience after they
had been thrown in prison: “King Charles III sent all the prisoners to the
P0pe with a grand letter in which he said that he “put them under the wise


and immediate control of Your Holiness”. But, when the wretches were
about to disembark at Civita-Vecchia, they were welcomed with the
thunder of cannon shot on the 0rder of their own general who already had to
look after the Portuguese j€§uits and couldn’t even feed them. They just
managed to find them a wretched sanctuary in Corsica”.(22)
“Clement X III, elected on the 6th of July 1758, had resisted a long time the
pressing requests of several nations demanding the j€§uits’ suppression. He
was about to yield and had already arranged a consistory for the 3rd of
February 1769 at which he was to tell the cardinals about his resolution to
comply with the wishes of these Courts; on the night before that particular day,
he suddenly felt ill as he was going to bed and cried out: “I am dying…”. It
is a very dangerous thing to attack the j€§uits!”(23)
A conclave assembled and went on for three months. At last, cardinal
Ganganelli put on the mitre and took the name of Clement X IV. The
Courts which had banished the jۤuits kept on asking for the total
suppression of the s0ciety. But the papacy was in no hurry to abolish this
primordial instrument for the carrying out of its politics, and four years
passed before Clement X IV, constrained by the firm attitude of his
opponents, who had occupied some of the pontifical States, at last signed the
Brief of dissolution: “Dominus ac Redemptor” in 1773. Ricci, the 0rder’s
general, was even imprisoned at the castle of Saint-Ange where he died a few
years later.
“The j€§uits only appeared to submit to this verdict which condemned
them… They wrote innumerable pamphlets against the P0pe and to incite
rebellion; they told lies and slanders without number concerning so-called
atrocities committed when their properties in R0me were confiscated”.(24)
The death of Clement X IV, fourteen months later, was even attributed to
them by a section of European opinion.
“The j€§uits, in principle at least, were no more; but Clement X IV knew
very well that, by signing their death warrant, he was signing his own as well:
“This suppression is done at last”, he exclaimed, “and I am not sorry about it.. I
would do it again if it was not done already; but this suppression will kill
Ganganelli was right; soon, posters started to appear on the palace walls
which invariably displayed these five letters: I.S.S.S.V.,and everyone
wondered what it meant. Clement understood immediately and boldly
declared: “It means “In Settembre, Sara Sede Vacante”, (In September, the
(22) Pierre Doninique, op.cit., p.209.
(23) Baron de Ponnat, “Histoire des variations et des contradictions de l’Eglise R0maine”,
p.215. t i l .
(24) J. Huber, op.cit., p.365.
(25) Caraccioli: “Vie du Pape Clement X IV” (Desant, Paris 1776, p.313).


See will be vacant’, (that the P0pe will be dead)”.(26)
Here is another testimony: “P0pe Ganganelli did not survive long after
the j€§uits’ suppression”, said Scipion de Ricci. “The account of his illness
and death, sent to the Court of Madrid by the Minister for Spain in R0me,
proved that he had been poisoned; as far as we know, no inquiry was held
concerning this event by the cardinals, nor the new pontiff. The perpetrator
of that abominable deed was then able to escape the judgement of the
world, but he will not be able to escape God’s justice!”(27) “We can
positively affirm that, on the 22nd of September 1774, P0pe Clement
X IV died by poisoning”.(28)
Meanwhile, the empress of Austria, Marie-Therese, had also banished
the jۤuits from all her States. Only Frederik of Prussia and Catherine II,
empress of Russia, welcomed them in their countries as educators. But, in
Prussia, they only managed to stay for ten years, until 1786. Russia was
favourable to them longer but, there also, and for the same reason, they
eventually aroused the animosity of the government.
“… The suppression of the schism and the rallying of Russia to the P0pe
attracted them like a lamp attracts a moth. They launched an active
propaganda programme in the army and aristocracy and fought against the
Bible s0ciety created by the Czar. They won several successes and
converted prince Galitzine, nephew of the Minister for Worship. So the
Czar intervened and we have the Ukase of the 20th of December 1815”.(29)
No need to say that the grounds for this Ukase, which banished the
jۤuits from Saint-Petersburg and Moscow, were the same as in all the
other countries. “We came to realise that they did not fulfill the duties
expected of them… Instead of living as peaceful inhabitants in a foreign
country, they disturbed the Greek religi0n which has been since ancient
times, the predominant religi0n in our empire and on which rests the peace
and happiness of the nations under our sceptre. They abused the
confidence they obtained and turned the youth entrusted to them and
inconsistent women away from our worship… We are not surprised that
this religi0us 0rder was expelled from every country and that their actions
were not tolerated anywhere”.(29)
In 1820 at last, general measures were taken to drive them out of the whole
of Russia.
But, because of political events favouring it, they had set foot again in
western Europe when their 0rder was solemnly reestablished by P0pe Pi us VII
in 1814.
(26) Baron de Ponnat, op.cit., p.223.
(27) Potter: “Vie de Scipion de Ricci”, (Brussels 1825), I, p. 18).
(28) Baron de Ponnat: “Histoire des variations et contradictions de l’Eglise R0maine”
(Charpentier, Paris 1882, II, p.224). (29) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.220.


The political significance of this decision is clearly expressed by M. Daniel-
Rops, a great friend of the j€§uits. He wrote, concerning the “reappearance of
the sons of L0y0la”: “It was impossible not to see in it an obvious act of
(30) Daniel-Rops, of the French Academy: “Le retablissement de la Compagnie de J€§us”
(Etudes, September 1959).


Section IV
Chapter 4

Rebirth of the s0ciety of Jۤus during the 19th century

We mentioned that, when Clement X IV was constrained to suppress the
j€§uit 0rder, he apparently said: “I have cut off my right hand”.
The phrase seems plausible enough. The H0ly See must certainly have
found it hard to part with its most important instrument in the domination
of the world. The 0rder’s disgrace, a political measure imposed by
circumstances, was gradually attenuated by the successors of Clement
X IV: Pi us VI and Pi us VII; and if the official eclipse of the jۤuits lasted
forty years, it was because of the upheavals in Europe resulting from the
French Revolution. In any case, that eclipse was never total.
“Most of the j€§uits had stayed in Austria, fränce, Spain, Italy,
mingling with the clergy. They met with each other or gathered in large
numbers as much as possible. In 1794, Jean de Tournely founded the
s0ciety of the Sacred Heart in Belgium as a teaching body. Many jۤuits
joined it. Three years later, the Tyrolean Paccanari, who thought he was
another Ignatius, founded the s0ciety of the Brothers of Faith. In 1799, the
two Societies merged with fäther Clariviere as the head; he was the only
surviving French jۤuit. In 1803, they joined the Russian jۤuits.
Something coherent was coming back to life again, but the masses, and even
most of the politicians, did not recognise it at first”.(31)
The French Revolution, and then the Empire, gave the Company of Jۤus
an unexpected credibility again; it was a defensive reaction against new ideas
springing up in the ancient monarchies.
Napoleon the First described the s0ciety as “very dangerous; she will
never be allowed in the Empire”. But, when the H0ly-Alliance triumphed, the
new “monarchs” did not disdain the help of these absolutists in bringing
( 3 1 ) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.219—Here is, according to M. Daniel-Rops, the strange
death of Paccacaci, founder of the Brothers of Faith: “He was brought before the H0ly See,
imprisoned at the castle of Saint-Ange and finally was “assassinated”. (Etudes, September


back the people to a strict obedience.
But times had changed. All the skill of the good fäthers could only delay and
not stop the propagation of liberal ideas and their efforts were more harmful
than useful. In fränce, the Restoration experienced it in a bitter way. Louis
X VIII, an unbeliever and clever politician, tried to contain the rise of “ultras”
as much as he could. But under Charles X , narrow-minded and very devout,
the jۤuits had it easy. The law which expelled them in 1764 was still being
enforced. No matter. They enlivened the famous “Congregation”, first kind
of Opus Dei. This pious brotherhood, composed of ecclesiastics and
laymen, was found everywhere, pretending to “purge” the army, the
magistracy, the administration, the teaching profession; it held “missions”
all over the country, planting commemorative crosses wherever it went;
many of these are still there today; it stirred up the believers to fight the
infidels and made itself so hateful that even the very Cath0lic and very
legitimist Montlosier exclaimed:
“Our missionaries have started fires everywhere. If something has to be sent
to us, we would rather have Marseille’s plague than more missionaries”.
In 1828, Charles X  withdrew the 0rder’s right to teach, but it was too late.
The dynasty collapsed in 1830.
Hated and covered with shame, the sons of L0y0la nevertheless stayed in
fränce, but disguised, as the 0rder was still officially abolished. Louis-
Philippe and Napoleon III tolerated them. The Republic scattered them in
1880 only, under the administration of Jules Ferry. The closing of their
establishments was effective only in 1901, under the law of separation.
During the 19th century, the Company’s history in America and half of
Europe was equally full of ups and downs as in the past, while fighting the new
“Wherever liberal-minded people gained victories, the j€§uits were
expelled. On the other hand, when the other side triumphed, they
reestablished themselves to defend the throne and the altar. So, they were
banished from Portugal in 1S34, Spain in 1820, 1835 and 1868, from
Switzerland in 1848, Germany in 1872 and fränce in 1880 and 1901.
“In Italy, from 1859 on, all their colleges and establishments were
gradually taken from them, so much so that they were forced to stop all the
activities prescribed in their laws. The same thing happened in the republics of
Latin America. The 0rder was suppressed in Guatemala in 1872, Mexico
in 1873, Brazil in 1874, Equador and Colombia in 1875 and Costa-Rica in
“The only countries where the j€§uits lived in peace were the States where
pr0testantism was in the majority: England, Sweden, Denmark, the United
States of America. It may seem surprising at first glance, but the

explanation lies in the fact that, in these countries, the fäthers were never
able to exercise a polticial influence. Without any doubt, they accepted the fact
more by necessity than inclination. Otherwise, they would have taken every
opportunity to influence legislation and administration, in a direct manner by
manoeuvering the ruling classes, or indirectly by constantly stirring up the
Cath0lic masses”.(32)
To be truthful, this immunity of the pr0testant countries towards jۤuitic
ventures was far from complete.
“In the United States”, wrote M. Fulop-Miller, “the Company has
deployed a systematic and fruitful activity for a long time, as she is not
hindered by any laws… “I am not happy about the rebirth of the j€§uits”,
wrote the former president of the John Adams Union to his successor
Thomas Jefferson, in 1816. “Swarms of them will present themselves under
more disguises ever taken by even a chief of the Bohemians, as printers,
writers, publishers, school teachers, etc. If ever an association of people
deserved eternal damnation, on this earth and in hell, it is this s0ciety of
L0y0la. Yet, with our system of religi0us liberty, we can but offer them a
refuge…” And Jefferson answered his predecessor: “Like you, I object to the
j€§uits’ reestablishment which makes light give way to darkness”.(33)
The fears so expressed were to be proved right, one century later, as we
shall see.
(32) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.285.
(33) Rene Fulop-Miller, op.cit., pp. 149-150.


76 Section IV
Chapter 5
The Second Empire and the Falloux Law—The War of 1870

In the previous chapter, we mentioned the wide tolerance enjoyed by the
s0ciety of J€§us in fränce, under Napoleon III, even though it was
officially prohibited. In any case, it could not be otherwise as that regime
owed its existence—largely at least—to the R0man Church whose support
never failed, as long as the regime lasted. But it was to be very costly for
The readers of the “Progres du Pas-de-Calais”, a publication for which the
future emperor wrote several articles in 1843 and 1844, could not then
suspect him of leniency towards “ultramontanism”, judging from the
“The clergy demands, under the cover of freedom of teaching, the right to
instruct youth. The State, on the other hand, also demands the right to direct
public instruction for her own interests. This struggle is the result of divergent
opinions, ideas and feelings between government and Church. Both want to
influence the new generations coming up in opposite directions and for
their own benefit. We do not believe, as one well-known orator does, that all
ties between the clergy and civil authority must be broken in 0rder to stop this
diversion. Unfortunately, fränce’s ministers of religi0n are generally opposed
to democratic interests; to allow them to build schools without control is to
encourage them to teach the people the hatred of revolution and liberty”.
And again: “The clergy will stop being ultramontane as soon as one
compells them to be brought up, as formerly in an up-to-date manner and to
mingle with the people gaining their education from the same sources as the
general public.”
Referring to the way in which German priests were trained, the author
clarifies his thoughts in the following manner: “Instead of being shut away
from the rest of the world, from childhood, and so be instilled in the
seminaries with hatred for the s0ciety in which they must live, they would

learn early to be citizens before being priests”.(34)
This did not encourage political clericalism for the future s0vereign, then a
“Carbonari”. But the ambition to sit on the throne soon made him more docile
towards R0me. Did not R0me herself help him climb the first step?
“Having been made president of the Republic on the 10th of December
1848, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte gathers several ministers around himself,
one of which is M. de Falloux. Who is this M. de Falloux? A tool of the
j€§uits… On the 4th of January 1849, he institutes a commission whose job
is to “prepare a big legislative reform of primary and secondary
education”… In the course of the discussion, M. Cousin takes the liberty to
remark that maybe the Church is wrong to tie her destiny to the jۤuits.
Monseigneur Dupanloup defends energetically the s0ciety… A law on teaching is
being prepared which would “make amends” to the j€§uits. In
the past, the State and the University had been protected against the j€§uits’
invasions; we were wrong and unjust; we demanded that the government applied
its laws against these agents from a foreign
government and we ask their forgiveness for it. They are good citizens who were
slandered and misjudged; what can we do to show them the respect and esteem
which are due to them?
“Put in their hands the teaching of the young generations”.
“This in fact is the aim of the law of the 15th of March 1850. This law appoints a
superior council for Public Instruction in which the clergy dominates, (first art.); it
makes the clergy masters of the schools, (art.44); it gives religi0us associations the
right to create free schools, without having to explain about the non-authorised
congregations (jۤuits), (art. 17,2); it said that the letters of obedience would be
their diplomas, (art.49); M. Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire tries in vain to demonstrate
that the aim of the authors of that project is to give the monopoly to the clergy, and
that this law would be fatal to the University… Victor Hugo exclaims, also vainly:
“This law is a monopoly in the hands of those who try to make teaching
come out of the sacristy and the government out of the confessional”.(35)
But the Assembly ignores these protestations. It prefers listening to M. de
Montalembert who exclaims: “We will be swallowed up if we don’t stop
immediately the current trend of rationalism and demagogy; what’s more, it can be
stopped only with the help of the Church”.
“M. de Montalembert adds these words to make sure the significance of this law is
well described: “To the demoralising and anarchical army of teachers, we must
oppose the army of the clergy”. The law was passed. Never before in fränce had
the jۤuits won a more complete victory.
M. de Montalembert admitted it proudly… He said: “I am defending
(34) “Oeuvres de Napoleon III” (Amyot et Plon, Paris 1856, II, pp.31 and 33). (35)
Adolphe Michel, op.cit., pp.66 ss.


justice by backing as well as possible the government of the Republic,
which has done so much to save 0rder and maintain the union of the French
people; it especially rendered more services to the Cath0lic Church than all the
other governments in power during the last two centuries”.(36)
All this happened more than one hundred years ago, but seems rather
familiar today. But let us see how the “Republic”, presided over by prince
Louis-Napoleon, was acting internationally.
The revolution of 1848 had, amongst other repercussions in Europe,
provoked the uprising of the R0mans against P0pe Pi us IX , their temporal
s0vereign, who had fled to Gaete. The R0man Republic had been
proclaimed. Through a scandalous paradox, it was the French Republic, in
agreement with the Austrians and the king of Naples, who put back on the
throne the undesirable s0vereign.
“A French regiment besieged R0me, took it on the 2nd of June 1849 and
restored pontifical power; it managed to maintain itself with the help of a
French division of occupation which left R0me only after the first disasters in
the fränco-German war of 1870”.(37)
This beginning was very promising.
“The coup of the 2nd of December 1851 brought about the proclamation of
the Empire. Louis-Napoleon, President of the Republic, had favoured the
jۤuits in every way. Now emperor, he refused nothing to his accomplices
and allies. The clergy poured out its blessings and “Te Deum” profusely on the
massacres and proscriptions of the 2nd of December. The one responsible for
this abominable ambush was looked upon as a providential saviour: “The
archbish0p of Paris, Monseigneur Sibour, who saw the massacres on the
boulevard, exclaims:
“The man who was prepared by God has come; the finger of God was never
more visible than in the events which produced these great results”.
The bish0p of Saint-Flour said from his pulpit: “God pointed out Louis-
Napoleon; He already had elected him to be emperor. Yes, my dear
brethren, God consecrated him beforehand through the blessing of His
pontiffs and priests; He acclaimed him Himself; can we not recognise God’s
The bish0p of Nevers falsely saluted “Providence’s visible instrument”.
“These pitiable adulations, which could be multiplied still further, deserved a
reward. This reward was a complete freedom given to the jۤuits as long as
the Empire lasted. The s0ciety of J€§us was literally master of fränce for
eighteen years… she enriched herself, multiplied her establishments and
spread her influence. Her action was felt in all the important events of that
time, especially in the expedition to Mexico and the declaration of war in
(36) Adolphe Michel, op.cit. pp.55,66.
(37) Larousse, VII, p.371.

“The Empire means peace”, declared the new s0vereign. But, barely two
years after he acceeded to the throne, the first of all those wars which
succeeded each other throughout his reign started; history could regard the
motives which brought about these wars as unconnected if we didn’t see
what united them: the defence of the R0man Church’s interests. The
Crimean war, the first of these mad enterprises which weakened us and was
not nationally profitable, is a characteristic example.
It was not someone anticlerical, but the Abbe Brugerette, who wrote:
“One must read the speeches the famous Theatine (fäther Ventura) gave in the
chapel of Les Tuileries during Lent in 1857. He presented the Empire’s
restorationas God’s work… and praised Napoleon III for having defended the
religi0n in Crimea and made the great days of the Crusades shine a second
time in the East… The Crimean war was regarded as a compliment to the
R0man expedition… It was praised by the whole clergy, full of admiration for
the religi0us fervour of the troops besieging Sebastapol. Saint-Beuve
movingly narrated how Napoleon III had sent an image of the Virgin to the
French fleet”.(39)
What was this expedition which aroused the enthusiasm of the clergy. M. Pa ul
Leon, member of the Institute, explains: “A quarrel between monks revives
the question of the East: it was born out of rivalries between the Latin and
0rthod0x Churches regarding the protection of the H0ly places (in Palestine).
Who would watch over Bethlehem’s churches, hold the keys, direct the work?
How is it possible that such small matters could set two great empires against
each other?… But, behind the Latin monks is fränce’s Cath0lic party,
provided with ancient privileges and supporter of the new regime; behind the
growing demands of the 0rthod0x, who had grown in numbers, is the
Russian influence”.(40)
The Czar invokes the protection of the 0rthod0x Church which he has to
assure and, to make it effective, asks that his fleet should use the
Dardanelles passage; England, which is backed by fränce, refuses, and the war
breaks out.
“fränce and England can reach the Czar only through the Black Sea and the
Turkish alliance… From now on, the war of Russia becomes the Crimean
war and is entirely centered on the siege of Sebastopol, a costly episode
without issue. Bloody battles, deadly epidemics and inhuman sufferings cost
fränce one hundred thousand dead”.(41)
We must point out that these one hundred thousand dead were Christ’s
(38) Adolphe Michel, op.cit., pp.71-72.
(39) Abbe J. Brugerette: “Le Pretre fräncais et la societe contemporaine” (Lethielleux, Paris
1933, I, pp.168 and 180).
(40) and (41) Pa ul Leon, of the Institute, “La guerre pour la Paix”, (Ed. Fayard, Paris 1950


soldiers and glorious “martyrs of the faith”, according to Monseigneur
Sibour, Archbish0p of Paris, who declared at that time: “The Crimean war,
between fränce and Russia, is not a political war, but a H0ly war; it is not a
State fighting another State, people fighting other people, but singularly a war
of religi0n, a Crusade…”(42)
The admission is not ambiguous. Anyway, haven’t we heard the same, not
long ago, during the German occupation, expounded in identical terms by the
prelates of His Holiness Pi us X II and by Pierre Laval himself, president of
the Council of Vichy?
In 1863, it is the expedition to Mexico. What is it about? To transform a layrepublic
into an empire and offer it to Maximilien, archduke of Austria.
Austria is the papacy’s number one pillar. The aim is also to erect a barrier
which would contain the influence of the pr0testant United States over the
States of South America, strongholds of the R0man Church.
M. Albert Bayet wrote with sagacity: “The war’s aim is to establish a
Cath0lic empire in Mexico and curtail the peoples’ right to self rule; as during
the Syrian campaign and the two Chinese campaigns, it tends especially to
serve Cath0lic interests”.(43)
We know how, in 1867, after the French army had re-embarked,
Maximilien, the unfortunate champion of the H0ly See, was made prisoner
when Queretaro surrendered and was shot dead, making way for a republic of
which the victor Juarez was president.
Nevertheless, the time was getting nearer when fränce was to pay, once
again, much more dearly for the political support the Vat i can assured the
imperial throne. While the French army was spilling its blood in the four
corners of the world, and getting weaker while defending interests which were
not hers, Prussia, under the heavy hand of the future “iron chancellor”,
was busy expanding its military might in 0rder to unite the German states in a
single block.” Austria was the first victim of its will and power. In agreement
with Prussia which was to seize the Danish duchess of Schleswig and Holstein,
Austria was cheated by her accomplice. The war which followed was soon
won by Prussia at Sadowa on the 3rd of July 1866. It was a terrible blow for
the ancient Hapsburg monarchy which was declining; the blow was just as hard
for the Vat i can, as Austria had been for so long its most faithful stronghold
within the germanic lands. From novw on, pr0testant Prussia will exercise her
hegemony over them. Unless… the R0man Church finds a “secular arm”
capable of stopping completely the expansion of the “heretic” power.
But who can play this part in Europe apart from the French Empire?
Napoleon III, “the man sent by Providence”, will have the honour of
(42) Quoted by Monseigneur Journet: “Exigences chretiennes en politique”(Ed. L.V.F. Paris
1945, p.274).
(43) Albert Bayet: “Histoire de fränce” (Ed. du Sagittaire, Paris 1938, p.282).

avenging Sadowa. The French army is not ready. “The artillery is out of
date. Our cannons are still loaded through the muzzle”, wrote Rothan,
French minister at fräncfort who can see disaster coming. “Prussia knows
of her superiority and our lack of preparation”, he adds with many other
observers. The war instigators are not concerned. The candidature of a
Hohenzollern prince for the vacant Spanish throne is the excuse for that
conflict; also, Bismark wants it. When he faked the dispatch of Ems, the
advocates of war had the game in their hands and they aroused public
fränce herself declared war. this “war of 1870 which was proved by
history to be the work of the j€§uits”, as M. Gaston Bally wrote.
The composition of the government which sent fränce to disaster is
described as follows by the eminent Cath0lic historian, Adrien Dansette:
“Napoleon III started by sacrificing Victor Duruy, then resolved to appoint
to his government men from the people’s party (January 1870). The new
ministers were nearly all sincere Cath0lics, or ecclesiastics believing in social
It is easy to understand, now, what was inexplicable: the haste of this
government to extract a “casus belli” from this faked dispatch, even before
receiving a confirmation.
“The consequences were: the collapse of the Empire and the countercoup
for the papäl throne which followed… The imperial edifice and the
papäl edifice, crowned by the j€§uits, fell in the same mud, in spite of the
Immaculate Conception and papäl infallibility; but, alas! it was over the
ashes of fränce”.(45)
(44) Adrien Dansette: “Histoire religieuse de la fränce contemporaine” (Ed. Flammarion,
Paris 1948, I, p.432)
(45) Gaston Bally, op.cit., pp.100, 101.


Section IV

Chapter 6
The j€§uits in R0me—the Syllabus

One can read, in a book from the Abbe Brugerette, the following passage in
the chapter entitled “The clergy under the Second Empire”:
“Particular devotions, old or new, were honoured more and more at a time
when R0manticism still exalted the senses to the detriment of austere reason.
The worship of saints and their relics, restrained for so long by the cold breath
of rationalism, had taken a new vigour. The worship of the H0ly Virgin, thanks
to apparitions at La Salette and Lourdes, acquired an extraordinary
popularity. Pilgrimages to these places privileged by miracles multiplied.
“The French episc0pate… favoured new devotions. It warmly and
thankfully welcomed, in 1854, the encyclical letter of Pi us IX  proclaiming the
dogma of the Immaculate Conception… It was also the episc0pate, brought
together in Paris, in 1856, for the baptism of the imperial Prince, who asked
Pi us IX  that the feast of the Sacred-Heart… should be made into a solemn feast
of the universal Church”.(46)
These few lines clearly show the preponderant influence exercsied by the
j€§uits under the Second Empire, in fränce as much as over the H0ly See, As
we saw earlier on, they were and remain the great propagators of these
“particular devotions, old or new”, this “perceptible” and almost sensual
piety made the masses excessively scrupulous in religi0us matters,
especially women. As far as that is concerned, we must admit that they were
realists. The time had gone—already under Napoleon III—when the public as a
whole, the learned and the ignorant, took a deep interest in theological
questions. Intellectually, Cath0licism had ended its career.
It is then more by necessity than because of their formation that the sons of
L0y0la endeavoured, during the 19th century and today, to awaken
(46) Abbe J. Brugerette: “Le pretre fräncais et la societe contemporaine”, (Ed. Lethielleux Paris
1933, I, pp. 183-184).


THE j€§uitS IN R0me — THE SYLLABUS 8 3
superstitious religi0sity, especially amongst women who make up most of
the flock; this was to counter-balance “rationalism”, For the secondary
education of girls, the 0rder promoted the founding of several
congregations of women. “The most famous and active was the
“Congregation des Dames du Sacre-Coeur”; in 1830, it comprised 105
houses with 4,700 teachers and its influence over the higher classes was very
As far as the worship of Mary is concerned, which was always so dear to
the jۤuits, it was greatly helped, under the Second Empire, by the very
opportune “apparitions” of the Virgin to a little shepherdess of Lourdes;
this happened two years after Pi us IX  promulgated the dogma of the
Immaculate Conception (1854), at the instigation of the Company of Jۤus.
The main acts of this pontificate were all victories for the jۤuits whose allpowerful
influence over the R0man Curia affirmed itself more and more.
In 1864, Pi us IX  published the encyclical letter “Quanta Cura”,
accompanied by the “Syllabus” which anathematized the best political
principles of the contemporary societies.
“Anathema on all that is dear to modern fränce! Modern fränce wants
the independance of the state; the ‘Syllabus’ teaches that the ecclesiastical
power must exercise its “authority without the assent and permission of the
civil power. Modern fränce wants the liberty of conscience and liberty of
worship; the’Syllabus’ teaches that the R0man Church has the right to use
force and reinstate the Inquisition. Modern fränce acknowledges the
existence of several types of worship; the ‘Syllabus’ declares that the
Cath0lic religi0n must be considered as the only religi0n of the state and all
others are excluded. Modern fränce proclaims that the people are
s0vereign; the ‘Syllabus’ condemns universal suffrage. Modern fränce
professes that all French people are equal before the law; the ‘Syllabus’
affirms that ecclesiastics are exempt from ordinary civil and criminal
“These are the doctrines taught by the j€§uits in their colleges. They are at
the front of the army of counter-revolution… Their mission consists of
bringing up the youth put in their care with a hatred for the principles on
which French s0ciety rests, principles laid down by former generations at a
great cost. By their teaching, they try to divide fränce into two and call into
question all that has been done since 1789. We want harmony, they want
strife; we want peace, they want war; we want fränce to be free, they want her
enslaved; they are a combatant s0ciety receiving its 0rders from
outside; they are fighting us, let us defend ourselves; they threaten us, let us
disarm them”.(48)
(47) H. Boehmer, op.cit., p.290.
(48) Adolphe Michel: “Les j€§uites” (Sandoz et Fischbacher, Paris 1879, pp.77 ss)


The H0ly See’s everlasting pretension to dominate civil s0ciety was then
reaffirmed, as Renan had already said in 1848, in an article entiled “Clerical
liberalism”: “It demonstrated that the people’s s0vereignty, the liberty of
conscience and all modern liberties were condemned by the Church. It
presented the Inquisition as “the logical consequence of the whole
0rthod0x system”, as “the summary of the Church’s spirit”. It added:
“When she will be able to, the Church will bring back the Inquisition; if she
doesn’t do it, it is because she cannot do it”.(49)
The power of the jۤuits over the Vat i can was shown even more strongly, a
few years after the ‘Syllabus’, when the dogma of Pontifical Infallibility was
promulgated; the Abbe Brugerette wrote that this dogma was to “throw
over the tragic years of 1870-1871, which put fränce into mourning,
the brightness of a great Christian hope”.
The same author added: “One can say that, during the first half of the
year 1870, the Church of fränce was not in fränce anymore; she was in
R0me, passionately busy with the General Council which Pi us IX  had just
called at the Vat i can…” “According to Monseigneur Pie, this French clergy
had completely “thrown off its own liveries, maxims and French or Gallic
liberties”. This bish0p of Poitiers added that it was done as a sacrifice to the
principle of authority, sound doctrine and common right; it placed all that
under the feet of the s0vereign pontiff, made a throne of it for him and
sounded the trumpet, saying: “The P0pe is our king; not only is his will our
command, but his wishes are our rules”.(49a)
The resignation of the whole of a “national” clergy into the hands of the
R0man Curia is clear enough and, because of it, the subjection of the French
Cath0lics to the will of a foreign despot who, under the cover of dogma or
morals, was going to impose on them his political directions without any
opposition. The liberal Cath0lics protested in vain against the exorbitant
pretention of the H0ly See to dictate its laws in the name of the H0ly Spirit.
The Abbe Brugerette informs us, their head, M. de Montalembert,
published in the Gazette de fränce an article in which he vehemently
protested against those who “sacrifice justice and truth, reason and history, to
the idol they set up at the Vat i can”.(50)
Several notorious bish0ps such as fäthers Hyacinthe Loyson and Gratry
took the same line; the latter not without spirit; fäther Gratry said: “He
published successively his four Letters to Monseigneur Deschamps. In them,
he did not merely discuss historical events, such as the condemnation of P0pe
Honorius, who, according to him, opposed the proclamation of pontifical
infallibility; but, in a sharp and bitter manner, he denounced also the contempt
of authoritative Cath0lics for the truth, and scientific integrity. One of
them, an ecclesiastical candidate for the Doctorate of
(49), (49a) and (50) Abbe J. Brugerette, op.cit., pp.221, 223.


THE j€§uitS IN R0me — THE SYLLABUS 85
Theology, even dared to justify false decretals before the Faculty of Paris,
declaring that “it was not an odious fraud”. And Gratry added: “Even today it
is being stated that Galileo’s condemnation was opportune”. “You, men of
little faith, with miserable hearts and sordid souls! Your tricks are
scandalous. On the day when the great science of nature was raised above
the world, you condemned it.”
“Do not be surprised if men, before forgiving you, expect from you
confession, penance, deep contrition and amends for your faults”.(51) No
need to say that the j€§uits, inspiring agents of Pi us IX  and all-powerful
over the Council, were not anxious about confession, penance, contrition or
reparation, at a time when they almost reached the goal they had set
themselves at the Council of Trent, in the middle of the 16th century.
At that time Lainez already supported the idea of papäl infallibility.
It only meant consecrating as a dogma a pretention nearly as old as the
papacy itself. No other Council until then had been willing to ratify it, but the
time seemed just right, then; besides, the patient work of the jۤuits had
prepared the national clergy for the surrender of their last liberties; the
imminent collapse of the P0pes’ temporal power—it happened before the
Council voted—called for a reinforcement of his spiritual authority,
according to the ultramontanes. The argument prevailed and the”dictatus
pap ae” of greg0ry VII, principles of the mediaeval theocracy, triumphed
right in the middle of the 19th century.
What the new dogma especially consecrated was the omnipotence of the
Company of Jۤus in the R0man Church.
“Under the cover of the j€§uits, who have established themselves at the
Vat i can since the secular powers have rejected them from all free countries as
an association of malefactors, the papacy has aspired to new ambitions. These
evil men, who have made the Gospel into a Spectacle of tears and blood and
remain the worst enemies of democracy and freedom of thought, dominate the
R0man Curia; all their efforts concentrate on maintaining, in the Church, their
pernicious preponderance and shameful doctrines.”
“Dedicated to the cause of extreme centralisation, irreducible apostles of
theocracy, they are the recognised masters of contemporary Cath0licism and
stamp their seal on its theology, its official piety and its crooked politics”.
“True janissaries of the Vat i can, they inspire everything, rule everthing,
penetrate everwhere, set up “informing” as a system of government,
faithful to a casuistry whose profound immorality has been revealed by
history and inspired Pascal’s immortal pages of sublime mockery. Through
the ‘Syllabus’ of 1864 which they themselves drew up, Pi us IX  declared war
(51) fäther Gratry, quoted by the Abbe J. Brugerette, op.cit., p.229.

on all free thought and sanctioned, a few years later, the dogma of
infallibility which is a real historical anachronism and of which modern
science could not care less”.(52)
For those who, against all probability, would persist to see a spiteful
exaggeration and disparagement in the lines we just quoted, we cannot do
better than present the confirmation itself of these facts, from the very
0rthod0x pen of M. Daniel-Rops. This confirmation carries even more
weight by the fact that it was published in 1959, under the title “The
Reestablishment of the Company of J€§us”, in the j€§uits’ own publication
“Etudes”. It is then in a true speech for the defence that we read:
“For many reasons, this reorganisation of the Company of J€§us had a
considerable historical importance. The H0ly See rediscovered this faithful
band, utterly devoted to its cause, and which was to be needed soon after.
Many fäthers were to exercise, during that century and until now, a discreet,
but deep influence on certain dispositions taken by the Vat i can; a kind of
proverb was even heard in R0me: “The P0pe’s penholders are j€§uits”. Their
influence was obvious in the development of the worship of the Sacred-Heart
as well as in the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception,
in the editing of the ‘Syllabus’ as well as in the definition of ‘Infallibility’.
The “Civilta catt0lica”, founded by the Neapolitan j€§uit Carlo Curci, was
supposed to reflect the P0pe’s thought during most of Pi us IX ‘s
This confession is clear enough. We would only remind the departed spirit
of this pious academician that, logically, and judging by all the previous
context, it was rather the P0pe’s thought which was reflected in the opinions
of the “Civilta catt0lica”.
No need to say that the jۤuits, all-powerful in R0me, as much because of
their spirit as of their organisation, were going to engage the papacy in
international politics more and more, as M. Louis Roguelin wrote: “Since she
lost her temporal power, the Church of R0me took advantage of every
opportunity to regain all the ground she was constrained to abandon,
through a recrudescence of diplomatic activities; as her cleverly concealed
scheme is to divide in 0rder to reign, she tried to turn every conflict in her
Boivent, 1927, pp.79 to 81).
(53) Daniel-Rops: “Le Retablissement de la Compagnie de J€§us” (Etudes, September 1959)


THE j€§uitS IN R0me — THE SYLLABUS 87
According to the plan of L0y0la’s subjects, the dogma of papäl
infallibility greatly favoured this action of the H0ly See, whose importance
can be measured from the fact that most states have a diplomatic
representative accredited to it. Under the cover of dogma and morals,
subjects which in principle restrict the infallible word, the P0pe today
disposes of an unlimited authority over the consciences of the faithful. So,
during the 20th century, we see the Vat i can actively engaged in the interior
and exterior politics of countries, and even govern them thanks to Cath0lic
parties. What’s more, we will see it support “providential” men such as
muss0lini and hit ler who, because of its help, will unleash the worst kind
of catastrophes.
Christ’s vicar acknowledged profusely the services of this famous s0ciety
which worked so hard and well in his favour. These “sons of Satan” as some
brave ecclesiastics qualified them, are all tarnished, but they can, in return,
boast about the august testimonial of complete satisfaction accorded to
them by the deceased P0pe S.S. Pi us X II whose confessor, we know, was a
German jۤuit.
In this text, published by “La Cr0ix” on the 9th of August 1955, we can read:
“The Church does not want auxiliaries of another type than those of this
Company… may the sons of L0y0la strive to follow the footprints of former
Today, like yesterday, they are doing just that, to the great evil of the


88 Section IV

Chapter 7
The j€§uits in fränce from 1870 until 1885

The collapse of the Empire should, it seems, have brought about a
reaction against the ultramontane spirit in fränce. But it was not so as
Adolphe Michel shows:
“When the throne fell into the mud of Sedan on the 2nd of December,
when fränce was definitely defeated, when the Assembly of 1871 met at
Bordeaux, while waiting to come to Versailles, the clerical party was more
audacious than ever. In all the disasters befalling the homeland, it spoke as
master. Who wouldn’t remember the j€§uits’ presumptuous manifestations and
their insolent threats during these past few years? Like a certain fäther
Marquigny announcing the civil burial of the principles of ’89; or M. de
Belcastel, on his own authority, dedicating fränce to the Sacred-Heart; the
jۤuits erecting a church on the hill of Montmartre, in Paris, and so defying the
Revolution; the bish0ps prompting fränce to declare war on Italy in 0rder to
reestablish the temporal power of the P0pe…”(54)
Gaston Bally explains very well the reason for that apparently
paradoxical situation: “During that cataclysm, the j€§uits, as always,
quickly went back into their hole, leaving the Republic to get herself out of the
muddle as best she could. But when most of the work had been done, when our
territory was delivered from the Prussian invasion, the black invasion started
again and “pulled the chestnuts out of the fire”. The land was just emerging
from a kind of nightmare, a terrible dream, and it was just the right time to
get hold of the panic-striken masses”.(55)
But is it not the same after every war? It is an incontestable fact that the
R0man Church has always benefited from the great public disasters; that
death, misery and sufferings of every kind incite the masses to search for
illusive consolations in pious practices. In that way, the power of those who
(54) Adolphe Michel: op.cit., pp.72, 73.
(55) (56) and (57) Gaston Bally, op.cit., pp. 101,107,108,109.

THE j€§uitS IN fränCE FROM 1870 UNTIL 1885 89
let loose these disasters is strengthened, if not increased, by the victims
themselves. As far as that is concerned, the two world wars had the same
consequences as the one of 1870.
Then, fränce was conquered; on the other hand, it was a brilliant victory
for the Company of Jۤus when, in 1873, a law was passed, allowing the
building of a basilica of the Sacred-Heart on Montmartre Hill. This
church, said to be a “National wish”, by a cruel irony no doubt, was going to
materialise in stone the triumph of jۤuitism, at the place where it
commenced its life.
At first glance, this invocation to the Sacred-Heart of Jۤus extolled by
the jۤuits may seem, though basely idolatrous, quite innocent.
“To realise the danger”, wrote Gaston Bally, “we must look behind the
facade, witness the manipulation of souls and see the aim of their various
associations: the Brotherhood of “Perpetual Adoration”; the Brotherhood
of the “Guard of Honour”, the Apostolate of Prayer, the Reparative
Communion, etc, etc. The brotherhoods, associates, apostles,
missionaries, worshipers, zealots, guards of honour, restorers, mediators
and other federates of the Sacred-Heart seem to intend exclusively to, as
Mademoiselle Alacoque invited them to, unite their homage to those of the nine
choirs of Angels.
So, in reality, it is far from innocent. “The brotherhoods stated their aims
many times. They couldn’t accuse me of slandering them; I will but quote a
few passages from their most clear declarations and gather up their
“Public opinion was shocked with the remarks of fäther Olivier when the
victims of the Bazaar of Charity were buried. The monk had seen in the
catastrophe only another proof of divine clemency. God was saddened by
our “mistakes” and was inviting us, gently, to make amends.
“This seemed monstrous. The building of the Basilica on Montmartre was
a result of the same “thought”, but this was forgotten”.(56)
What was then the terrible sin fränce had to confess? The
aforementioned author answers: “…THE REVOLUTION”.
This is the abominable crime we must “expiate”.
“And the Basilica of the Sacred-Heart symbolises fränce’s repentance
(Sacratissimo cordi Jۤu Gallioe poenitens et devoter); it expresses also our
firm intention to repair the wrong-doings. It is a monument of expiation and
“Save R0me and fränce in the name of the Sacred-Heart”, became the
anthem of the Moral 0rder.
“So we were able to hope against all hopes”, wrote the Abbe Brugerette,
“and expect from the “pacified heaven” some time or other the great event of
the restoration of 0rder and the salvation of the homeland.”(58)
It seems though that “heaven”, angered with the fränce of the rights of

man, was not “pacified” enough by the erection of the famous basilica, the
three candle snuffers, as the “restoration of 0rder”, or rather the
monarchical restoration, was slow in coming. The same author explains it in
the following manner:
“Even though the grandiose manifestations of the Cath0lic faith, during the
years following the war of 1870, may seem impressive, it would be a lack of the
sense of observation if French s0ciety of that epoch was judged only on the
grounds of that exterior piety; we would also be lacking in psychological
spirit and be outside the truth. We must wonder then if the religi0us sentiment
was a direct answer, for the whole of that s0ciety, to the expression of faith
revealed by the imposing pilgrimages organised by the bish0ps and the
earnestness of the masses in the churches…
“Without wanting to attentuate in any way the importance of the
religi0us move in fränce brought about by the two wars of 1870 and 1914,
which also raised such high hopes, we must nevertheless admit that this
revival of the faith had not the depth, nor the extent which a true religi0us
renewal would have…
“For, even then, the Church of fränce was unfortunately comprised of not
only thousands of unbelievers and adversaries, but also a very large number
of those who were Cath0lics only by name and not conviction. religi0us
practices were performed, not by conviction, but rather from habit…
“Soon after it was done, fränce seemed to regret the desperate move
which made her send a Cath0lic majority to the National Assembly, for, five
months later, she reversed her position at the complementary elections of the
2nd of July! On that day, the country was to elect 113 deputies. It was a
complete defeat for the Cath0lics and victory for between 80 to 90
Republicans. All the elections following that consultation of universal
suffrage had the same character of republican and anticlerical opposition. It
would be childish to pretend that they were not the expression of s0ciety’s
sentiments and wishes”.(59)
The Abbe Brugerette, speaking about the great pilgrimages organised at that
time for the “uplifting of the country”, admits that they were the cause of
“some mistakes and excesses” which aroused the suspicions of the “Church’s
“The pilgrimages will be for them enterprises organised by the clergy for the
restoration of monarchy in fränce and pontifical power in R0me. And the
attitude taken by the clergy on these two aims will look like justifying this
accusation from the irreligi0us press and will give, on that account, as we shall
see later, a mighty impetus to anticlericalism. Without breaking away from its
religi0us habits revived so much during the years after the war, French
s0ciety will rebel against this “government of priests”, as
(58) and (59) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.10 to 14.

THE j€§uitS IN fränCE FROM 1870 UNTIL 1885 91
Gambetta stigmatized it. Deep down, the French people had kept an
invincible instinct of resistance against anything which even vaguely
resembled the Church’s political domination. On the whole, this nation
loved religi0n, but the spectre of “theocracy” revived by the opposition
press frightened it. The eldest daughter of the Church did not want to forget
that she was also the mother of Revolution”.(60)
Yet, the clergy with the jۤuits at their head were making such efforts
to persuade the French people to abjure the republican spirit!
“Since the Falloux law was enforced, the j€§uits, expanded freely
their colleges where they brought up the children of the ruling
and they obviously did not teach them a great love for the Republic…”
“As for the “Assumptionists” created in 1845 by the intransigent fäther
d’Alzon, they wanted to give back to the people the faith it had
lost…”(61) But there were many other envious flourishing teaching
Oratorians, Eudistes, Dominicans of the Third-0rder, Marianits, Marists,
which Jules Simon called “the second volume” of the j€§uits bound in asses
skin and the famous “Brothers of the Christian Schools”, better known
under the name of Ignorantins, who taught the “good doctrine” to
the offsprings of the middle-classes as well as to more than one and a
half million children of the ordinary people.
It is not surprising that this situation put the republican regime on the
defensive. A law, proposed in 1879 by Jules Ferry, wanted to remove
clergy from the Councils for Public Instruction into which they had
been introduced by the laws of 1850 and 1873, and give back to the
state’s faculties the exclusive right to grade the degrees of the teachers.
Article 7 of this law also specified that “no one would be allowed to take
part in public or free teaching if he belongs to an unauthorised religi0us
“The j€§uits are aimed at before anyone else in that famous article 7. The
priests of the deanery of Moret (Seine-et-Marne) will declare then that
“they are on the side of all religi0us communities, including the
fäthers of the Company of J€§us”. “To strike them”, they write, “is to strike
ourselves”… The confession is
The Abbe Brugerette, who wrote that passage, describes the resistance
put up by the Cath0lics against what he calls a “treacherous attack”, but
he adds:
“The clergy still ignore the immense progress of the laity; it has not
understood yet that, because of its opposition to the principles of ’89, it
has lost all deep influence over the direction of public spirit in
Article 7 is rejected by the Senate, but Jules Ferry invokes the existing
laws concerning the congregations.
(60) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.164, 165.
(61) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., p.29.
(62) (63) (64) and (65) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.164, 165, 166, 167, 176, 185.


“In consequence, on the 29th of March 1880, the “Journal Officiel”
contains two decrees compelling the jۤuits to break up, and all
unauthorised congregations of men and women to “obtain recognition and
approval for their regulations and legal status within three months…”
Without any delay, a movement of opposition is organised; “The
Church, deeply wounded, is aroused”, according to M. Debidour. After the
11th of March, Leo X III and his Nuncio express a grievous protestation…
“Now it is the turn of all the bish0ps to defend energetically the religi0us
The sons of L0y0la were nevertheless expelled. But let us listen to what the
Abbe Brugerette has to say on that subject: “In spite of all, the j€§uits, experts
at re-entering through the windows when they have been thrown out through
the door, had already been successful in putting their colleges into the control
of laymen or secular ecclesiastics. Even though not residing in these colleges,
they could be seen coming in at certain times of the day to perform duties of
direction and supervision”.(64)
But the deceit was discovered and the j€§uits’ colleges finally closed.
In all, the decrees of 1879 were enforced on 32 congregations who refused to
submit to the legal dispositions. In many places, the expulsion was carried
out by the military arm “manu militari” against the opposition of the faithful
aroused by the fäthers. These not only refused to ask for the legal
authorisation, but also refused to sign a declaration disclaiming all idea of
opposition to the republican regime; this would have been enough for M. de
Freycinet, then president of the Council and favouring them, to still
“tolerate” them. When the 0rders decided to sign this formal declaration
of loyalty, the manoeuvre had been made void and M. de Freycinet had to
resign because he had tried to negotiate this accord against the wishes of
parliament and his colleagues of the Cabinet.
The Abbe Brugerette comments on the declaration the religi0us 0rders had
to sign and found so repugnant:
“This declaration of respect for the institutions fränce gave herself
freely… may seem very harmless and inoffensive, today, when compared with
the solemn oath of loyalty demanded from the German bish0ps by the
C0nc0rdat of the 20th of July 1933 between the H0ly See and the Reich.
“Article 16.—”Before taking possession of their diocese, the bish0ps will take
an oath of loyalty before the president of the Reich or a competent
Reichsstatthalter in the following terms:
“Before God and on the H0ly Scriptures, I swear and promise, as a bish0p
should, loyalty to the German Reich and the State. I swear and promise to
respect and make my clergy respect the government established according to the
constitutional laws. As is my duty, I will work for the good and in the interests of
the German State; in the exercise of the H0ly ministry entrusted to me, I will try
to stop everything which would be detrimental to

THE j€§uitS IN fränCE FROM 1870 UNTIL 1885 93
it”. (C0nc0rdat between the H0ly See and the German Reich)(65).
The difference is certainly great between a mere promise of nonopposition
to fränce’s regime and this solemn pledge to uphold the nazi
state. Just as great as the difference between the two regimes, one
democratic and liberal, so hated by the R0man Church, the other
totalitarian and brutally intolerent, wanted and set up by the united efforts
of fränz von Papen, the P0pe’s secret chamberlain, and Monseigneur
Pacelli, nuncio in Berlin and future Pi us X II.
It is again the Abbe Brugerette who, after having declared that the
governnment’s aim had been reached as far as the Company of J€§us was
concerned, admits also:
“We could not speak of the destruction of the institution of
congregations. The women’s congregations had not been touched and the
authorised ones, “as dangerous as the others for the lay spirit”, were still
standing. We knew also that nearly all the men’s congregations, expelled
from their houses because of the decrees of 1880, had quietly gone back to
their monasteries”.(66)
But this lull was short-lived. The intention of the state to collect taxes and
rights of succession on the wealth of the ecclesiastical communities
provoked a general outcry amongst them, as they had no intention to
submit to the common law. “The organisation of resistance was the work of a
committee directed by the PP. Bailly, “Assumptionist”, Stanislas, a
Capuchin, and Le Dore, superior of the Eudists… fäther Bailly was
reviving the great zeal of the clergy by writing: “Like Saint Laurent, the
monks and nuns must go back to the rack or thumb-screws rather than
As by accident, the main revivalist of that “great zeal”, Bailly, was an
“Assumptionist”, or, in fact, a camouflaged j€§uit. As for the rack and the
thumb-screws, we could have reminded the good fäther that these
instruments of torture are in the tradition of the H0ly-See and not the one of
the republican state.
Finally, the congregations paid—about half of what they owed—and the
aforementioned Abbe admits that “the prosperity of their work was not
impaired”, as we can well imagine.
We cannot go into details concerning the laws of 1880 and 1886 which
tended to assure the confessional neutrality of the state schools, this
“secularisation”(67a) which is natural to all tolerant minds, but is rejected by
the R0man Church as an abominable attempt at forcing consciences,
something she has always claimed for herself. We could expect her to fight for
this so-called right as violently as for her financial privileges.
(66) and (67) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., pp. 185,196,191.
(67a) See Jan Cotereau: “Anthologie des grands textes laiques” (Fischbacher, Paris)


In 1883, the R0man congregation of the Index, inspired by jۤuitism,
enters the fight by the condemnation of certain school books on moral and
civic teaching. Of course, the matter is grave: one of the authors, Pa ul Bert,
dared to write that even the idea of miracles “must vanish before the critical
mind!” So, more than fifty bish0ps promulgate the decree of the Index,
with fulminating comments, and one of them, Monseigneur Isoard,
declares in his pastoral letter of the 27th of February 1883 that the teachers, the
parents and the children who refuse to destroy these books will be barred
from the sacraments.(67b)
The laws of 1886, 1901 and 1904, declaring that no teaching post could be held
by members of religi0us congregations, also started a flood of protestations
from the Vat i can and the “French” clergy. But, in fact, the teaching monks
and nuns only had to “secularise” themselves. The only positive result of these
legal dispositions was that the professors of the schools “so-called free” had
from now on to produce adequate pedagogic qualifications, a good thing
when we know that, before the last war, the Cath0lic primary schools in fränce
numbered 11, 655 with 824,595 pupils As for the “free” colleges, and
especially the j€§uits’, if their number is being reduced it is because of several
factors which have nothing to do with the legal wrangles. The superiority of
the university’s teaching, acknowledged by the majority of parents, and,
more recently, its being without change, are the main causes for its growing
popularity. Besides, the s0ciety of Jۤus has voluntarily reduced the number
of its schools.
(67b) See Jean Cornec: “Laicite” (Sudel, Paris).

Section IV
Chapter 8
The jۤuits and General Boulanger
The jۤuits and the Dreyfus Affair

The hostility of which the devout party pretended to be the victim, at the end
of the 19th century, from the Republican state, would not have lacked
justification, even though this hostility, or more accurately mistrust, had
been even more positive. In fact, the clerical opposition to the regime which
fränce gave herself freely showed itself at every opportunity, according to the
Abbe Brugerette. In 1873, the attempt to restore monarchy with the Count
of Chambord failed, even though strongly supported by the clergy, because
the Pretender stubbornly refused to adopt the tricoloured flag, to him the
emblem of Revolution.
“Such as it is, Cath0licism seems bound to politics, or to a certain kind of
politics… Loyalty to the Monarchy was transmitted from generation to
generation in the old noble families as well as in the middle-classes and the
common people, in the Cath0lic regions of the West and South. Their
nostalgia of an ancient and idealised Regime, pictured in an epic Middle Age
was coupled with the wishes of fervent Cath0lics whose main preoccupation
was the salvation of the religi0n; they rallied, behind Veuillot, with the
legitimate and devout royal family of Chambord, considered to be the form
of government most favourable to the Church. Out of the union of these
political and religi0us forces was born, in the strained situation after the war, a
kind of reactionary mysticism, illustrated perfectly by Monseigneur Pie,
bish0p of Poitiers, and its best incarnation in the ecclesiastical world: “fränce,
who awaits another chief and calls for a master…, will again receive from God
“the sceptre of the Universe which fell from her hands for a while”, on the day
when she will have learned anew how to go down on her knees”.(68)
This picture, described by a Cath0lic historian, is significant. It helps to
understand the moves which followed, a few years later, the unsuccessful
(68) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., II, pp.37, 38.


restoration attempt of 1873.
The same Cath0lic historian describes in the following manner the
political attitude of the clergy at that time:
“At election time, the presbyteries become centers for the reactionary
candiates; the priests and officiating ministers make home-calls for the
electoral propaganda, slander the Republic and its new laws on teaching
they declare that those who vote for the free-thinkers, the present
government or freemasons described as “bandits”, “riffraffs” and “thieves”, are
guilty of mortal sin. One declares that an adulterous woman will be
forgiven more easily than those who send their children to lay schools,
another one: that it is better to strangle a child than give support to the
regime, a third one: that he will refuse the last sacraments to those who vote
for the regime’s partisans. The threats are carried out: republican and
anticlerical tradesmen are boycotted; destitute people are refused any help and
workmen are dismissed”.(69)
These excesses from a clergy affected more and more by jۤuitic
ultramontanism are even less acceptable from the fact that they emanate
“from ecclesiastics paid by the government, as the C0nc0rdat is still
Also, the majority of public opinion is not happy at all with this pressure on
the consciences, as the aforementioned author writes:
“As we have seen, the French people, as a whole, is indifferent to
religi0us matters, and we cannot mistake the hereditary observance of
religi0us practices for a real faith… “The fact is that the political map of
fränce is identical to her religi0us map… we can say that in the regions
where faith is strong, the French people vote for Cath0lic candidates
elsewhere, they consciously elect anticlerical deputies and senators… They do
not want clericalism, which is ecclesiastical authority in the matter of politics
and commonly called “the government of priests”.
“For a large number of Cath0lics, the fact that the priest, this
troublesome man, interferes through the sermon’s instructions and the
confessional’s prescriptions in the behaviour of the faithful, checking
thoughts, sentiments, acts, food and drink, and even the intimacies of
married life, is enough; they intend, at least, to limit his empire by
preserving their independence as citizens”.(70)
We would like to see this spirit of independence as lively today.
But, even though the opinion of that “large number of Cath0lics” was
such, the ultramontanes would not disarm and pursue, at every
opportunity, the fight against the hated regime. They thought for a white that
they had found the “providential man” in the person of General Boulanger,
minister for War in 1886, who, having organised his personal
(69) and (70) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., II, pp.46, 47, 48.


propaganda extremely well, looked like being a future dictator.
“A tacit agreement”, wrote M. Adrien Dansette, “is established between
the general and the Cath0lics, and becomes clear during the summer… He
has also concluded a secret agreement with royalist members of parliament
such as Baron de Mackau and Count de Mun, faithful defenders of the
Church at the Assembly…
‘The phlegmatic minister for the Interior, Constans, threatens to arrest him
and, on the 1st of April, the dictator candidate escapes to Brussels, with his
“From now on, “Boulangism” declines rapidly. fränce has not been
taken: she recovers… “Boulangism” is crushed at the polls on the 22nd of
September and 6th of October 1889…”(71)
We can read, from the pen of the same historian, what the attitude of the
P0pe of that time was regarding this adventurer; he was Leo X III who, in
1878, had succeeded Pi us IX , the P0pe of the Syllabus, and who pretended to
advise the faithful of fränce to join the republican regime:
“In August (1889), the German ambassador to the Vat i can pretends that the
P0pe sees in the general (Boulanger) the man who will overthrow the
French Republic and re-establish the throne; we can read an article in
which the “Monitor of R0me” envisages that the dictatorial candidate will
take over power and that the Church “could benefit greatly from it”…
General Boulanger sent one of his former officers to R0me with a letter for
Leo X III in which he promises the P0pe “that on the day when he would hold
in his hands the sword of fränce, he would do his uttermost to make the
rights of the papacy acknowledged”.(72)
Such was this jۤuit pontiff; the intransigent clerics objected to his
supposed excess of “liberalism”!
The boulangist crisis revealed well enough the action led by the religi0us
party against the lay Republic, under the cover of nationalism. But the
colourless nature of the principal character, as well as the resistance of a
majority of the nation, had defeated the attempt in spite of all this forced
agitation. Nevertheless, these chauvinistic tactics had proved quite
effective, especially in Paris, and they were to be used again at another, and
better, opportunity. This came about—or was it provoked?—and the
disciples of L0y0la were, of course, at the head of this movement. “Their
friends are here”, wrote M. Pierre Dominique, “a bigoted nobility, a
bourgeoisie which rejects Voltaire, and many military men. They will
especially work on the army, and the result will be the famous alliance of
“the sword and the sprinkler of H0ly water”.
“In 1890, it is not the king of fränce’s conscience they rule any more,
but the general-staff, or, at least, its chief; then, the “Dreyfus Affair”
(71) and (72) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., II, p p . 1 1 4 ss.


out, a real civil war which divides fränce into two”.(73)
The Cath0lic historian, Adrien Dansette, sums up the beginning of the
Affair as follows:
“On the 22nd of December 1894, the Captain of artillery Alfred Dreyfus is
proved guilty of treason, condemend to deportation for life
imprisonment and cashiering. Three months earlier, our Intelligence
Service had discovered, at the German Embassy, a list of several
documents to do with national defence; it established a resemblance
between the writing of Captain Dreyfus and the one on that list
Immediately, the general-staff cried out: “It’s him; it’s the Jew”. They only had
this presumption as the treason had no psychological explanation
(Dreyfus had a good reputation, was rich and led an 0rderly life); the
unfortunate man is neverthelsss imprisoned, condemned by a military
tribunal after an inquiry so swift and partial that the judgement must have
been preconceived. To make it worse, it will be learned later that a secret
document was given to the judges, without the knowledge of the counsel for the
“But there was more leakage at the general-staff after Dreyfus’ arrest and
commandant Picquart, chief of the Intelligence Service after July 1895, learns
of a certain project called “petit bleu” (express letters), between the German
military attache and the French commandant (of Hungarian origin)
Esterhazy; he is a disreputable man who has nothing but hatred and contempt
for his country of adoption. But an officer in the Intelligence Service,
Commandant Henry, adds to the Dreyfus file,—as we shall see- a false
document which would be crushing for the Jewish officer if it was genuine; he
also erases and re-writes the name of Esterhazy on the “petit bleu” to give the
impression that the document was faked. So Picquart is disgraced in
November 1896″.(74)
The disgrace of the chief of the Intelligence Service is easy to understand: his
zeal to dissipate the accumulated darkness was too excessive.
The most trustworthy testimony is found in the “Carnets de
Schwartzkoppen”, published after his death, in 1930. It was from
Esterhazy, and not Dreyfus, that the author, then first military attache at the
German embassy in Paris, received secret documents of the French national
“Already sometime before, in July, Picquart thought the time had come to
warn by letter the chief of the general-staff, who was then in Vichy, about his
suspicions concerning Esterhazy. The first meeting was on the 5th of August
1896. General de Boisdeffre approved of everything Picquart had done so far
concerning this affair and gave him the permission to carry on
(73) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.239.
(74) and (78) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., II, pp.263, 264.

with his investigation. “The minister for War, General Billot, was equally
informed from August about Picquart’s suspicions; he also sanctioned the
measures taken by Picquart. Esterhazy, whom I had dismissed, had
tried, using his connections with the deputy Jules Roche, to be posted to
the ministry for War. presumably to try to get in touch with me again, and
had written several letters to the minister for War as well as to his aide-decamp.
One of his letters was given to Picquart who, for the first time,
realised that his writing was the same as the one on the “list”! He showed a
photo of that letter to Du Paty and Bertillon, without telling them, of course,
who wrote it… Bertillon said: “Oh, that’s the writing on the list!”(75)
“Feeling his conviction of Dreyfus’ culpability crumbling away, Picquart
decided to consult the “small file” which had been given only to the Judges,
The archivist Gribelin gave it to him. It was evening. Left alone in his office,
Picquart opened Henry’s unsealed envelope, on which was Henry’s paraph
written with a blue pencil… Great was his amazement when he realised the
nullity of those pitiful documents, none of which could be applied to
Dreyfus. For the first time, he knew that the condemned man on the “Ile du
Diable” (Devils Island) was innocent. The following day, Picquart wrote a letter
to General de Boisdeffre in which he exposed all the charges against
Esterhazy and his recent discovery. When reading about that “secret file”, the
general jumped up, exclaiming: “Why was it not burned as agreed?”(76) Von
Schwartzkoppen wrote further: “My position became extremely
uncomfortable. This question was before me: should I tell the whole truth and
so repair the horrible mistake and liberate that poor innocent man? If I had been
able to act as I wanted to, I would certainly have done just that! Looking at
these things in detail, I came to the conclusion that I shouldn’t get involved in that
matter, for, as things were, nobody would have believed me; also, diplomatic
considerations were standing in the way of such an action. Considering that
the French government was able to take the necessary measures to clear
the matter and make up for the injustice, I really made up my mind not to
do anything”.(77)
“We can see coming to life the tactics of the general-staff, notes Adrien
Dansette: “If Esterhazy is guilty, the officers who provoked the illegal
condemnation of Dreyfus, and most of all General Marcier, minister for War
at that time, are guilty also. The interests of the army require the sacrifice of
Dreyfus; we must not interfere with the sentence of 1894”.(78) We remain
dumbfounded, today, at the thought that such an argument could be invoked
to justify, if we dare express ourselves so, an iniquitious
(75) and (77) “Les Carnets de Schwartzkoppen” Rieder, Paris 1933, pp.147, 148, 162.
(76) Armand Charpentier, “Histoire de l’affaire Dreyfus” (Fasquelle, 1933, p.73).

(78) See earlier on.


condemnation. It was to be so all through the Affair which was then just
beginning. Of course, we were then in an Anti-Semitic fever. The violent
dissertations of Edouard Drumont, in the “Libre Parole”, showed up every day
the children of Israel as agents of national corruption and dissolution. The
unfavourable prejudice so created incited a large section of public opinion
to believe, “a priori”, in Dreyfus’ guilt. But, later, when the innocence of
the accused became evident, the monstrous argument of the “infallibility” of
the military tribunal was still upheld, and from now on with a perfect
Was it the H0ly Spirit inspiring these judges in uniform who could not
make any mistake? It would be tempting to believe in that celestial
intervention—so similar to the one which guarantees papäl infallibility-when
we read about fäther du Lac, of the Company of J€§us, who had a lot to do with
the Affair:
“He directed the college of the “Rue des Postes” where the j€§uits
prepared the candidates for the larger Schools. He is a very intelligent man
with important connections. He converted Drumont, is the confessor of de
Mun and de Boisdeffre, chief of the Army’s general-staff, whom he sees
every day”.(79)
The Abbe Brugerette also mentions the same facts quoted by Joseph
Reinach: “Is it not this fäther du Lac who converted Drumont and urged him
to write “The Jewish fränce”, who supplied the means to create the “Libre
Parole”? Does not General de Boisdeffre see the famous j€§uit every day? The
chief of the general-staff doesn’t take any decision before consulting first
his director”.(80)
There, on Devil’s Island, which deserves its name so well in that deadly
climate, the victim of this atrocious plot was treated in an extremely cruel
manner, as the Anti-Semitic press had spread the report that he had tried to
escape. The minister for Colonies, Andre Lebon, gave 0rders accordingly.
“On the Sunday morning, the 6th of September, the head warder, Lebar,
informed his prisoner that he would not, from then on, be allowed to walk in
the part of the island which had been reserved for him, and that he would be
confined to his hut. In the evening, he was told that he would be chained at
night. At the foot of his bed, made up of three planks, were rivetted two double
iron shackles which encircled the convict’s feet. When the nights were torrid,
this punishment was especially painful.”
“At dawn, the guards unfastened the prisoner who, when he got up,
trembled on his feet. He was forbidden to leave his hut where he had to stay day
and night. In the evening, he was shackled again, and this went on for forty
nights. After a while, his ankles were covered with blood and they had
(79) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.240.
(80) (83) and (85) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.454, 432, 467.


to be bandaged; his guards, moved with compassion, secretly wrapped up his
Icet before chaining them”.(81)
Nevertheless, the convict still proclaimed his innocence; he wrote to his wife:
“There must be somewhere, in this beautiful and generous land of fränce,
an honest man who is couragous enough to search for, and discover,
the truth”.(82)
In fact, the truth was not in doubt any more. What was lacking was the will to
let it burst forth. The Abbe Brugerette himself testifies of the fact: “The
presumptions of innocence of the convict on Devil’s Island multiply in
vain; M. de Bulow’s declarations at the Reichstag and those transmitted by
M. de Munster, his ambassador, to the French government, also state the
innocence of Dreyfus in vain; an innocence proclaimed also by Emperor
Guillaume and confirmed when Schwarzkoppen (the German military attache)
was recalled to Berlin as soon as Esterhazy was accused by Mathieu Dreyfus
(brother of the convict). The general-staff remains opposed to any reexamination
of the trial… Someone is busy covering up for Esterhazy. Secret
documents are communicated to him for his defence, and even his writing is
not allowed to be compared with that on the “list”…
“Shielded in that way, the villain Esterhazy is audacious enough to ask to
appear before a Council of war. There, he is unanimously acquitted, on the
17th of January 1898, after a deliberation lasting three minutes”.(83)
We must mention that, a few months later, when Colonel Henry was
convicted of forgery, Esterhazy fled to England and, in the end, confessed that
he was the author of the famous “list” attributed to Dreyfus.
We cannot cite all the many happenings in this drama, the forgeries
added to more forgeries in an attempt to conceal an obvious truth, the
dismissal of the chief of the general staff, the downfall of ministers, the
suicide of Henry, detained at Mont Valerien, who slit his throat and so signed
with his own blood the confession of his culpability.
In December 1898, this semi-official note was published by the German
press: “The declarations of the imperial government have established that no
German personality, high or low, had any kind of relations with Dreyfus.
Then, from the German point of view, we see no inconvenience as to the
unabridged publication of the secret file.(84)
At last, the inevitable re-examination is decided by the High-Court.
Dreyfus has to appear again before the council of war at Rennes, on the 3rd of
June 1899, and it is the start of another torture for him. “He could not
suppose that he was to meet hatred more odious than when he left and that his
former chiefs, conspiring to set him again on the road to Devil’s Island,
(81) Armand Charpentier, op.cit., p.75.
(82) “Lettres d’un innocent”, January and February 1895.
(84) Maurice Paleologue: “Journal de l’Affaire Dreyfus” (Plon, Paris 1955, p. 149)

would have no pity for this wretch, this poor creature who thought he has
endured all the suffering there is to endure”.(85)
“So”, wrote the Abbe Brugerette, “the council of war at Rennes will only
add a new injustice to the iniquity of the 1894 trial. The illegality of this trial,
the guilt of Esterhazy, the criminal manoeuvres of Henry will come out
clearly during the twenty-nine sessions of that trial at Rennes. But the council
of war… will judge Dreyfus on other spying charges which were never the
cause of an accusation or report. All the previous leakages will be attributed to
him and documents will be produced which had nothing to do with him… At
last, and contrary to all our legal traditions, we will require that Dreyfus
himself establish that such a document or paper was not handed over by him,
as if it was not the task of the prosecution to prove the crime any more”.(86)
The partiality of Dreyfus’ accusers was so obvious that public opinion
outside fränce was aroused. In Germany, the semi-official “Cologne
Gazette” published, on the 16th and 29th of August, in the middle of the trial,
two articles in which we read the following phrase: “If, after the declarations
of the German government and the debates of the highest court of appeal in
fränce, someone still believes Dreyfus guilty, we can only answer that
person that he must be mentally ill or he conscious wants an innocent to be
But the hatred, nonsense and fanaticism were not disarmed for all that
Even new forgeries were used, replacing those which had lost all credit. To
sum it all up, it was nothing more than sinister buffoonery. The end of it, for
Dreyfus, was the condemnation to ten years’ detention, with mitigating
“This miserable trial provoked an indignant stupor all over the world
fränce was despised. Who could have imagined such terrible sorrow?”(88)
exclaimed Clemenceau at the reading of English and German newspapers.
Mercy was indispensable. Dreyfus accepted it to “carry on”, said he,
“seeking the reversal of the awful military mistake of which he was the
victim. “For this reversal, it was no use counting on the justice of the
Councils of war. This justice had been seen at work! It came, once again, from
the highest court of appeal which, after thorough investigations and long
debates, annulled once and for all the verdict of Rennes. A few days later, the
Assembly and Senate, by a solemn vote, reinstated Dreyfus in the army:
Dreyfus, upon whom was conferred the Legion of Honour and who
(85) See earlier on
(86) and (89) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.469, 471, 472.
(87) Maurice Paleologue, op.cit., p.237.
(88) “L’Aurore”, 14th of September, 1899.


was publicly reinstated”.(89)
This late reversal, obtained so laboriously, was due to “honest and
couragous” men, such as those the innocent on Devil’s Island wished to see
coming forth. Their number grew more and more as truth came to light. After
the swift acquittal of the traitor Esterhazy, by a Council of war in January
1898, Emile Zola published in the “Aurore”, Clemenceau’s publication,
his famous open letter “I accuse”. He wrote: “I accuse the first Council of war to
have violated the law by condemning an accused person on the grounds of
some document remaining secret, and I accuse the second Council of war
to have covered up this illegality by committing also a judicial crime in
knowingly acquitting a culprit”.
But the “knights” of our famous Company were on the watch out to hush up
anything which could have enlightened the public. A question from the
Cath0lic deputy de Mun brought Zola before the Assize Court of the Seine, and
the couragous writer was condemned to one year imprisonment, the
maximum penalty, as a result of this iniquitous trial.
Public opinion had been deceived so well by the outcries of the “clericonationalists”
that the elections of May 1898 were in their favour.
Nevertheless, the public revelation of forgeries, the dismissal of the chief of
the general-staff, the evident criminal partiality of the judges opened the eyes of
those sincerely seeking the truth more and more. But these came almost
exclusively from the ranks of the pr0testants, Jews and laymen.
“In fränce, the Cath0lics were few and far between, among whom few were
prominent, who took sides with Dreyfus… The action of this handful of people
made very little noise. The conspiracy of silence surrounded it…”(90)
“Most priests and bish0ps remain convinced of Dreyfus’ culpability”, wrote
the Abbe Brugerette. Georges Sorel declares also: “While the Dreyfus
affair brought division amongst all social groups, the Cath0lic world was
absolutely united against a re-examination.” Peguy himself admits that “all
the political forces of the Church have always been against Dreyfus”.
Must we recall the lists of subscriptions open by the “Libre Parole” and
“La Cr0ix”, in favour of the widow of the forger Henry who committed
suicide? The names of the subscribing priests were often accompanied by
“comments not very evangelical”, as we are told by M. Adrien Dansette
who quotes these:
“A certain Abbe Cros asks for a bedside mat made of Jewish s k i n
wh i c h h e would be able to stamp on morning and evening; a young
priest would like to crush Reinach’s nose with his heel; three priests
would love to slap the filthy face of the Jew Reinach”.(91)
(89) See earlier on.
(90) and (91) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., II, pp.275, 276.


Only the secular clergy is still somewhat reserved. In the Congregations,
things are more virulent:
“On the 15th of July 1898, prize-giving day at the College of Arcueil,
presided over by Generalissimo Jamont (vice-president of the Superior
Council of War), fäther Didon, rector of the School Albert-le-Grand, gave a
violent speech in which he advocated using violence against the men whose
crime had been the couragous denunciation of a military error…
“Must we”, said the eloquent monk, “let the wicked go free? Certainly not!
The enemy is: intellectualism pretending to despise force, and civilians wanting
to subordinate the military. When persuasion has failed, when love(!) has
been ineffectual, we must brandish the sword, spread terror, chop off heads,
make war, strike…”
“This speech seemed to be a challenge thrown before all the sympathisers of
that condemned wretch”.(92)
But how many of them have we heard since then? These calls to bloody
repressions, coming from gentle clerics, especially during the German
occupation! As for the cry of hatred against intellectualism, we can find the
perfect echo to it in this declaration from a certain general: “When someone
speaks of intelligence, I draw my revolver”.
To crush the thought by force is a principle of the R0man Church which has
never altered.
The Abbe Brugerette wonders, however, about the fact that nothing
disturbed the clergy’s belief in the culpability of Dreyfus: “Such a great and
dramatic event, coming like a clap of thunder in a blue sky and bringing to light
the Department for forgeries operating at the general-staff, must have opened
the eyes, even of those not wanting to find the truth. We are referring to the
discovery of forgeries made by Henry…
“Had not the time come for the French clergy and the Cath0lics to
repudiate a mistake which had gone on for too long… They, the priests and the
faithful could have gone, en-masse, and at the eleventh hour like the
workmen mentioned in the gospels, to increase the ranks of the defenders of
justice and truth… But the most evident facts do not always shed their light on
minds dominated by certain prejudices, as prejudices are opposed to
examination and, by their nature, rebel against evidence”.(93)
Anyway, what efforts are made to maintain Cath0lics in error! “Could they
guess that they were scandalously deceived by a press stubbornly keeping
covered all the proofs of innocence, all the testimonies favourable to the
convict of Devil’s Island, and also determined to impede the course of Justice
by any means?”(94)
At the forefront of that press was “La Libre Parole”, created, as we have
(92) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, p.451.
(93) (94) and (96) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.443, 444, 448.

seen, with the help of the j€§uit fäther du Lac, and “La Cr0ix” of the
“Assumptionist” fäther Bailly. The 0rder of “Assumption” being a
camouflaged branch of the Company of Jۤus, we must then attribute to
them the start and pursuit of the anti-Dreyfus campaign.
A not very suspicious witness, fäther Lecanuet, writes boldly: “The
Congregations and especially the j€§uits are denounced by the Affair’s
historians. And, this time, we must admit that the jۤuits took the first shot with
a very thoughtless temerity”.(95)
“The provincial Cath0lic newspapers, such as the “Nouvelliste” of Lyon, to
informative and widely read, will nearly all take part in that dark plot
against truth and justice. It seems that the watchword was passed around to stop
light breaking through and to keep the public in the dark”.(96)
In reality, one would need a peculiar blindness not to discern, behind the
furor shown by the “Cr0ix” in Paris and in the provinces, the “watchword”
mentioned by the Abbe Brugerette. And one would also be very naive not to
know the origin.(96a)
M. Adrien Dansette says this also: “It is the “Assumptionist” 0rder as a
whole and with it the Church which are exposed by the campaign of “La
Cr0ix”… fäther Bailly boasts that the ‘H0ly-fäther’ approved of
In fact, there isn’t any doubt concerning that approval! The j€§uits, to
whom the ” Assumptionists” lend their name, are they not, since the 0rder was
founded, the P0pe’s political instruments? We have to smile at the story cleverly
spread around—which is echoed by apologist historians—that Leo X III had
apparently “advised moderation” to the directors of “La Cr0ix”. It is a
classical trick, but still somewhat efficacious. Today, there are still some folk
who believe in a kind of “independence” of the H0ly-See’s official voice!
Let us see now what was published in R0me itself by the “Civilta
catt0lica”, the j€§uits’ official publication, under the title “Il caso
“The Jews’ emancipation has been the result of the so-called principles of
1789, whose yoke weighs heavily on all French people… The Jews hold the
Republic in their hands, which is more Hebraic than French… The Jew has
been created by God to be used as a spy wherever some treason is being
prepared… It is not only in fränce, but also in Germany, Austria and Italy that
the Jews must be excluded from the nation. Then, with the great harmony of
former times re-established, nations will find again their lost happiness”.(98)
(95) fäther Lecanuet, “Les Signes avant-coureurs de la Separation”, p. 179. (96a) The
newspaper “La Cr0ix” was then widely published. (Note of the author).
(97) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., p.277.
(98) The “Civilta catt0lica” of the 5th of February 1898.

In the previous chapters, we gave a short summary of the “great
harmony” and “happiness” enjoyed by the nations when the sons of L0y0la
heard the confessions and inspired the kings. As we have just seen,
“harmony” was also reigning when they were the confessors and
counsellors of the general-staffs chiefs.
According to the Abbe Brugerette, General de Boisdeffre, penitent of the
j€§uit fäther du Lac, tasted the same bitterness as many others before him
who were equally deceived by these “directors of consciences”. The
confessions of the forger Henry put him under an obligation to resign.
“Being a very honest man, he will himself proclaim that he was
“Scandalously deceived”, and those who knew him were aware that he felt
very bitter about the “plot” of which he had been the victim”.(99)
And the Abbe Brugerette adds that he stopped “all communications” with
his former confessor “and even refused to see him again when dying”.
After reading all this, written and published in the “Civilta catt0lica”, it
would be superfluous to dwell even deeper on the 0rder’s culpability and we
can only agree with what Joseph Reinach wrote then: “You see, it is the j€§uits
who contrived this dark affair. And, for them, Dreyfus is only a pretext. What
they want, and they admit it, is to strangle the laity and a redirected French
Revolution…, abolish foreign gods, the dogmas of 1789”.
This is clear enough. But, as some still insist, against all evidence, that there
was a possible disagreement between the P0pe and his secret army, between
the intentions of one and the actions of the other, it is easy to show the
emptiness of such a supposition. The case of Bailly is very enlightening in that
What can we read in “La Cr0ix” of the 29th of May 1956? Nothing less than
this: “As we have announced, His Eminence Car dinal Feltin 0rdered a research
into fäther Bailly’s writings; he was the founder of our publication and
the “Maison de la Bonne Press”. Here is the text of that ordinance dated
15th of May 1956:
“We, Maurice Feltin, by the grace of God and of the apostolic H0ly-See,
cardinal-priest of the H0ly R0man Church whose title is H0ly-Mary-of-
Peace, archbish0p of Paris.
“In view of the plan submitted by the Congregation of the Assumption’s
Augustinians and approved by us, to introduce in R0me the cause of God’s
servant Vincent-de-Pa ul Bailly, founder of “La Cr0ix” and “Bonne Press”. “In
view of the dispositions… and instructions of the H0ly See regarding the act
of beatification and research into the writings of God’s servants: “We have
0rdered and 0rder the following: “Anyone who knew this servant of God or who
can tell us something special about his life must let us know
(99) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, pp.435, 454.

about it… “Anyone who possesses writings of this servant of God must let us
have them before the 30th of September 1956, be it printed books, handwritten
notes, letters, memoranda… even instructions or advices not written by
him, but which he dictated… “For all these communications, we designate
Canon Dubois, secretary of our archbish0pric, and promoter of faith for this
Here is a “servant of God” well on the way to receive the just reward for his
loyal services in the form of a halo. And we dare say that, as far as his
“writings” are concerned and which were so carefully searched for, the
“promoter of faith” will have too much to choose from. As for the “printed”
material, the collection of “La Cr0ix”, especially between 1895 and 1899, will
supply the most edifying kind.
“Their attitude (of the Cath0lic newspapers), and especially the one of “La
Cr0ix”, constitute at the moment for all “enlightened and upright minds”,
what M. Pa ul Violet, Cath0lic member of the Institute calls an “indescribable
scandal”; and this scandal upholds, in the Dreyfus Affair, the most shocking
mistakes, the lying and crime against truth, uprightness and justice. “The Court
of R0me”, he adds, “knows it, as all the Courts of Europe do”.(101)
Indeed, the Court of R0me knew better than anyone else! As we have seen,
in 1956, she had not forgotten the pious exploits of this “servant of God” as
she was preparing his beatification.
No doubt, the promoter of faith credited our future “saint” with those
famous lists of subscriptions in favour of the widow of the forger Henry,
about which the Abbe Brugerette says: “Today, when we consider those calls
for the Inquisition to be brought back, for the persecution of the Jews, for the
murder of Dreyfus’ defenders, it is like listening to the delirious
imaginations of wild and grotesque fanatics. Nevertheless, these are
presented to us by “La Cr0ix” as a great, comforting and cheering
All those pious wishes concerning the Jews, fäther Bailly did not have the
joy to see them realised, in his lifetime, by these wild fanatics, under the
swastika. He could only take delight in that “great, comforting and
cheering spectacle” from heaven, even though, up there, spectacles of that sort
are quite common, according to the “learned”, and especially Saint Thomas
d’Aquin, the Angel of the School:
“In 0rder to help the saints enjoy their blessedness more, and increase
their thanksgivings to God, they are allowed to contemplate in all its
awfulness the torture of the godless… The saints will rejoice in the torments
(100) “La Cr0ix” of the 29th of May 1956.
(101) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., p.443.
(102) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, p.450.

of the godless”. (San cti de po enis impiorum gaudebunt) (103).
As we can see, fäther Bailly, Founder of “La Cr0ix”, had what it takes to
make a saint: persecute the innocent, curse those who defend him, give them
up to be murdered, uphold with all one’s strength lying and iniquity, stir up
discord and hatred; these are, to the eyes of the R0man Church, solid titles
for glory, and we can understand her wish to bestow the halo on the author of
these pious deeds.
However, this question is asked, “Is this ‘servant of God’ a wonderworker
also? Because we know that, to deserve such a promotion, one must
have accomplished miracles well and truly checked.”
What were the miracles accomplished by the director-founder of “La
Cr0ix”? Was it the transmutation, for his readers, of black into white and
white into black? To have presented a lie as the truth and the truth as a lie?
Naturally, but a greater miracle was the fact that he persuaded members of the
general-staff (and then the public) that, after having committed an initial
mistake, and when this mistake was discovered, it was in their “honour” to
deny the evidence, transforming in that way the mistake into abuse of power!
“Errare humanum est, perseverare diab0licum”. The “servant of God” was
not taking much notice of that proverb. Instead of letting it inspire him, he
hid it under his cassock. In fact, the”mea culpa” is for the simple faithful and
not the ecclesiastics, nor—as we have just seen— for the military chiefs who
have jۤuit confessors.
The result—searched for—was the exaltation of partisan passions and the
division of the French people.
This is stated by the eminent historian Pierre Gaxotte: “The Dreyfus Affair
was the decisive turning point… judged by officers, it involved the military
institution… The Affair grew, became a political conflict, divided families, cut
fränce into two. It had the effects of a war of religi0n… It created hatred
against the officers corps… It started anti-militarism”.(104)
When we think of Europe at that time, Germany over-equiped with arms
and surrounded by her two allies, when we recollect the Vat i can’s
responsibility in the start of the 1914 conflict, we cannot believe that the
diminution of strength in our military potential was not premeditated.
How could we not notice that, in fact, the “Dreyfus Affair” started in 1894,
the year of the fränco-Russian alliance. Then, the spokesmen of the Vat i can
were very outspoken about the accord with a “schismatic” power which, to
their eyes, was a scandal. Even today, a “prelate of His Holiness”, Monseigneur
Cristiani, dares write:
“Through politics strangely blind and ill considered, our country seemed to
take pleasure in provoking war-like inclinations in her formidable
(103) “Somme theologique”, in Supple. X CIV, I, 3.
(104) Pierre Gazotte, de l’Academie fräncaise, “Histoire de fräncais” (Flammarion, Paris
1951, tome II, pp.516, 517.

neighbour (Germany)… In fact, the fränco-Russian alliance seemed to
threaten Germany with encirclement”.(105)
For the respectable prelate, the Triple Alliance (Germany, Italy, Austria-
Hungary) was not a threat to anyone and fränce was wrong not to stay
isolated before such a block. With three against one, the “coup” would have
been easier and our H0ly fäther the P0pe would not have had to deplore, in
1918, the defeat of his champions.
(105) Mgr Cristiani, “Le Vat i can politique” (Ed. du Centurion, Paris 1957, p. 102).
110 Section IV
Chapter 9
The Years before the war—1900-1914

So, as wrote the Abbe Brugerette: “Under the image of J€§us crucified,
divine symbol of the idea of justice, “La Cr0ix” had passionately cooperated
with the work of deception and of crime against truth,
uprightness and justice”.(106)
Justice had nevertheless triumphed in the end and the Abbe Fremont, who
did not fear mentioning the sinister crusade led by Innocent III against the
Albigenses when referring to the Affair, seemed to be a true prophet when he
“The Cath0lics are winning and they think they will overthrow the
Republic because of the hatred for the Jews. But they will, I am afraid, only
overthrow themselves”.(107)
In fact, when opinion was enlightened, the reaction was fatal. Ranc had
learned the lesson of the Affair when he exclaimed: “The Republic will break
the power of the Congregations, or she will be strangled”. In 1899, a ministry
“of republican defence” was constituted; fäther Picard, superior of the
“Assumptionists”, fäther Bailly, director of “La Cr0ix”, and ten other
members of that 0rder were brought to trial before the tribunal of the Seine for
breach of the law on associations. The Congregation of the
“Assumptionists” was dissolved.
Waldek-Rousseau, president of the Council, declared in a speech
pronounced at Toulouse on the 28th of October 1900: “Dispersed, but not
suppressed, the religi0us 0rders formed themselves again, bigger in
numbers and more militant; they cover the territory with the network of a
political organisation whose links are innumerable and tightly knit, as we
have seen through a recent trial”.
At last, in 1901, a law is passed, ruling that no Congregation can be
(106) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., II, p.478.
(107) Agnes Siegfried: “L’Abbe Fremont” (F. Alcan. Paris 1932, II, p.163).

THE YEARS BEFORE THE WAR — 1900-1914 111
formed without an authorisation, and that those who do not ask for it
within the legal time will be automatically dissolved.
It will be these regulations, quite natural on the part of public authorities
whose duty it is to check the associations found in their territory, which will
be presented to the Cath0lics as an intolerable abuse. “A man’s house is his
castle”, goes the saying; but the Church is not having any of it: the common
law is not for her.
The resistance of the clerics to the application of the law would be
enough to show how necessary it was. This resistance will only
strengthen the government’s attitude, especially under minister Combes;
and R0me’s intransigence, especially when Pi us I succeeded to Leo X III,
will bring ubout the law of 1904, abolishing the teaching 0rders.
After that, friction between the French government and the H0ly See
will be constant. Besides, the election of the new P0pe was done in
significant circumstances.
“Leo X III died on the 20th of July 1903. The conclave, meeting to
designate his successor, gives, after several ballots, 29 votes for Car dinal
Rampolla,—42 are needed to be elected—, when the Austrian Car dinal
Puzyna stands up and declares that His Apostolic Majesty the Emperor of
Austria, king of Hungary, is inspired officially to exclude the secretary of
State to Leo X III. We know that Car dinal Rampolla is pro-French”.(108)
Car dinal Sarto is elected. Through the manoeuvre of Austria, which
substituted itself for the H0ly-Spirit to “inspire” the cardinals of the
conclave, this election is a victory for the jۤuits. Indeed, the new pontiff,
described as a mixture of “village priest and archangel with a fiery sword”,
is the perfect type of man wished for by the 0rder. This is what M. Adrien
Dansette says about it:
“When we love the P0pe, we do not limit the field in which he can and
must exercise his will”.(109)
Or this from his first consistorial address: “We know that we will shock
many people when we declare that we will necessarily be involved in
politics. But anyone wanting to judge fairly can see that the s0vereign
Pontiff, invested by God with a supreme authority, doesn’t have the right to
separate politics from the domain of faith and morals”.(110)
So Pi us X , as soon as he had acceeded to Saint-Peter’s throne,
publicly declared that, for him, the P0pe’s authority must be felt in every
domain, and that political clericalism is not only a right but a duty. He also
chose for his secretary of State a Spanish prelate, Monseigneur Merry del
Val who was thirty-eight years old and, like him, passionately pro-German
and anti-French. This state of mind is not surprising when we read these
words from the Abbe Fremont:
(108) (109) and (110) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., pp.317, 318, 319.


“Merry del Val, whom I met at the R0man College, was the “j€§uits’
favourite pupil”. (1ll)
The relations between the H0ly See and fränce soon felt the effects of that
choice. First of all, it was the nomination of bish0ps by the civil power which
brought about a conflict.
“Before the war of 1870, the H0ly See learned the names of the new
bish0ps only after they had been nominated. The P0pe reserved the right, if one
was not acceptable to him, to stop him being a bish0p by withholding the
canonical institution. In fact, the difficulties were enormous as the
governments, under any kind of regime, were careful to elect candidates
worthy of the episc0pal office”.(112)
As soon as Pi us X  was P0pe, most of the nominations for new bish0ps were
refused by R0me. Besides, the nuncio in Paris, Lorenzelli, was, as we are told
by M. Adrien Dansette, “a theologian who has gone astray in diplomacy and
madly hostile to fränce”. Some will say: “Just another one added to all the
others!” But such a choice for such a post clearly shows what were the
intentions of the R0man Curia towards our country.
This systematic hostility was going to show itself even more clearly in 1904,
when M. Loubet, president of the Republic, went to R0me to return the visit
paid to him in Paris sometime before by the king of Italy, Victor-Emmanuel
M. Loubet wished to be received by the P0pe also. But the R0man Curia
produced a supposed “invincible protocol”: “The P0pe could not receive a
head of state who, when visiting the king of Italy in R0me, seemed to
acknoweldge as lawful the “usurpation” of that ancient pontifical State. But
there were precedents: twice, in 1888 and 1903, a head of state—and not one
of the less important—had been received in R0me by the king of Italy and the
P0pe. Of course, this visitor was not the president of a Republic, but the
German Emperor Guillaume II… The same honour had been given to
Edward VII, King of England, and the Czar.
The insulting intention of that refusal was evident, and even emphasised by a
note sent to the various chancellories by the secretary of State Merry del Val.
A Cath0lic author, M. Charles Ledre, recently wrote this concerning the
“Could the pontifical diplomacy ignore the decisively important
objective which, behind the visit of president Loubet to R0me, was really
Of course, the Vat i can knew about the plan to separate Italy from her
partners of the Triple Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary, these two
(111) Agnes Siegfried, op.cit., p.342.
(112) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., p.323.
(113) Charles Ledre: “Un siecle sous la tiare” (Bibliotheque Cath0lique Amiot-Dumont, Paris
1955, p. 125).


THE YEARS BEFORE THE WAR — 1900-1914 113
Germanic powers considered by the R0man Church to be her best secular arms.
This was the very crux of the matter, and was, in fact the reason for the Vat i can’s
frequent bursts of temper.
Other conflicts arose concerning French bish0ps, considered in R0me to
be too Republican. At last, tired of the constant difficulties arising from the
Vat i can’s infringements of the terms of the C0nc0rdat, the French
government put an end, on the 29th of July 1904, to “relations which were
made void by the H0ly See”.
The breaking of diplomatic: relations was bound to lead, soon after,
to the separation of Church and state.
“We find it normal today”, wrote M. Adrien Dansette, “that fränce
should maintain displomatic relations with the H0ly See, and that
State and Church should live under the regime of separation.
Diplomatic relations are necessary as fränce must be represented
wherever she had interests to defend, outside any doctrinal
consideration. But separation is necessary as, in a democracy founded
on the s0vereignty of a people divided by several beliefs, the state only
owes liberty to the Church”.(l 14) And the author adds: “This is, at
least, the general opinion”.
We can only agree with this reasonable opinion, without forgetting,
of course, that the papacy would never endorse it. The R0man Church
never stopped proclaiming her preeminence over civil history,
throughout her own history, and, for want of being able to impose it
openly in recent times, she has done her best to implant it with the help
of her secret army, the Company of Jۤus.
Besides, it was at that time that fäther Wernz, general of this 0rder,
wrote: “The State is under the Church’s jurisdiction; so, secular authority
is indeed under the subjection of ecclesiastical authorty and has to
That is the doctrine of these intransigent champions of theocracy,
counsellors as well as those who execute their commands, who made
themselves indispensable at the Vat i can, so much so that, today, it
would he absolutely impossible to distinguish even the smallest
difference hetween “the black P0pe” and “the white P0pe”; they are one
and the same. And, when we refer to the politics of the Vat i can, we
simply mean the j€§uits’ politics.
With many other qualified observers, the Abbe Fremont admits it as
follows: “The j€§uits dominate the Vat i can”.(116)
Before the irreducible opposition of the jۤuits, all-powerful in the
Church, to the Republic, the State is constrained to enforce the law
(114) and (117) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., pp.333, 361.
(115) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.241. (116) Agnes
Siegfried, op.cit., p.421.


Separation, with several amendments, from 1905 to 1908. This law does not
want to decrease the Church’s wealth and her buildings set up for worship.
The faithful can form themselves into local associations, under the direction
of the priest, to manage them. What is R0me going to do?
“In the encyclical letter “Vehementer” (1 lth of February 1906), Pi us X
condemned the principle of separation and the one pertaining to the local
associations. But does he go beyond the principles?”(117) We will soon know.
In spite of the advice from the French episc0pate, he rejects all settlement,
on the 10th of August 1906, in the encyclical letter “Gravissimo”.
This is another disappointment for the liberal Cath0lics: “When I think”,
exclaims Brunetiere, “that what is refused to the French Cath0lics, with the
certain knowledge that such refusal will unleash a religi0us war in our poor
country which needs peace so much, is granted to the German Cath0lics, that
the “local associations” have been operating there for thirty years to
everyone’s satisfaction, I cannot help, as a patriot as well as a Cath0lic,
feeling most indignant”.(118)
There was some trouble, in fact, when an inventory of ecclesiastical
properties was taken, but not a religi0us war… Even though the
ultramontanes were stirring up trouble, the population as a whole
remained calm when some of the Church’s properties were returned to the
state, by her, rather than submit to the conciliatory measures laid down by the
Did, then, the writer Brunetiere understand fully the reason for that
difference in which the French Cath0lics and German Cath0lics were treated
by the H0ly See? The first world war was to reveal all the significance of it.
While the j€§uits had effectually worked, through the “Dreyfus Affair”, at
dividing the French people and weakening the prestige of our army, in
Germany, they were doing the exact opposite.
Bismark who, himself, had launched in the past the “Kulturkampf” against
the Cath0lic Church, was being loaded with her favours. This is what we are
told by the Cath0lic writer, Joseph Rovan, who also explains it:
“Bismark will be the first pr0testant to receive the “0rder of Christ” with
jewels, one of the highest honours of the Church. The German government
allows newspapers devoted to it to publish the fact that the chancellor
would be ready effecually to uphold the P0pe’s pretentions of a partial
restoration of his temporal authority”.(119)
“In 1886, the Centre—German Cath0lic party—was hostile to the
(118) Adrien Dansette, op.cit., p.363.
(119) and (121) Joseph Rovan, op.cit., pp.121, 150 ss.


THE YEARS BEFORE THE WAR — 1900-1914 115
military projects presented by Bismark. Leo X III intervened in the German
interior affairs in favour of Bismark. His secretary of State wrote to the
nuncio of Munich: “In view of the approaching revision of the religi0us
legislation which, as we have reasons to believe, will be carried out in a
conciliatory manner, the H0ly-fäther wishes that the Centre promote, in
every possible way, the projects of the military”.(120) This is what Joseph
Rovan has to say: “German diplomacy intervenes— it is already an old
habit—at the Vat i can to make the P0pe exercise his influence over the
Zentrum (Cath0lic party), so as to favour the military projects… The
German Cath0lics are going to speak about the great “political mission” of
Germany which is, at the same time, a universal moral mission… The
“Zentrum” makes itself also responsible for the prolongation of a reign
which, from, blustering in weakness, war-like speeches over naval armaments
to more war-like harangues, will eventually lead Germany to catastrophy… The
“Zentrum” enters the war (of 1914) convinced of the uprightness, purity and
moral integrity of its country’s leaders, of the agreement of their plans and
programme with the plans of eternal justice”.(121)
As we can see, the papacy had done what was necessary to implant this
conviction. Besides, as Monseigneur Fruhwirth said in 1914:
“Germany is the base on which the H0ly-fäther can and must establish
gtreat hopes”.
(120) Jean Bruhat: “Le Vat i can contre les peuples” (Paralleles, 21st of December 1950)


116 Section V
The Infernal Cycle
Chapter I The First World War

To the fury aroused at the Vat i can by the fränco-Russian alliance and
shown so well in the Dreyfus Affair, to the anger which the fränco-Italian
union incited, and to which the Loubet incident clearly testified, was added a
bitter resentment caused by the Entente Cordiale with England. fränce had
firmly decided not to stand alone opposite her ‘formidable neighbour’ and
Austria-Hungary. Politics so “blind and ill-considered”, according to
Monseigneur Cristiani, were looked upon most unfavourably by the
Cath0lic H0ly of Holies. For, besides jeopardizing the “thorough bleeding”
godless fränce needed, these politics were a priceless support for
schismatic Russia, this lost sheep whose return to the R0man Cath0lic fold had
never ceased to be hoped for, though its accomplishment might mean a war.
But for the time being the 0rthod0x Church stayed firmly implanted in the
Balkans, especially in Serbia, where the treaty of Bucarest, ending the conflict
of the Balkans, had made it a centre of attraction for the Slavs of the South
and in particular for those under the yoke of Austria. The ambitious plans
of the Vat i can and the apostolic imperialism of the Hapsburgs were then in
perfect accord, as in the past. To R0me and Vienna, the growing power of
Serbia marked her out as the enemy to overthrow.
This is indeed established in a diplomatic document found in the Austrian-
Hungarian archives; it reports, for the benefit of the Austrian minister
Berchtold, on the talks Prince Schonburg had at the Vat i can in October-
November 1913:
“Amongst the subjects discussed first of all with the cardinal secretary of
State (Merry del Val) last week, the question of Serbia came up, as
anticipated. First of all, the cardinal expressed his joy at our firm and
opportune attitude of recent months. During the audience I had that day
with His Holiness, the H0ly-fäther, who started the conversation by


mentioning our energetic steps taken in Belgrade, he made some
characteristic remarks: “It would certainly have been better”, said his
Holiness, “if Austria-Hungary had punished the Serbians for all the
wrongs they had done”.(l)
So, the war-like sentiments of Pi us X  were clearly expressed in 1913
already. There is nothing surprising about this when we consider the
inspirers of R0man politics.
“What were the Hapsburgs supposed to do? Chastise Serbia, an
0rthod0x nation. The prestige of Austria-Hungary, of these Hapsburgs who,
with the Bourbons of Spain, were the last supporters of the jۤuits, and
especially the prestige of the heir, fräncois-Ferdinand, their man, would
have been greatly increased. For R0me, the affair became one of almost
religi0us importance; a victory of apostolic monarchy over Czarism could be
considered as a victory of R0me over the schism of the East”.(2)
However, the affair dragged on in 1913. But, on the 28th of June 1914, the
archduke fräncois-Ferdinand was murdered at Sarajevo. The Serbian
government had nothing to do with this crime committed by a Macedonian
student, but it was the perfect excuse for the emporer fräncois-Joseph to start
“Count Sforza maintains that the main problem was to persuade
fräncois-Joseph that war was necessary. The advice of the P0pe and his
minister was the one which could best influence him”.(3)
This advice was of course given to the emperor, and of the kind which
could be expected from this P0pe and his minister, “favourite pupil of the
j€§uits”. While Serbia was trying to maintain peace by giving in to all the
wishes of the Austrian government which had sent a threatening note to
Belgrade, Count Palffy, Austrian representative to the Vat i can, gave to his
minister Berchtold, on the 29th of July, a summary of the talks he had had on
the 27th with the cardinal-secretary of State, Merry del Val; this
conversation was about “the questions which are disturbing Europe at the
The diplomat scornfully denies the “fanciful” rumours about the
supposed intervention of the P0pe who apparently “implored the emperor to
spare the Christian nations the horrors of war”. Having dealt with these
“absurd” suppositions, he expounds the “real opinion of the Curia”, as
conveyed to him by the secretary of State:
“It would have been impossible to detect any spirit of indulgence and
conciliation in the words of His Eminence. It is true that he described the note
to Serbia as very harsh, but he nevertheless approved of it entirely and, at the
same time and indirectly, expressed the wish that the Monarchy
( 1 ) “Document” P.A. X I/291.
(2) and (3) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., pp.245, 246, 250.


would finish the job. Indeed, added the cardinal, it was a pity that Serbia had
not been humiliated much earlier, as it could have been done, then, without
such great risks attached. This declaration echoes the wishes of the P0pe who,
over the past few years, often expressed regret that Austria-Hungary had
neglected ‘chastising’ her dangerous neighbour on the Danube”.(4)
This indeed is just the opposite to the “fanciful” rumours about a
pontifical intervention in favour of peace.
In fact, the Austrian diplomat is not the only one who reports on the “real
opinion” of the R0man pontiff and his minister.
The day before, on the 26th of July, Baron Ritter, Bavarian Charge
d’Affaires to the Vat i can, had written to his government:
“The P0pe agrees with Austria dealing severely with Serbia. He doesn’t
think much of the Russian and French armies and is of the opinion that they
could not do very much in a war against Germany. The cardinal-secretary
of State doesn’t see when Austria could make war if she does not decide
So, the H0ly See was fully conscious of the “great risks” represented by a
conflict between Austria and Serbia, but, nevertheless, did all in its power to
encourage it.
The H0ly-fäther and his j€§uit counsellors were not concerned about the
sufferings of “Christian nations”! It was not the first time that these nations
were used for the benefit of R0man politics. The opportunity wished for
had come at last to use the Germanic secular arm against 0rthod0x Russia,
“godless” fränce which needed a “thorough bleeding”, and, as a bonus, against
“heretic” England. Everything seemed to promise a “lively and happy” war.
Pi us X  did not see its unfolding and result, both contrary to his forecasts. He
died at the beginning of the conflict, on the 20th of August 1914. But. forty
years later, Pi us X II canonised this august pontiff, and the “Precis d’Histoire
Sainte” (Summary of H0ly History), used for parochial catechism,
dedicated to him these edifying words:
“Pi us X  did all he could to prevent the start of the 1914 war and he died of
anguish when he foresaw the sufferings it would unleash”.
If this was satire, it could not be put in a better way!
A few years before 1914, M. Yves Guyot, a true prophet, said: “If war
breaks out, listen, you men who think that the R0man Church is the
symbol of 0rder and peace, and do not search for blame outside of the
(4) “Veroffentlichungen der (Commission fur Neuere Geschichte Osterreichs”, 26 Wien-
Leipzig 1930, pp.893, 894.
(5) This communication appears in”Bayerische Dokumentenzum Kriegssausbruch”, I I I , p


Vat i can: it will be the sly instigator, as in the war of 1870″.(6) Instigator of
the slaughter, the Vat i can was going to uphold no less craftily her Austro-
German champions right through the war. The military excursion, in fränce,
which the Kaiser boasted he was going to make, was stopped at the Marne
and the aggressor brought back to the defensive after every one of his furious
attacks. But, at least, pontifical diplomacy brought him all the help possible,
and this is not surprising when we consider that Divine Providence seemed
to delight in favouring the central empires.
Indeed, Car dinal Rampolla, considered to be pro-French—and for that
reason kept away from the pontifical throne on a veto from Austria—
wasn’t any more amongst those who could become P0pe as he had died a
few months before Pi us X , a death it seems very opportune.
But this was not the whole of “God’s” intervention: As he had promised,
even before voting took place, the new P0pe, ben edict X V appointed
Car dinal Ferrata as secretary of State.
But the cardinal(7) did not even have the time to take up fully his new
position. Having entered the secretary’s office at the end of September
1914, HE DIED SUDDENLY on the 20th of October, victim of a terrible
indisposition after partaking of some “LIGHT REFRESHMENTS”.
“He was sitting at his desk when he suddenly became violently sick. He
fell as if lightning had struck him. The servants hastened to come to his
help. The doctor, who had been called immediately, realised straightaway
the gravity of the situation and asked for a quick consultation. As for
Ferrata, he had already understood and knew there was no hope… He
pleaded that he should not be left to die at the Vat i can… The medical
consultation took place immediately at his hotel with six doctors… They
refused to draw up a medical bulletin; the one published bore no
signatures”.(8) He was not suffering from any kind of sickness or infirmity.
“The scandal of this death was such that an inquest could not be avoided.
The result of it was: a jar had been broken at the office. The presence of
pounded glass in the sugar bowl used by the cardinal was explained quite
simply in that way. Granulated sugar can be useful! The inquest was
stopped there…”(9)
The Abbe Daniel adds that the sudden departure, a few days later, of the
servant of the deceased cardinal provoked quite a lot of remarks, especially
as he had apparently been the servant of Monseigneur Von Gerlach before
his master entered H0ly 0rders. This Germanic prelate, a notorius spy, was
to flee from R0me in 1916: he was going to be arrested and charged with the
sabotage of the Italian battleship “Leonard de Vinci” which blew up in the
(6) Yves Guyot: “Bilan politique de l’Eglise”, p. 139.
(7) He was not very friendly towards the jۤuits.
(8) and (9) Abbe Daniel: “Le Bapteme de sang”, (Ed. de l’ldee Libre, Herblay 1935, pp.28-30).


bay of Tarente, taking with it 21 officers and 221 seamen”. His trial was
resumed in 1919. Von Gerlach did not appear and was condemned to
twenty years hard labour”.(10)
Through the case of this “participating chamberlain”, editor of the
“Osservatore R0mano”, we get a clear idea of the state of mind in the
Vat i can’s high spheres.
It is again the Abbe Brugerette who describes the “entourage of the H0ly See”:
“Professors or ecclesiastics, they are not put off by any obstacles in their
pursuit of impressing on the Italian clergy and the Cath0lic world in R0me
respect and admiration for the Germanic army, contempt and hatred for
fränce”.(l 1)
Ferrata, who favoured neutrality, had died just at the right time, and
Car dinal Gasparri became secretary of State; in perfect agreement with
ben edict X V, he did his best to serve the interests of the central empires
“Considering all this, it is not surprising then that P0pe ben edict X V, in the
following months, worked hard to maintain Italy on the path of intervention
which would best serve the j€§uits, friends of the Hapsburgs…”(12)
At the same time, the morale of the Allies was cunningly undermined.
“On the 10th of January 1915, a decree signed by Car dinal Gasparn,
secretary of State to ben edict X V, 0rdered that a day of prayer should be
observed to hasten peace… One of the compulsory exercises of piety was the
reciting of a prayer written by ben edict X V himself… The French government
0rdered that the pontifical document should be seized. This prayer for peace
was considered to be a softening and destructive manifestation capable of
slackening the efforts of our armies, at a time when the German hordes were
feeling the irresistible pressure which would push them out of our territory, and
when the Kaiser could see coming the terrible punishment his unpardonable
crimes deserved… The P0pe, it was said, wanted peace come what may, at a
time when it could only be in favour of the central empires. The P0pe does
not like fränce; he is “German”.(13)
M. Charles Ledre, another Cath0lic writer, confirms: “On two
occasions, mentioned in some famous articles of “La Revue de Paris”, the
H0ly See, by inviting Italy and later the United States to keep out of the war,
did not merely wish for a quicker end of the conflict… According to the Abbe
Brugerette, it served the interests of our enemies and worked against us”.(14)
But the actions of the jۤuits, therefore the actions of the Vat i can, were not
only felt in Italy and the United States. Any means, every place, is good
(10) ( 1 1 ) and (13) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., III, pp.553, 528, 529. (12)
Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.252. (14) Charles Ledre, op.cit., p. 154.


enough for them.
“It is not surprising then to see pontifical diplomacy busy from the start
at hindering our food supply; dissuading the neutrals from joining our side,
in 0rder to break the bond holding the ‘Entente’ together… Nothing was
considered too insignificant if it could help this great task, and bring about
peace by provoking some weakness amongst the Allies.
“There was worse: Solicitations for a separate peace. Between the 2nd and
the 10th of January 1916, some German Cath0lics went to Belgium to preach,
in the name of the P0pe they said, a separate peace. The Belgian bish0ps
accused them of lying, but the nuncio and the P0pe remained silent…
“Then, the H0ly See thought of bringing together fränce and Austria, so
hoping to make fränce sign a separate peace or demand that, with her
allies, they should negotiate a general peace… A few weeks later, on the 31st of
March 1917, Prince Sixte of Bourbon gave the famous letter of the emperor
Charlesto the president of the Republic.
“As the manoeuvre had failed on this side of the Alps, it was bound to be
tried again elsewhere, in England, in America, and especially in Italy…
“Break up the temporal forces of the ‘Entente’ in 0rder to stop its
offensive attacks, ruin its moral prestige with the view to weaken its
courage and bring it to terms… these two things make up the politics of
ben edict X V and all the efforts of his impartiality always have been and are still
aimed at hamstringing us”.(15)
This was written by a notorious Cath0lic, M. Louis Canet; and this is what
the Abbe Brugerette wrote:
“We only learned four years later, through the declarations of M.
Erzberger published in the “Germania” of the 22nd of April 1921, that the
proposal of peace proclaimed by the P0pe in August 1917 had been
preceded by a secret accord between the H0ly See and Germany”.(16)
Another interesting point is that the ecclesiastical diplomat who
negotiated this “secret accord” was the nuncio in Munich, Monseigneur
Pacelli, future Pi us X II.
One of his apologists, the R.P. j€§uit Fernesolle, wrote: “On the 28th of
May (1917), Monseigneur Pacelli presented his letters of appointment to the
king of Bavaria… He tried hard to enlist the co-operation of William II and the
chancellor Bethmann-Holveg. On the 29th of June, Monseigneur Pacelli was
solemnly received by the emperor William II at the headquarters of
(15) Louis Canet: “Le Politique de Benoit X V”, (Revue de Paris, 15th of October and 1st of
November 1918).
(16) Abbe Brugerette, op.cit., III, p.543.
(17) R.P. Fernesolle, S.J. “Pro pontifice”. Imprimatur 26th of June 1947,(Beauchesne, Paris
1947, p. 15.)


So, the future P0pe was starting his twelve years as nuncio in Munich, then
in Berlin, in the way he meant to go on, for, during those years, he
multiplied the intrigues to overthrow the German Republic established
after the first world war and prepare the revenge of 1939 by bringing hit ler to
Yet, when the Allies signed the treaty of Versailles, in July 1919, they
were so conscious of the part played by the Vat i can in the conflict that it was
carefully kept away from the conference table. And, even more
surprising, it was the most Cath0lic State, Italy, which had insisted on its
“Through art. X V of the pact of London (26th of April 1915), which
defined Italy’s participation in the war, Baron Sonnino had obtained the
promise from the other Allies that they would oppose any intervention of the
papacy in the peace arrangements”. 18) This measure was wise but
insufficient. Instead of applying the sanctions against the H0ly See which it
deserved for sparking off the first world war, the victors did nothing to
prevent the further intrigues of the jۤuits and the Vat i can; these
eventually, 20 years later, led to a catastrophe even worse, maybe the worst the
world has known.
(18) Charles Pichon: “Histoire du Vat i can” (Sefi, Paris 1946, p. 143).


Section V
Chapter 2 Preparations for the Second World War

In 1919, the sons of L0y0la reaped the bitter fruits of their criminal
politics. fränce had not succumbed to the “thorough bleeding”. The
apostolic empire of the Hapsburgs, which they had encouraged to “punish
the Serbians”, had disintegrated, liberating the 0rthod0x Slavs from the
yoke of R0me. Russia, instead of coming back to the R0man fold, had
become marxist, anti-clerical and officially atheistic. As for invincible
Germany, it foundered in the chaos.
But the proud nature of the Company would never consider confessing a sin.
When ben edict X V died, in 1922, it was ready to start again on a new basis. Is
it not all-powerful in R0me?
Let us listen to M. Pierre Dominique: “The new P0pe Pi us X I who is,
according to some, a jۤuit, tries to patch things up. He asks the jۤuit
fäther d’Herbigny to go to Russia, in an attempt to rally whatever is left of
Cath0licism, and especially to see what could be done. Vague and big hope: to
rally around the pontiff the persecuted 0rthod0x world.
“In R0me, there are thirty-nine ecclesiastical colleges, whose foundation
marks the dates of great counter-offensives; most of these counteroffensives
were jۤuitical in their working and direction: Germanic college
(1552), English (1578), Irish (1628, re-established in 1826), Scottish (1600),
North-American (1859), Canadian (1888), Ethiopian (1919, re-constituted in
“Pi us X I creates the Russian college (P0nteficio collegio russo di S.
Teresa del Bambin0 Gesu) and puts it under the j€§uits’ care. They also look
after the Oriental Institute, the Institute of Saint-John Damascene, the
Polish college, and later the Lithuanian college. Are these reminders of fäther
P0ssevino, Ivan the Terrible and the false Dimitri? The second of the three
great objectives during Ignatius’ time takes first place. The j€§uits, once
again, are the inspiring agents and performers in that great enterprise”.(19)

In the defeat they just suffered, the sons of L0y0la can see a glimmer of
some hope. The Russian revolution, by eliminating the Czar, protector of the
0rthod0x Church, had it not decapitated the great rival and helped the
penetration of the R0man Church? We must strike while the iron is hot! The
famous “Russicum” is created and its clandestine missionaries will take the
Good News to this schismatic country.(19a) One century a f t e r their
explusion by Czar Alexander the First, the jۤuits will again undertake
the conquest of the Slav world. Since 1915, their general is Nalke von
From M. Pierre Dominique again: “Some will say that I see j€§uits
everywhere! But I am compelled to point out their presence and actions; to say
that they were behind the monarchy of Alphonso X III whose confessor was
fäther Lopez; that, when the Spanish monarchy was ended and their
monasteries and colleges burned down, they were found again behind Gil
Robles, then, when civil war broke out, behind fränco. In Portugal, they
uphold Salazar. In Austria and Hungary, the Emperor Charles who was
dethroned three times; (what part did they play in those attempts to regain the
throne of Hungary? Who knows!) They kept the seat warm not knowing
much for whom or what. Monsignor Seipel, Dolfuss and Schussnigg are
from their ranks. They dream for a while of a great Germany, with a
Cath0lic majority, to which the Austrians would necessarily belong: a
modern version of the old 16th century alliance between the Wittelsbach and
Hapsburg. In Italy, they support first of all Don Sturzo, founder of the popular
party, then muss0lini… The j€§uit fäther Tacchi Venturi, general-secretary of
the Company, served as the middleman between Pi us X I, whose confessors are
fäthers Alissiardi and Celebrano (j€§uits), and muss0lini.
“The P0pe, in February 1929, at the time of the treaty of Lateran, calls
muss0lini “the man whom Providence allowed us to meet”. R0me does not
condemn what is commonly called the “Ethiopian aggression” and, in
1940, the Vat i can is still muss0lini’s sincere friend.
“The j€§uits have their secret abode in it. From there, they survey the
Universal Church with the cold and calculating eye of the politician”.(20)
This is a perfect summary of the jۤuit activity between the two world wars.
The “secret abode” of L0y0la’s sons is the political brain of the Vat i can. The
confessors of Pi us X I are jۤuits; those of his successor, Pi us X II, will also be
jۤuits and Germans for good measure. No matter if, because of it, the plot
becomes evident: everything, it seems, is ready for revenge.
(19) and (20) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., pp.253, 254.
(19a) See also Frederic Hoffet’s “L’Equivoque Cath0lique et le nouveau clericalisme”
(Fischbacher, Paris).


But, under the pontificate of Pi us X I, it is the preparatory period. The
Germanic “secular arm”, defeated, has dropped the sword. While waiting to
put it back into its hands, we will prepare, in Europe, a field worth its future
exploits, and first of all stop the threatening rise of democracy. Italy will be
the first field of action. There is, there, a noisy socialist chief who gathers exservicemen
around him. This man proclaims an apparently intrasigent doctrine,
but he is ambitious and lucid enough to realise how precarious his position is,
in spite of his extravagent boastings. jۤuit diplomacy will soon win him
over to its side.
M. fräncois Charles-Roux, of the Institute, who was our (i.e. French)
ambassador to the Vat i can at that time, says: “At the time when the future
Duce was only a simple deputy, Car dinal Gasparri, secretary of State, had a
secret interview with him… The fascist chief had immediately agreed that the
P0pe should exercise a temporal s0vereignty over a part of R0me… “When
reporting to me about that interview, Car dinal Gasparri concluded:
“With this promise, I was sure that, if this man came to power, we would
succeed”. ”
“I will not mention his account of the negotiations between the secret
agents of Pi us X I and muss0lini…”(21)
These secret agents, the main one being the j€§uit fäther Tacchi Venturi,
fullfilled their mission extremely well. This is not surprising when we know
that fäther Tacchi Venturi was secretary of the Company of J€§us and
muss0lini’s confessor at the same time. In fact, he was “directed” into this
“cajolery” of the Fascist chief by the general of his 0rder, Halke von
Ledochowski, as we are told by M. Gaston Gaillard.(22)
“On the 16th of November 1922, Parliament elected muss0lini by 306
votes against 116, and, in that meeting, one saw the Cath0lic group of don
Sturzo, supposedly Christian-Democrat, voting unanimously for the first
fascist government”.(23)
Ten years later, the same manoeuvre brought about a similar result in
Germany. The Cath0lic “Zentrum” of Monsignor Kass assured, by its
massive vote, the dictatorship of Nazism.
In fact, Italy had been, in 1922, the trial ground for the new formula of
authoritarian conservatism: fascism, dressed up, when local circumstances
demanded it, with some pseudo-socialism. From now on, all the efforts of
the Vat i can’s j€§uits will tend to spread this “doctrine” in Europe, the
ambiguity of which is typical of them.
Even today, the collapse of muss0lini’s regime, nor the defeat, nor the ruins
have been enough to discredit, to the eyes of Italy’s Christian
(21) fräncois Charles-Roux: “Huit ans an Vat i can”, Flammarion, Paris 1947, pp.47 ss
(22) Gaston Gaillard, p.353 “La fin d’un temps” (Ed. Albert, Paris, 1933). (23) Pietro Nenni
“Six ans de guerre civile en Italie” (Librairie Valois, Paris 1930, p. 146)


democrats, the megalomaniac Dictator imposed on their country by the
Vat i can. Disowned only outwardly, his prestige remains intact in the hearts of the
clerics. The following could be read in the press:
“We have decided: visitors coming to R0me for the Olympic Games, in
1960, will see the marble obelisk erected by Benito muss0lini to his own
glory as it dominates, from the banks of the Tiber, the Olympic stadium.
This memorial thirty-three meters high bears the inscription “muss0lini-
Dux” and is decorated with mosaics and inscriptions praising fascism. The
phrase “Long live the Duce” is repeated more than one hundred times and the
slogan “Many enemies means much honour” several times as well. The
monument has, on either side, marble blocks commemorating the main
events of fascism, from the foundation of the publication “Popolo d’ltalia”, by
muss0lini, until the establishment of the short-lived fascist empire, and
including the war in Ethiopia. The obelisk was to be crowned with a
gigantic statue of muss0lini, as a naked athlete, nearly one hundred metcrs
high. But the regime collapsed before this strange project could be realised.
“After a year of controversy, the Segni government has just decided that the
duce’s obelisk should stay”.(24)
The war, the blood which flowed profusely, the tears and the ruins do not
matter. They are mere trifles, small spots on the monument erected to the
glory of “the man whom Providence allowed us to meet”, as he was
described by Pi us X I.
No shortcomings, mistakes or crimes can erase his main merit: the fact that
he re-established the temporal power of the P0pe, proclaimed R0man
Cath0licism as the religi0n of the State, and gave the clergy, through laws still
being enforced, complete power over the life of the nation.
It is to testify to this that muss0lini’s obelisk must stand in the heart of
R0me, for the benefit of foreign tourists looking at it admiringly or
ironically, and in the hope of better times which would allow the erection of the
“naked athlete” one hundred meters high, symbolic champion of the
Vat i can.
The Lateran Treaty, by which muss0lini showed his gratitude to the
papacy, gave the H0ly See, apart from the payment of one thousand 750
million liras (i.e. £20,000,000) the temporal s0vereignty over the territory of
Vat i can city. Monseigneur Cristiani, prelate of His Holiness, explains the
significance of this event:
“It is certain that the Constitution of the Vat i can city was a matter of
prime importance in 0rder to establish the papacy as a political power”.(25)
(24) “Press italienne, New York Herald Tribune, Time and Paris-Presse”, 3rd of November
(25) Monseigneur Cristiani: “Le Vat i can politique”, Imprimatur 15th of June 1956 (Ed. du
Centurion, Paris 1957, p. 136).


We will not waste time trying to conciliate this explicit confession with the
phrase so often heard that “the R0man Church is not involved in politics”.
We will only point out the unique position in the world of a state which is
secular and sacred, of equivocal nature as well, and the consequences of
that position.
What are the jۤuitical crafty tricks used by this power which, depending on
circumstances, makes use of her temporal or spiritual character, to be
exempted from all the rules laid down by international laws? The nations
themselves have lent their hand to this trickery and, by doing that, helped its
penetration into their midst, the Trojan horse of clericalism. “The P0pe
seemed to identify himself too much with the dictators”(26), wrote M.
fräncois Charles-Roux, French ambassador to the Vat i can. But could it be
otherwise when the H0ly See itself had raised these men to power?
muss0lini, the prototype, was the inaugurator of that series of
“providential” men, these sword-bearers who would prepare the revenge for
1918. From Italy, where it prospered so well under the care of the j€§uit fäther
Tacchi Venturi and his acolytes, fascism was soon to be exported to Germany.
“hit ler receives his impetus from muss0lini; the ideal of the Nazi s is the
same as in Italy… Since muss0lini is at the head, all the
sympathies are for Berlin… In 1923, his Fascism merges with National-
Socialism; he becomes friends with hit ler to whom he supplies arms and
At that time, Monseigneur Pacelli, future Pi us X II and, then, the Curia’s
best diplomat, is Nuncio in Munich, capital of Cath0lic Bavaria. There, the
star of the future German dictator starts to rise; he is also a Cath0lic, like his
most important associates. Of that country, cradle of nazism, M. Maurice
Laporte tells us: “Its two enemies are called pr0testantism and Democracy”.
Prussia’s anxiety is therefore understandable.
“It is easy to guess what kind of special care the Vat i can gives Bavaria
where hit ler’s National-Socialism recruits its strongest contingents”.(28)
To take from “heretic” Prussia the control of the German “secular arm” and
transfer it to Cath0lic Bavaria; what a dream! Monseigneur Pacelli puts all
in his power to realise it, acting in concert with the chief of the Company
of Jۤus.
“After the other war (1914-1918), the j€§uits’ general, Halke von
Ledochowski, had conceived a vast plan… the creation, with or without
emperor Hapsburg, of a federation of the Cath0lic nations in central and
(26) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., p.231.
(27) Antonio Aniante: “muss0lini” (Grasset, Paris 1932, pp.123 ss.). (28) Maurice
Laporte: “Sous le casque d’acier” (A. Redier, Paris 1931, p. 105).


eastern Europe: Austria, Slovakia, Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Croatia
and, of course, Bavaria.
“This new central Empire had to fight on two fronts: on the eastern side
against the Soviet Union, on the western side against Prussia, pr0testant
Great-Britain and republican, rebellious fränce. At that time,
Monseigneur Pacelli, future Pi us X II, was nuncio in Munich, then in
Berlin, and an intimate friend of Car dinal Faulhaber, von Ledochowski’s
main collaborator. The Ledochowski plan was the dream of Pi us X II’s
But was it only a dream of youth? The “Mittel-Europa” hit ler tried to
organise was very similar to that plan, apart from the presence, in that
block, of Lutheran Prussia, a not very dangerous minority, and the
recognised zones of influence which—maybe temporarally—belonged to
Italy. In fact, it was the Ledochowski plan, adapted to the needs of the time,
which the Fuhrer was trying to realise, under the patronage of the H0ly See,
with the help of fränz von Papen, secret chamberlain of the P0pe, and the
nuncio to Munich, then Berlin, Monseigneur Pacelli.
M. fräncois Charles-Roux writes: “During the contemporary epoch world
politics never felt the Cath0lic intervention more than during the ministry of
Monseigneur Pacelli”.(30)
And from M. Joseph Rovan: “Now, Cath0lic Bavaria… is going to
welcome and protect all those who sow trouble, all those confederates and
assassins of de la Saint-Vehme”.(31)
From amongst these agitators, the choice of Germany’s “regenerators”
will fall upon hit ler, who is destined to triumph over the “democratic
mistakes” under the H0ly fäther’s standard. Of course, he is a Cath0lic,
like his principal collaborators.
“The nazi regime is like a return to the government of southern
Germany. The names and origins of its chiefs demonstrate it: hit ler is
specifically Austrian, Goering is Bavarian, Goebbels is Rhenish, and so
In 1924, the H0ly See signs a C0nc0rdat with Bavaria. In 1927, we can read
in “Cologne’s Gazette”: “Pi us X I is certainly the most German P0pe who ever
sat on the throne of Saint-Peter”.
His successor, Pi us X II, will rob him of this palm. But, for the time being, he
pursues his diplomatic career—rather his political career—in this Germany
for which, as he later told Ribbentrop, “he would always have a special
Promoted nuncio in Berlin, he works, with fränz von Papen, at
(29) VLa Tribune des Nations”, 30th of June 1950.
(30) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., p.93.
(31) Joseph Rovan, op.cit., p.195.
(32) Gonzague de Reynold: “D’ou vient l’Allemagne” (Plon, Paris 1939, p. 185).

destroying the Weimar Republic. On the 20th of July 1932, a state of
siege is proclaimed in Berlin and the ministers expelled “manu militari”. It
is the first step towards hit lerian dictatorship. New elections are prepared
which wi l l establish the success of the nazis.
“With hit ler’s approval, Goering and Strasser got in contact
with Monseigneur Kaas, party chief of the Cath0lic Centre”.(33)
Car dinal Bertram, archbish0p of Breslau and primate of Germany,
declared: “We, Christians and Cath0lics, do not recognise any religi0n
or race…”. With many other bish0ps, he tried to warn the faithful against
“the pagan ideal of the nazis”. Obviously, this prelate had not understood
papäl politics, but he was soon going to be taught.
“The “Mercure de fränce” gave an excellent study in 1934:
“In the beginning of 1932, German Cath0lics did not consider they had
lost the cause but, in the spring, their chiefs seemed somewhat irresolute:
they had been told that “the P0pe was personally in favour of hit ler”.
“That Pi us X I was sympathetic to hit ler should not surprise us… For
him, Europe could settle down again only through Germany’s hegemony…
The Vat i can had thought of changing the centre of gravity of the Reich,
through the Anschluss, for a long time, and the Company of Jۤus was
openly working towards that aim (Ledochowski’s plan), especially in
Austria. We know how Pi us X I depended on Austria to make what he
called his politics triumph. What had to be prevented was the hegemony of
pr0testant Prussia and, as the Reich was the one to dominate Europe… a
Reich had to be rebuilt where the Cath0lics would be masters…
“In March 1933, the German bish0ps, meeting at Fulda, took advantage
of the speech hit ler gave at Potsdam to declare: We must admit that the
highest representative of the government of the Reich, who is at the same
lime the head of the national-socialist movement, has made public and
solemn declarations, by which the inviolability of the Cath0lic doctrine, the
work and unchangeable rights of the Church are recognised… “Von Papen
leaves for R0me. This man, whose past is so wicked, becomes a pious
pilgrim with the mission to conclude a C0nc0rdat (for the whole of
Germany) with the P0pe. He too will have to emulate muss0lini’s overtures
towards the Vat i can.(34)
In fact, the same happens in both countries: in Italy, the Cath0lic party of
don Sturzo ensures muss0lini’s accession to power; in Germany, the
“Zentrum” of Monseigneur Kaas does the same for hit ler—and, on both
occasions, a C0nc0rdat seals the pact.
M. Joseph Rovan admits this as follows: “Thanks to von Papen,
deputy at the Zentrum since 1920 and owner of the party’s official
(33) Walter Gorlitz and Herbert A. Quint: “Adolf hit ler” (Amiot, Dumont, Paris 1953, p.32).
(34) “Mercure de fränce”; “Pi us X I and hit ler” (15th of January 1934).


‘Germania’. hit ler came to power on the 30th of January 1933… “German
political Cath0licism, instead of becoming Christian Democrat, was
eventually made to confer full powers on hit ler, on the 26th of March
1933… To vote in favour of full powers, a two-thirds majority was
necessary and the votes of the “Zentrum” were indispensable to obtain
it”.(35) The same author adds: “In the correspondance and declarations of
ecclesiastical dignitaries, we will always find, under the nazi regime, the
fervent approval of the bish0ps”.(36)
This fervour is easily explained when we read the following from von
Papen: “The general terms of the C0nc0rdat were more favourable than all
other similar agreements signed by the Vat i can”, and, “the Chancellor
hit ler asked me to assure the papäl secretary of State (Car dinal Pacelli) that
he would immediately muzzle the anticlerical clan”.(37)
This was not an empty promise. Already during that year (1933), apart
from the massacre of Jews and assassinations perpetrated by the Nazis. there
were 45 concentration camps in Germany, with 40,000 prisoners of various
political opinions, but mostly liberals. fränz von Papen, the P0pe’s secret
chamberlain, defined perfectly the deep meaning of the pact between the
Vat i can and hit ler by this phrase worth engraving: “Nazism is a Christian
reaction against the spirit of 1789”.
In 1937, Pi us X I, under the pressure of world opinion, “condemned” the
racial theories as incompatible with Cath0lic doctrine and principles, in what
his apologists amusingly call the “terrible” encyclical letter “Mit brennender
Sorge”. Nazi racism is condemned, but not hit ler, its promoter:
“Distinguio”. And the Vat i can takes care not to denounce the “advantagous”
C0nc0rdat concluded, four years earlier, with the nazi Reich.
While the cross of Christ and the Swastika were co-operating in
Germany. Benito muss0lini set forth on the easy conquest of Ethiopia, with
the H0ly fäther’s blessing.
“… The s0vereign Pontiff had not condemened muss0lini’s politics and had
left the Italian clergy fully free to co-operate with the Fascist government…
The ecclesiastics, from the priests of humble parishes to the cardinals, spoke
in favour of the war…
“One of the most striking examples came from the Car dinal-Archbish0p of
Milan, Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster (jۤuit), who went as far as calling
(35) and (36) Joseph Rovan, op.cit., pp. 197,209,214.
(37) fränz von Papen, op.cit., p.207.
(38) The enthusiasm of Car dinal Schuster is understandable as the Company of Jۤus had
suffered the same fate, in Abyssinia, as in the European countries. With the help of usurper
Segud, whom they had converted and put on the throne, the sons of L0y0la tried to impose
Cath0licism to the whole country, provoking uprisings and bloody repressions; but they were
finally expelled by the Negus Basilides. (Note from the author).


this campaign “a Cath0lic crusade”.(38) “Italy”, clarified Pi us X I,
“thinks this war is justified because of a pressing need for expansion…”
“Ten days later, when speaking to an audience of ex-servicemen, Pi us X I
expressed the wish that the legitime claims of a great and noble nation from
which, he reminded them he himself descended, would be satisfied”.(39)
The Fascist aggression against Albania, on Good Friday in 1939,
enjoyed the same “understanding”, as we are told by M. Camille Cianfarra:
“The Italian occupation of Albania was very advantagous for the Church…
Out of a population of one million Albanian people, which became Italian
subjects, 68% were Moslems, 20% Greek 0rthod0x and only 12% R0man
Cath0lics… From the political point of view, the annexation of the country
by a Cath0lic power was bound to improve the position of the Church and
please the Vat i can”.(40)
In Spain, the establishment of the republic had not ceased to be resented by
the R0man Curia as a personal offence. “I never dared mention the Spanish
question to Pi us X I”, wrote M. fräncois Charles-Roux. “He probably
would have reminded me that the Church’s interests, in that great and
historical land of Spain, were a matter for the papacy only”.(41)
So, this “protected hunting-ground” was soon provided with a dictator
similar to those who had been already successful in Italy and Germany. The
adventure of General fränco only started in mid-July 1936 but, on the 21st of
March 1934, the “Pact of R0me” had been sealed, between muss0lini and
the chiefs of Spain’s reactionary parties, one of whom was M.
Goicoechea, chief of the “Renovacion Espanola”. By this pact, the Italian
fascist party undertook to supply the rebels with money, war material, arms
and ammunition. We know that they even did more than what they had
promised, and that muss0lini and hit ler kept on “refuelling” the Spanish
rebellion with material, aviation and “volunteers”.
As for the Vat i can, oblivious of its own principle that the faithful must
respect the established government, it oppressed Spain with its threats.
“The P0pe excommunicated the heads of the Spanish Republic and
declared spiritual war between the H0ly See and Madrid. Then he
produced the encyclical letter ‘Dilectissimi Nobis’… Archbish0p Goma, new
primate of Spain, proclaimed the civil war”.(42)
The prelates of His Holiness joyfully accepted the horrors of this
fratricidal conflict, and Monsignor Gomara, bish0p of Carthagene,
(39) and (40) Camille Cianfarra: “La Guerre et le Vat i can” (Le Portulan, Paris 1946,
Note from the author: Car dinal Schuster was also rector of this strange institution: “L’Ecole
de mystique fasciste” (school of fascist mysticism) (41)
fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., p.181.
(42) Andre Ribard: “1960 et le secret du Vat i can” (Libr. Robin, Paris 1954, p.45.)


interpreted admirably their apostolic sentiments when he said: “Blessed are the
cannons if, in the breaches they open, the Gospel springs up!”
The Vat i can even recognised fränco’s government, on the 3rd of August
1937, twenty months before the end of the civil war.
Belgium was also looked after by Cath0lic Action, needless to say, an
organisation eminently ultramontane and jۤuitical. The ground had to be
prepared for the approaching invasion of the Fuhrer’s armies! So, under the
pretence of “spiritual renewal”, the hit lerite Fascist gospel was diligently
preached there by Monseigneur Picard, j€§uit, fäther Arendt. j€§uit, fäther
Foucart, jۤuit, etc. A young Belgium, who was their victim like many others,
testifies to this: “At that time, all of us were already obsessed with a kind of
fascism… The Cath0lic Action to which I belonged was very sympathetic to
Italian fascism… Monseigneur Picard proclaimed from the rooftops that
muss0lini was a genius and wished fervently for a dictator… Pilgrimages were
organised to favour contacts with Italy and Fascism. “When, with three
hundred students, I went to Italy, everybody, on our return home, saluted
in the R0man fashion and sang Giovinezza.(43)
Another witness says: “After 1928, the group of Leon Degrelle regularly
collaborated with Monseigneur Picard… Monseigneur Picard enlisted the help
of Leon Degrelle for a particularly important mission: to manage a new
publishing house at the Cath0lic Action centre. This publishing house was
given a name which soon became famous: it was ‘Rex’…
“The calls for a new regime multiplied… The results of this propaganda in
Germany were observed with much interest. In October 1933, an article in
‘Vlan’ reminded us that the Nazis numbered only seven in 1919, and that
hit ler brought them, a few years later, no other dowry than his talent for
publicity… Founded on similar principles, the ‘rexist’ team started an
active propaganda programme in the country. Their meetings soon
attracted a few hundreds, then thousands of listeners”.(44)
Of course, hit ler had brought to the new-born national-socialism, as
muss0lini did to Fascism, more than the talent for publicity:- the support of
the papacy!
Being only a pale shadow of these two, Leon Degrelle, chief of “Christus
Rex”, was the beneficiary of the same support—but for a very different
purpose, as his job was to open his country to the invader.
M. Raymond de Becker says: “I collaborated with the ‘Avant-Garde’…
This publication (issued by Monseigneur Picard) aimed at breaking the ties
(43) and (45) Raymond de Becker: “Livre des vivants et des morts” (Ed. de la Toison d’Or
Brussels 1942, pp.72,73,175).
(44) Jacques Saint-Germain: “La Bataille de Rex” (Les oeuvres fräncaises, Paris 1937,


uniting Belgium, fränce and England”.(45)
We know how quickly the German armies defeated the Belgian defence
betrayed by the clerical fifth column. Maybe we remember also that the
apostle of “Christus Rex”, donning the German uniform, went,
accompanied by much publicity, to “fight on the Eastern front” at the head
of his “Waffen SS”, recruited mainly amongst the youth of Cath0lic
Action; then an opportune retreat enabled him to reach Spain. But, before
that , he gave full vent to his “patriotic” feelings for the last time.
M. Maurice de Behaut writes: “Ten years ago (in 1944), the port of
Anvers, the third most important in the world, fell almost intact into the
hands of the British troops… At the time when the population was
beginning to see the end of its sufferings and privations, the most diab0lic
nazi invention fell on it: the flying bombs, V1 and V2. This bombardment,
the longest in History, as it went on for six months, day and night, was kept
carefully hidden, on the 0rder of the allied headquarters. This is the reason
why, today, the martyrdom of the cities of Anvers and Liege is still
generally ignored.
“On the eve of the first bombardment (12th of October), some had heard
on Radio Berlin the alarming remarks of the “rexist” traitor Leon Degrelle:
“I asked my Fuhrer”, he screeched, “for twenty thousand flying bombs.
They will chastise an idiotic people. I promise you that they will make of
Anvers a city without a port, or a port without a city”.
“… From that day on, the rhythm of the bombardments was going to
accentuate, catastrophes and disasters being the results, while the traitor
Leon Degrelle was bawling on Radio Berlin, promising cataclysms even
more terrible”.(46)
Such was the last farewell to his homeland of this monstrous product of
the Cath0lic Action. Obedient pupil of Monseigneur Picard, j€§uit, fäther
Arendt, j€§uit, etc., the chief of “Christus Rex” strictly followed the papäl
“The men of the Cath0lic Action”, wrote Pi us X I, “would fail in their duty
if, as opportunities allow it, they did not try to direct the politics of their
province and of their country”.(47)
Indeed, Leon Degrelle did his duty and the result—as we have seen— was in
proportion to his zeal.
We read in M. Raymond de Beckers’s book: “The Cath0lic Action had
found, in Belgium, exceptional men to orchistrate its themes, such as
Monsignor Picard (the most important)… Canon Cardijn, founder of the
(46) Review “Historia”, December 1954.
(47) Pi us X I’s Letter “Peculari Quadam”, quoted by R.P. j€§uit de Soras, in the “Action
Cath0lique et action temporelle” (Ed. Spes, Paris 1938, p. 105). Imprimatur 1938.
(48) Raymond de Becker, op.cit., p.66.


‘jocist’ movement, a bilious ill-tempered and visionary man…”(48)
This particular one swears today that he has never “seen or heard” his
fellow-member Leon Degrelle. So, these two leaders of the Belgian
Cath0lic Action, both working under the crook of Car dinal Van Roey, had
apparently never met! By what miracle? Of course, the former Canon
doesn’t tell us that; since then, he has been made “Monseigneur” by Pi us X II
and director of the ‘jocist’ movements for the whole world.
Another miracle: nor has Monseigneur Cardijn ever met the
disreputable chief of ‘Rex’ during the great congress described by Degrelle:
“I remember the great congress of the Cath0lic Youth at Brussels, in
1930. I was behind Monseigneur Picard, who himself was at the side of
Car dinal Van Roey. One hundred thousand youths had marched past us for
two hours, cheering the religi0us authorities assembled on the
Where, then, was the head of the J.O.C. hiding, whose troops were
taking part in that gigantic march past? Was it, through a special decree of
Providence, that these two men were condemned to rub shoulders without
seeing each other, on official platforms as well as at the Cath0lic Action centre
which they attended constantly?
Monseigneur Cardijn, a jۤuit, goes further. He pretends to have also
“verbally” fought ‘rexism’.
Really, this Cath0lic Action was a peculiar organisation! Not only were
the chiefs of its two principal “movements” ‘J.O.C. and Rex’ playing hide and
seek in the corridors, but also one could as he says, “fight” what the other
did with the full approval of the “hierarchy”!
This fact cannot be disputed: Degrelle was put at the head of ‘Rex’ by
Monseigneur Picard himself, under the authority of Car dinal Van Roey
and the apostolic nuncio Monseigneur Micara. So, according to
Monseigneur Cardijn, he keenly disapproved of the actions of his colleague in
Cath0lic Action, under the patronage, like himself, of Belgium’s
Primate,—and without any consideration for the Nuncio, his “protector and
revered friend”, according to Pi us X II”.(50)
The assertion is rather severe. We are even more aware of it when we
examine what was the attitude, after hit ler’s invasion of Belgium, of those
such as Monseigneur Cardijn and his associates who, today, repudiate
Degrelle and ‘rexism’. In a book which was “put under the bushel” when it
was published, the chief of ‘Rex’ himself refreshed memories, as we shall see,
and, to our knowledge, what he said was never refuted.
Being a fervent Christian, and acquainted with the interpenetrations of
spiritual and temporal, I would not have considered collaborating (with
(49) Leon Degrelle: “La cohue de 1940” (Robert Crausaz, Lausanne 1949, pp.214-215).
(50) “La Cr0ix”, 24th of May 1946.


hit ler) without first consulting the religi0us authorities of my country… I had
asked for an interview with His Eminence, Car dinal Van Roey… The cardinal
received me in a friendly manner, one morning, at the episc0pal palace of
Malines… He is animated by a total and cyclonic fanaticism… If he had lived a
few centuries earlier, he would have, while singing the ‘Magnificat’, put the
infidels to the sword, or burned or let fall into the convent dungeons the not
so obedient sheep of his flock. As it is the 20th century, he only has the
crosier, but makes it accomplish a great work. For him, everything was
important as long as it served the Church’s interests: if it was something good,
we would support it, but anything bad was crushed; and the Church has so many
avenues of ‘service’: her works, parties, newspapers, agricultural co-operatives
(Boerenbond), banking institutions which assured the temporal power of the
divine institution…
“And now, I can sincerely and honestly say that this was the meaning of
the cardinal’s remarks: “c0llaboration was the proper thing to do, in fact
the only thing a sensible person would do. During the whole interview, he
didn’t even consider that another attitude could be possible. For the
cardinal, in the Autumn of 1940, the war was finished. He didn’t even
mention the name ‘English’ or utter the supposition that an allied recovery
was conceivable… The cardinal did not think that, politically, anything else
but c0llaboration was possible… He did not object to any of my
conceptions and projects… He could have—or should have—warned me if
he thought my ideas concerning politics were going astray, as I had come
for his advice… Before I left, the cardinal gave me his paternal blessing…
“Other Cath0lics as well, in the Autumn of 1940, looked towards the
great tower of Saint-Rombaut… Many entered the episc0pal palace to ask
the advice of Monseigneur Van Roey or his entourage, concerning the
morality, usefulness or necessity of c0llaboration…
“More than one thousand Cath0lic Burgomasters, all the general
secretaries, even though carefully chosen, adapted themselves immediately to
the new 0rder… All those good people imprisoned or insulted in 1944 must
have wondered, in 1940: What does Malines think? But who would believe
that neither Malines, their bish0ps, nor their priests had been able to put their
minds at rest!
“Eight out of ten Belgian c0llaborationists were Cath0lics… “During those
decisive weeks, because of the choice which had to be made, Malines and
the various bish0prics ever issued written or verbal negative advice, to
myself or to all those other c0llaborationists.
“Even though not very pleasant, this, is the plain or naked truth. The
attitude of the high Cath0lic clergy abroad could only strengthen the
conviction of the faithful that c0llaboration was perfectly compatible with
the faith… In Vichy, the highest French prelates had their photo taken as
they stood with Marshal Petain and Pierre Laval, after the interview


between hit ler and Petain. In Paris, Car dinal Baudrillart publicly declared that he
was a c0llaborationist.
“In Belgium itself, Car dinal Van Roey allowed one of the most farmous priests
of Flanders—his greatest Cath0lic intellectual—Abbe Ver-schaeve,
declare, on the 7th of November 1940, during a solemn session of the Senate
and in the presence of a German general, president Raeder:
“It is the duty of the Cultural Council to build the bridge which will unite
Flanders and Germany…”
“On the 29th of May 1940, the day after the surrender, Car dinal Van
Roey described the invasion as a kind of present from heaven:
“Be sure”, he wrote to the faithful, “that we are witnessing at the
moment an exceptional intervention of Divine Providence which is
displaying its power through great events”.
“So, after all that, hit ler seemed to be nothing less than a purifying
instrument, providentially chastising the Belgian people”.(51)
Something very similar was happening in our own country, (fränce),
where we were constantly reminded that “defeat is more fruitful than
victory”, as, before 1914, when a purifying “thorough bleeding” was wished
upon fränce.
Also in these memoirs which fell—or rather were thrown into the
oubliette—we find some very interesting details concerning the
“Boerenbond, the great Cath0lic and political and financial machine of
Car dinal Van Roey which largely financed the Flemish section of
Louvain’s University…”(52)
“The printing-house “Standaard” was making sure its presses were kept
working by printing the most c0llaborationist appeals of the V.N.V.
(Vlaamsch Nationalist Verbond). Very soon, the business was rolling in
money… Being two hundred per cent Cath0lic and pillars of the Church in
Flanders, the leaders of “Standaard” would not have considered
collaborating unless the cardinal had first given his blessing to it clearly and
“The same was said about the whole of the Cath0lic press…”(53)
All these efforts were aiming at nothing less than Belgium’s break-up, as we
are reminded by another Cath0lic writer, M. Gaston Gaillard:
“The Flemish-speaking Cath0lics and the autonomist Cath0lics of
Alsace justified their attitude by their tacit support always given to the
Germanic propaganda by the H0ly See. When they referred to the
memorable letter sent by Pi us X I to his secretary of State, Car dinal
Gaspari, on the 26th of June 1923, they were easily convinced that their
politics had the approval of R0me, and, of course, R0me did nothing to
persuade them otherwise. Had not the nuncio Pacelli (future Pi us X II) ably
(51) (52) and (53) Leon Degrelle, op.cit., pp.213,216ss, 219ss.


supported German nationalists and encouraged the so-called “oppressed”
population of High-Silesia? Had not the autonomist plots of Alsace,
Eupen-Malmedy and Silesia received ecclesiastical approval which had not
always been given discreetly? It was then easy for the Flemish to hide their
deeds against Belgium’s unity behind the R0man directives…”(54)
Also, in 1942, P0pe Pi us X II asked his nunciature in Berlin to convey his
condolences to Paris on the death of Car dinal Baudrillart, so signifying
that he considered the annexation of Northern fränce by Germany as a fact. It
also confirmed once again the “tacit support” always given to the Germanic
expansion by the H0ly See, and himself in particular.
Today, we can but scornfully smile when we see the jۤuits of His
Holiness quibble over something so obvious and repudiate all complicity with
the fifth column they themselves had organised, and especially with
Degrelle. As for him— safely kept in his refuge as he knows too much—he can
recollect at leisure the famous verses of Ovid: “Donee eris felix, multos
munerabis amicos. Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris”.(55)
We smile when we read the following from R.P. Fessard (jۤuit):
“In 1916 and 1917, we waited for the American reinforcements with so
much impatience! In 1939, we sadly realised that, even after war had been
declared, hit ler was looked upon favourably by a large part of American
opinion; even, and especially by Cath0lics! In 1941 and 1942, we wondered
again if the United States would or would not intervene”.(56)
So, it seems the Good fäther viewed the results obtained in America by his
own j€§uitical brothers “With sadness”! For, and this is an historical fact, the
“Christian Front”, a Cath0lic movement opposed to the United State’s
intervention, was directed by the j€§uit fäther Coughlin, a notorious pro-
hit lerite.
“This pious organisation lacked nothing and received, from Berlin, a
plentiful supply of propaganda material prepared by Goebbel’s office.
“Through is publication ‘Social Justice’ and radio broadcasts, the j€§uit
fäther Coughlin, apostle of the swastika, reached a vast public. He also
looked after secret “commando cells” in the main urban centres, led
according to the sons of L0y0la’s methods and trained by Nazi agents”.(57)
A secret document of the Wilhelmstrasse clarifies the following point:
“Studying the evolution of anti-semitism in the United States, we note that the
number of listeners to the radio broadcasts of fäther Coughlin, w e l l – known
for his anti-semitism, exceeds 20 millions”.(58)
(54) Gaston Gaillard: “La fin d’un temps” (Ed. Albert, Paris 1933, II, p. 141).
(55) As long as you will be happy, you will have many friends; when the clouds appear, you
will be alone.
(56) R.P. Fessard S.J.: “Libre meditation sur un message de Pie X II”, (Plon, Paris 1957,
(57) Edm0nd Paris: “The Vat i can against Europe” (P.T.S., London 1959, p.1 4 1 )


Must we recall the actions of the j€§uit fäther Walsh, an agent of the P0pe,
Dean of the School of political sciences at the University of Georgetown,
j€§uitic nursery of American diplomacy—and a zealous propagandist of
German politics?
At that time, the General of the s0ciety of Jۤus was, as by chance, Halke von
Ledochowski, a former general in the Austrian army; he succeeded Wernz, a
Prussian, in 1915.
Has the R.P. Fessard also forgotten what ‘La Cr0ix’ wrote all through the
war, and especially this: “There is nothing to be gained from an
intervention of troops from the other side of the Channel and
Does he not remember either this telegram of His Holiness Pi us X II: The
P0pe sends his blessing to ‘La Cr0ix’, the voice of pontifical thought”.(60)
Considering so much forgetfulness, must we come to the conclusion that
members of the s0ciety of Jۤus have very short memories? They did not
incur this reproach even from their enemies, though! Let us rather point out
that R.P. Fessard expressed his patriotic fears of 1941-1942 in 1957 only. His
“free meditations” over fifteen years brought some results and he had time to
re-read a certain passage of the “Spiritual Exercises” which says that “the j€§uit
must be ready, if the Church declares that what he sees as black is white, to
agree with her, even though his senses tell him the opposite”.(61)
As far as that is concerned, R.P. Fessard seems to be an excellent jۤuit!
On the 7th of March 1936, hit ler brought the Wehrmacht into the demilitarised
Rhine region, so tearing up the pact of Locarno. On the 11th of
March 1938, it was the Anschluss (union of Austria and Germany), and on the
29th of September of the same year, in Munich, fränce and England had
imposed on them by the Reich the annexation of Sudetenland in
The Fuhrer had come to power, thanks to the votes of the Cath0lic
Zentrum, only five years before, but most of the objectives cynically
revealed in ‘Mein Kampf were already realised; this book, an insolent
challenge to the western democracies, was written by the j€§uit fäther
Staempfle and signed by hit ler. For—as so many ignore the fact—it was the
s0ciety of Jۤus which perfected the famous Pan-German programme as laid
out in this book, and the Fuhrer endorsed it.
(58) Secret archives of the Wilhelmstrasse, document 83-26 19/1, (Berlin, 25th of January
(59) “La Cr0ix”, 10th of August 1943.
(60) “La Cr0ix”, 28th of January 1942).
(61) “… siquid quod oculis nostris apparet album, nigrum illaesse definierit debemus itidem
quod nigrum sit pronuntiare”. “Institutum Societatis J€§us” (R0man edition of 1869, II

Section V
Chapter 3
German aggressions and the jۤuits Austria РPoland РCzechoslovakia РYugoslavia

Let us see how the Anschluss was prepared:
First of all, and by a “providential” synchronism, when muss0lini seized
power in Italy thanks to don Sturzo, jۤuit and chief of the Cath0lic party,
Monseigneur Seipel, a jۤuit, became chancellor of Austria. He held that
position until 1929, with an interregnum of two years, and, during those
decisive years, he led the Austrian interior politics on to the reactionary and
clerical road; his successors followed him on that road which led to the
absorption of that country into the German block. The bloody repression of
working-class uprisings earned him the nickname “Keine Milde Kardinal”:
the Car dinal Without Mercy.
“In the early days of May (1936), von Papen entered into secret
negotiations with Dr Schussnigg (Austrian Chancellor) working on his weak
point and showed him how advantagous a reconciliation with hit ler would be
as far as the Vat i can’s interests were concerned; the argument may seem odd,
but Schussnigg was very devout, and von Papen the P0pe’s chamberlain”. (62)
Not surprisingly, it was the secret chamberlain who led the whole affair
which ended, on the 11th of March 1938, with the resignation of the pious
Schussnigg (pupil of the jۤuits), in favour of Seyss-Inquart, chief of the
Austrian Nazis. The following day, the German troops entered Austria and the
puppet government of Seyss-Inquart proclaimed the union of the country to
the Reich. This event was welcomed by an enthusiastic declaration of
Vienna’s archbish0p: Car dinal Innitzer (j€§uit).
“On the 15th of March, the German press published the following
declaration from Car dinal Innitzer: “The priests and the faithful must
unhesitatingly uphold the great German state, and the Fuhrer whose
struggle to set up Germany’s power, honour and prosperity is in accord
(62) G.E.R. Gedye: “Suicide de l’Autriche” (Union latine d’editions, Paris 1940, p. 188).


with the wishes of Providence.
The newspapers printed a facsimile of this declaration to dispel any doubt
as to its authenticity. Reproductions were posted up on walls in Vienna and
in the other Austrian cities. Car dinal Innitzer.. had, with his own hand,
written the following words before his signature: “Und Heil hit ler!”
“Three days later, the whole of the Austrian episc0pate addressed a
pastoral letter to its diocesans; the Italian newspapers published the text of this
letter on the 28th of March: it was a straightforward adhesion to the Nazi
regime whose virtues were highly extolled”.(63)
Car dinal Innitzer, highest representative of the R0man Church in
Austria, also wrote in his declaration: “I invite the chiefs of Youth
organisations to prepare their union to the organisation of the German
So, not only did the cardinal-archbish0p of Vienna, followed by his
episc0pate, throw in his lot with hit ler most enthusiastically, but he
handed over also the “Christian” youth to be trained according to nazi
methods; these methods had been “officially condemned” in the ‘terrible’
encyclical letter: “Mit brennender Sorge”!
Then, the ‘Mercure de fränce’ justifiably observed: “… These
bish0ps have not taken a decision which involves the Church as a whole on
their own accord; the H0ly See gave them directives which they merely
This is obvious. But what other “directives” could be expected from this
H0ly See which brought to power muss0lini, hit ler, fränco and, in
Belgium, created the ‘Christus-Rex’ of Leon Degrelle?
We understand, then, why English authors such as F.A. Ridley, Seeker and
Warburg object to the Politics of Pi us X I which favoured fascist movements
As for the Anschluss, M. fräncois Charles-Roux tells us why the Church was
so much in favour of it: “Eight million Austrian Cath0lics united to the
Cath0lics of the Reich could make a German Cath0lic body more able to
make its weight felt”.(67)
Poland was in the same situation as Austria when hit ler, after having
invaded it, annexed part of it in the name of the fätherland. A few more
million Cath0lics to reinforce the German contingent under the R0man
(63) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., pp.118, 122.
(64) Ernest Pezet, former vice-president of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, “L’Autriche
et la paix” (Ed. Self, Paris 1945, p. 149).
(65) Austria and hit ler (“Mercure de fränce”, 1st of May 1938, p.720).
(66) J. Tchernoff: “Les Demagogies contre les democracies” (R. Pichon and Durand-Auzias,
Paris 1947, p.80).
(67) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., p.114.


obedience: the H0ly See could only be in favour of this, in spite of all its love
for its “dear Polish people”. In fact, it did not frown at the brutal regrouping
of Cath0lics in Central Europe, according to the plan of the
j€§uits’ general, Halke von Ledechowski.
The Vat i can’s licensed thurifers keep on reminding their readers that
Pi us X II “protested” against the aggression in the encyclical letter “Summi
Pontificatus”. In reality, this ludicrous document, like all other such
documents, which numbers no less than 45 pages, contains only one
phrase, at the end, concerning Poland crushed by hit ler. And this short
allusion is an advice to the Polish people to pray much to the Virgin Mary!
The contrast is striking between those few words of trite condolences and
the nattering pages devoted to fascist Italy and the exaltation of the
Lateran Treaty; this treaty was concluded by the H0ly See and Muss’olini,
hit ler ‘s collaborator who, at the time when the P0pe was writing his
encyclical letter, delivered a scandalous speech, as a challenge to the world, and
started it with these words: “Liquidata la Polonia!”
But what risks are there in using these derisory alibis, when preaching to the
converted? Besides, how many of them would be anxious to examine such
Nevertheless, when we study the Vat i can’s behaviour in this affair, what do
we see? First of all, we see the nuncio in Warsaw, Monseigneur Cortesi, urge the
Polish government to give in to hit ler in everything: Dantzig, the “corridor”,
the territories where German minorities live (68). Then, when this is done, we
see also the H0ly-fäther lend his help to the aggressor when trying to make
Paris and London ratify the amputation of a large part of his “dear
To those who would be surprised at such behaviour towards a Cath0lic
country, we will quote a famous precedent: after the first division of Poland in
1772, a catastrophe in which the j€§uits’ intrigues played a large part, P0pe
Clement X IV, when writing to the Empress of Austria, Marie-Therese,
expressed his satisfaction as follows:
“The invasion and division of Poland were not done for political reasons
only; it was in the interests of religi0n, and necessary to the spiritual profit of
the Chruch, that the Court of Viennna should extend its domination over
Poland as much as possible”.
Obviously, there is nothing new under the sun—especially at the
Vat i can. In 1939, there was no need to change one single word in that
cynical declaration, apart from “the spiritual profit of the Church” which, this
time, consisted of several million Polish Cath0lics joining the Great Reich.
(68) Cf. the “Journal”, (1933-1939) of Count Szembeck (Plon, Paris 1952, pp.499).
(69) Cf. Camille Cianfarra, op.cit., pp.259, 260.


This fact easily explains the parsimony of papäl condolences in “Summi
In Czechoslovakia, the Vat i can did even better: it provided hit ler with one
of its own prelates, a secret chamberlain, to be made into the head of this
satellite state of the Reich.
“The Anschluss had made a great noise in Europe. From now on, the
hit lerian threat was hovering over the Republic of Czechoslovakia and war was
in the air. But, at the Vat i can, nobody seemed concerned. Let us listen to M.
fräncois Charles-Roux:
“In the middle of August, I had tried to persuade the P0pe that he should
speak in favour of peace—a just peace, of course… My first attempts were
unsuccessful. But, from the beginning of September 1938 on, when the
international crisis reached its worst level, I started gathering, at the Vat i can,
soothing impressions contrasting strangely with the rapidly deteriorating
“All my attempts”, adds the former French ambassador, “received the
same answer from Pi us X I: “It would be useless, unnecessary,
inopportune”. I could not understand his obstinacy in keeping silent”. (71)
Events were soon going to explain this silence. It was first of all the
annexation of Sudetenland by the Reich, with the support of the Christian
Social Party, of course; this annexation was ratified by the Munich accord, and
the Republic of Czechoslovakia was divided. But hit ler, who had undertaken
to respect its territorial integrity, intended in reality to annexe the Czech
countries independent of Slovakia, and reign over it as well by his own
It was easy for him to attain these ends as most of the main political
Slovakian chiefs were Cath0lic ecclesiastics, according to Walter Hagen (72),
and, amongst these, the priest Hlinka (j€§uit), had at his dosposal a “guard”
trained on nazi S.A. principles.
We know that, according to canon law, no priest can accept a public post or a
political mandate without the H0ly See’s consent.
This is confirmed and explained by the R.P. j€§uit de Soras: “How could it
be otherwise? We have said so already: a priest, by virtue of the ‘character’ his
ordination marked him with, by virtue of the official functions he exercises
within the Church itself, by virtue of the cassock he wears, is bound to act as
a Cath0lic, at least when a public action is concerned. Where the priest is,
there is the Church”.(73)
It was then with the Vat i can’s consent that members of the clergy sat in the
Czechoslovak Parliament. Still more, one of these priests had to have
(70) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., pp.127, 128.
(71) Frnacois Charles-Roux, op.cit., 127, 128.
(72) Cf. Walter Hagen: “Le Front secret” (Les lies d’Or, Paris 1950).
(73) R.P. de Soras, op.cit., p.96.


the H0ly See’s approval when the Fuhrer himself invested him as head of
state -and later conferred on him the highest hit lerian distinctions: the
Iron Cross and the Black Eagle decoration.
As anticipated, on the 15th of March 1939, hit ler annexed the rest of
Bohemia and Moravia, and put the Republic of Slovakia, which he had
created with a stroke of his pen, “under his protection”. At the head, he
placed Monseigneur Tiso (j€§uit), “who dreamed of combining
Cath0licism and Nazism”. A noble ambition, and easily realised as it had
already been proved by the German and Austrian episc0pates.
“Cath0licism and Nazism”, proclaimed Monseigneur Tiso, “have much in
common; they work hand in hand at reforming the world”.(74)
Such must have been also the Vat i can’s opinion as—in spite of the
“terrible” encyclical letter “Mit Brennender Sorge”—it did not haggle over its
approval of the gauleiter priest.
“In June 1940, Radio Vat i can announced: “The declaration of
Monseigneur Tiso, chief of the Slovakian state, stating his intention to
build up Slovakia according to a Christian plan, has the full approval of the H0ly
“Tiso’s regime, in Slovakia, was especially afflicting for the pr0testant
Church of that country, which comprised one fifth of the population.
Monseigneur Tiso tried to reduce the pr0testant influence to its minimum, and
even eliminate it… Influential members of the pr0testant Church were sent to
concentration camps”.(76)
These could count themselves fortunate, as we consider this declaration
from the j€§uits’ general Wernz, a Prussian (1906-1915): “The Church can
condemn heretics to death as any rights they have is because of our
Let us see now what kind of apostolic gentleness was used by the
gauleiter prelate Tiso towards the Jews: “In 1941, the first contingent of Jews
from Slovakia and upper-Silesia arrive at Auschwitz; from the start, those
who were not able to work are sent to the gas chamber, in a room of the
building containing the crematory furnaces”.(77)
Who wrote this? A witness who could not be challenged, Lord Russell of
Liverpool, a judicial counsellor at the trials of war criminals.
So, the H0ly See had not “lent” one of its prelates to hit ler in vain. The
jۤuit head of state was doing a good job and the satisfaction expressed by
Radio Vat i can is understandable. To have been Auschwitz’s first provider,
what a glory for this H0ly man and for the whole Company of jۤuits!
In fact, this triumph lacked nothing. At the time of the Liberation, this
(74) and (75) Henriette Feuillet: “fränce Nouvelle”, 25th of June 1949.
(76) “Reforme”, 17th of August 1947.
(77) Lord Russell of Liverpool: “Sous le signe de la Cr0ix gammes”, (L’Ami du livre, Geneva
1955, p.217).


prelate was handed over to Czechoslovakia by the Americans, condemned
to death in 1946 and hanged—the palm, for a martyr!
“Anything done against the Jews, we do it because of our love for this
nation of ours. The love for our fellow-men and the love for our country
have developed into a fruitful fight against the enemies of nazism”.(78)
Another high dignitary of the R0man Church, in a neighbouring
country, could have appropriated this declaration of Monseigneur Tiso to
himself. For, if the foundations of the Slovakian “City of God” were hatred and
persecution, according to the steadfast tradition of the Church, what can be
said of the eminently Cath0lic state of Croatia, offspring of the
c0llaboration between the killer Pavelitch and Monseigneur ste pinac, and
with the assistance of the pontifical legate Marcone!
We would have to look back as far as the conquest of the New World,
couple the actions of the adventurers of Cortes and the no less ferocious
converter monks to find something worth comparing with the atrocities of
those 0ustachis”, upheld, commanded and prompted by madly fanatical
clerics. What these “Assassins in the Name of God”, as they were so rightly
nicknamed by M. Herve Lauriere, did over four years defies all
imagination, and the annals of the R0man Church, even though so rich in such
material, cannot produce the equivalent in Europe. Do we need to add that the
crony of the blood-thirsty Ante Pavelitch was Monseigneur ste pinac,
another jۤuit?
The Croatian terrorist organisation of the “0ustachis”, led by Pavelitch, had
come to the notice of the French people through the assassination, in
Marseille, of King Alexander the First of Yugoslavia and our Foreign-
Affairs’ minister, Louis Barthou, in 1934. “As muss0lini’s government was
obviously mixed up in the crime”(79), the extradition of Pavelitch, who had
taken refuge in Italy, was demanded by the French government; the Duce
obviously took care not to grant it, and the Assize Court of Aix-en-Provence
had to impose the death sentence by default on the head of the “0ustachis”.
This chief of terrorists, hired by muss0lini, “worked” for the Italian
expansion on the Adriatic coast. When, in 1941, hit ler and muss0lini
invaded and divided Yoguslavia, this supposed Croatian patriot was put. by
them, at the head of the satellite state they created under the name of
“Independent State of Croatia”. On the 18th of May of that same year, in
R0me, Pavelitch offered the crown of that state to the Duke of Spolete who
took the name “Tomislav II”. Of course, he took care never to set foot on the
blood-stained soil of his pseudo-kingdom. “On the same day, Pi us X II gave a
private audience to Pavelitch and his
(78) Henriette Feuillet: “fränce Nouvelle”, 25th of June 1949.
(79) fräncois Charles-Roux, op.cit., p. 132.


‘friends’, one of whom was Monseigneur Salis-Sewis, vicar-general ot
Monseigneur ste pinac. “So, the H0ly See did not fear shaking hands with a
certified murderer,
sentenced to death by default for the murder of King Alexander the First
and Louis Barthou, a chief of terrorists having the most horrible crimes on
his conscience! In fact, on the 18th of May 1941, when Pi us X II gladly
welcomed Pavelitch and his gang of killers, the massacre of 0rthod0x
Croats was at its height, concurrently with forced conversions to
It was the Serbian minority of the population they were after, as the
author Walter Hagen explains: “Thanks to the ‘0ustachis’, the country was
soon transformed into a bloody chaos… The deadly hatred of the new
masters was directed towards the Jews and Serbians who were officially
outlawed… Whole villages, even whole regions were sytematically wiped
out… As the ancient tradition wanted Croatia and the Cath0lic Faith,
Serbia and the 0rthod0x Church to be synonymous, the 0rthod0x
believers were constrained to join the Cath0lic Church. These compulsory
conversions constituted the completion of “croatisation”.(80)
Andrija Artukovic, minister of the Interior, was the great organiser of these
massacres and compulsory conversions; but, while doing it, he “morally”
defended himself, according to a witness in a high position.
Indeed, when the Yugoslav government asked for his extradition from the
United States where he had taken refuge, someone spoke on his behalf: the
R.P. jۤuit Lackovic, residing also in the United States, and secretary to
Monseigneur ste pinac, archbish0p of Zagreb, during the last war.
“Artukovic”, states the j€§uit, “was the lay spokesman of Monseigneur
ste pinac. Between 1941 and 1945, not one day went by without seeing him in
my office or myself going to his. He asked the archbish0p’s advice on all his
actions, as far as their moral aspect was concerned”.(81)
When we know what the “actions” of this executioner were, we realise what
kind of edifying “moral” advice Monseigneur ste pinac gave him.
Massacres and “conversions” took place until the Liberation, and the
good-will of the H0ly-fäther towards the killers never altered.
One must read, in the Croatian Cath0lic newspapers of that time, the
exchanges of compliments between Pi us X II and Pavelitch, the
“Poglavnik”, to whom Monseigneur Saric, j€§uit archbish0p of Sarajavo
and a poet in his spare time, dedicated verses impregnated with a rapturous
(79a) Cf. Herve Lauriere: “Assassins in the Name of God”, (Ed. Dufour, Paris 1951, pp.40 ss)
(80) Walter Hagen op.cit., pp. 168,176,198,199.
(81) “Mirror News” of Los Angeles, 24th of January 1958.
(82) With other Cath0lic ecclesiastics such as Monseigneur Aksamovic, the jۤuits Irgolis.
Lonacir, Pavunic, Mikan, Polic, Severovic, Sipic, Skrinjar, Vucetic (note of the author).


But this was only a show of good manners: “Monseigneur ste pinac
becomes member of the “0ustachi” parliament (82). He wears “0ustachi”
decorations, he is present at all important “0ustachi” official
manifestations at which he even gives speeches… “Must we then wonder at the
respect given to Monseigneur ste pinac by the satellite state of Croatia’? or that
his praises were sung by the “0ustachi” press? It is, alas, too evident that,
without the support of Monseigneur ste pinac, on the religi0us and political
side, Ante Pavelitch would never have obtained the c0llaboration of Cath0lic
Croats to such an extent”.(83)
To comprehend the full extent of that c0llaboration, one must read the
Croatian Cath0lic press, the “kat0licki Tjednik”, the “kat0lick List”, the
“Hrvatski Narod”, and so many other publications which vied with each other
in flattering the bloody “Poglavnik”; Pi us X II was so pleased that he was a
“practising Cath0lic”, and the high esteem of the s0vereign Pontiff embraced
even the accomplices of the great man.
The “Osservatore R0mano” informs us that, on the 22nd of July 1941. the
P0pe received one hundred members of the Croatian Security Police, led by
the chief of Zagreb’s police, Eugen Kvaternik-Dido. This group of Croatian
S.S., the pick of the executioners and torturers operating in the concentration
camps, were presented to the H0ly-fäther by one who perpetrated crimes so
monstrous that his own mother committed suicide in despair.
The goodwill of His Holiness Pi us X II is easily explained by the
apostolic zeal of these killers. Another “practising Cath0lic”, Mile Budak,
minister for Worship, exlcaimed in August 1941, at Karlovac: “The
“0ustachi” movement is based on religi0n. All our work rests on our
loyalty to religi0n and the Cath0lic Church”.(84)
Besides, on the 22nd of July, at Gospic, the same minister for Worship had
perfectly defined this work: “We will kill some Serbians, deport others, and
the rest will be compelled to’ embrace the R0man Cath0lic religi0n”.(85)
This fine programme was carried out to the letter. When the Liberation put
an end to this tragedy, 300,000 Serbians and Jews had been deported and
more than 500,000 massacred. By this means the R0man Church had also
made 240,000 0rthod0x believers enter its fold… who quickly went back to
the religi0n of their ancestors when their freedom was restored.
But, to obtain this ridiculous result, what horrors fell on that
unfortunate country! One must read, in the book of M. Herve Lauriere
“Assassins in the Name of God”, details of the monstrous tortures that
(83) “Le Monde” 27th of May 1953.
(84) Cf. Herve Lauriere: “Assassins in the Name of God”, (Ed. Dufour, Paris 1951, p.97).
(85) “L’Ordre de Paris”, 8th of February 1947.


these practising Cath0lics who were the 0ustachis inflicted on their poor
The English journalist J.A. Voigt wrote: “Croatian politics consisted of
massacres, deportations or conversions. The number of those who were
massacred reaches hundreds of thousands. The massacres were
accompanied by the most bestial tortures. The “0ustachis” put out their
victims’ eyes and made garlands with them, which they wore, or presented
as mementos”.(86)
“In Croatia, the j€§uits implanted political clericalism”.(87) It is the present
invariably offered by the famous Company to the nations which welcome it.
The same author adds: “With the death of the great Croatian tribune,
Raditch, Croatia loses its main opponent to political clericalism which will
embrace the mission of the Cath0lic action defined by Friedrich
Muckermann. This German j€§uit, well-known before hit ler’s advent,
made it known, in 1928, in a book whose foreword was written by
Monseigneur Pacelli, then apostolic nuncio in Berlin. Muckermann
expressed himself as follows: “The P0pe appeals in favour of the Cath0lic
Action’s new crusade. He is the guide who carries the standard of Christ’s
Kingdom… The Cath0lic Action means the gathering of world Cath0licism. It
must live its heroic age… The new epoch can be acquired for Christ only
through the price of blood”.(88)
Ten years after this was written, the one who wrote the foreword of the
j€§uit fäther Muckermann’s book sat on the throne of Saint-Peter and,
during his pontificate, “the blood for Christ” literally flowed in Europe; but
Croatia suffered the worst of the atrocious deeds of that “new epoch”.
There, not only were the priests advocating all out slaughter from the
pulpit, but some even marched at the head of the murderers. Others held,
apart from their sacred ministry, official posts as prefects or chiefs of the
“0ustachi” police, even as chiefs of concentration camps where horrors
were not outdone by even Dachau or Auschwitz.
To this bloody list of honours, we must enter the names of the Abbe
Bozidar Bralo, the priest Dragutin Kamber, the jۤuit Lackovic and the
Abbe Yvan Salitch, secretaries to Monseigneur ste pinac, the priest Nicolas
Bilogrivic, etc… and numberless fränciscans; one of the worst of these was
Brother Miroslav Filipovitch, main organiser of those massacres, chief of and
executioner at the concentration camp of Jasenovac, the most hideous of these
earthly hells.
Brother Filipovitch’s fate was the same as Monseigneur Tiso’s, in
Slovakia: when Liberation came, he was hanged, wearing his cassock. But
many of his rivals, not very anxious to win the palm of the martyr, fled to
(86) “Nineteenth Century and After”, August 1943. (87)
and (88) Herve Lauriere, op.cit., pp.82,84,85.


Austria, pell-mell with the assassins they had assisted so well.
But what was the “hierarchy” doing, when confronted with the bloodthirsty
frenzy of so many of its subordinates?
The “hierarchy”, or the episc0pate and its leader, Monseigneur ste pinac,
voted in the “0ustachi” Parliament for the decrees concerning t h e
conversion of the 0rthod0x to Cath0licism, sent “missionaries” to the
terrorized peasants, converted without wincing whole villages (89), took
possession of the Serbian 0rthod0x Church’s properties and without
ceasing showered praises and blessings on the Poglavnik, copying the
example set from on high by P0pe Pi us X II.
His Holiness Pi us X II was personally represented at Zagreb by an
eminent monk, the R.P. Marcone. This “Sancti Sedis Legatus” was given the
place of honour at all the ceremonies of the “0ustachi” regime, and had himself
sanctimoniously photographed at the home of the chief of killers— Pavelitch—
with his family which received him as a friend. “Birds of a feather flock
So, the most sincere cordiality always reigned in the relations between the
assassins and ecclesiastics—of course, many of these ecclesiastics held both
positions, for which they were never blamed. “The end justifies the means”.
When Pavelitch and his 4,000 “0ustachis”—which included archbish0p
Saric, a j€§uit, bish0p Garic and 400 clerics—left the scene of their exploits to
go first to Austria then on to Italy, they left behind part of their
“treasures”: films, photographs, recorded speeches of Ante Pavelitch,
chests full of jewels, gold coins, gold and platinum from the teeth,
bracelets, wedding rings and pieces of dentures made of gold and platinum.
This spoil taken from the poor wretches who had been murdered were
hidden at the Archiepisc0pal palace where they were eventually found.
As for the fugitives, they took advantage of the “Pontifical Commission for
Assistance”, created expressly to save war criminals. This charitable
institution hid them in convents, mainly in Austria and Italy, and provided the
chiefs with false passports which enabled them to go to “friendly” countries,
where they would be able to enjoy the fruits of their robberies in peace. This
was done for Ante Pavelitch, whose presence in Argentina was revealed, in
1957, through an attempt upon his life in which he was wounded.
Since then, the dictatorial regime collapsed in Buenos Aires. Like former
president Peron himself, his protege had to leave Argentina. From
Paraguay where he went first, he reached Spain where he died on the 28th
(89) In Monseigneur ste pinac’s own diocese, Kamensko, 400 came back to the R0man
Cath0lic fold in one day. On the 12th of June 1942, “Radio Vat i can” announced these massconversions,
stating that it had been “spontaneous and without any pressure on the part of civil
and ecclesiastical authorities”.


of December 1959, at the German hospital of Madrid. On that occasion,
the French press recalled his bloody career and—more discreetly the
“powerful accomplices” who enabled him to escape punishment.
Under the title “Belgrade demanded his extradition in vain”, we read in “Le
Monde”: “The brief information published in the press this morning
revived, amongst the Yugoslav people, souvenirs of a past filled with
sufferings and bitterness towards those who, by hiding Ante Pavelitch, for
n e a r l y fifteen years, obstructed the course of justice”.(90) “Paris-
Presse” points out the last shelter offered to the terrorist with this
short, but significant phrase: “He ended up in a fränciscan monastery of
It is from there, in fact, that Pavelitch was taken to hospital where he paid
his debt to nature—but not to justice, scoffed at by these “powerful
accomplices” who are easy to identify.
Monseigneur ste pinac who had, as he said, a “clear conscience”, stayed
in Zagreb where he was tried in 1946. Condemned to hard labour, he was in
fact only made to reside in his native village. The penance was easy to bear,
as we can see, but the Church needs martyrs. The archbish0p of Zagreb was
then made a member of the H0ly cohort, in his lifetime, by Pi us X II who
hastened to confer on him the title of “Car dinal”, in recognition of “his
apostolate which displays the purest brightness”.
We are acquainted with the symbolic meaning of the Car dinals’ Purple:
the one who dons it must be ready to confess his Faith “usque ad sanguinis
effusionem”: to the point of shedding blood. We cannot deny that this
shedding was abundant in Croatia, during the apostolate of this H0ly man,
but the blood which flowed there in torrents was not the prelate’s: it was the
blood of 0rthod0x believers and Jews. Must we see there a “reversibility of
If that is the case, the right to cardinalship of Monseigneur ste pinac
cannot be contested. In the diocese of Gornji Karlovac, part of his
archbish0pric, out of 460,000 0rthod0x people who lived there, 50,000
were able to hide in the mountains, 50,000 were sent to Serbia, 40,000 were
converted to Cath0licism through the regime of terror and 280,000 were
On the 19th of December 1958, we read in “Cath0lic fränce”: “To exalt
the greatness and heroism of His Eminence the Car dinal ste pinac, a great
meeting will take place on the 21st of December 1958, at 4 o’clock, in the
crypt of Sainte-Odile, 2, Avenue Stephane-Mallarme, Paris 17. It will be
presided over by His Eminence the Car dinal Feltin, archbish0p of Paris.
(90) “Le Monde”, 31st of December 1959.
(91) “Paris-Presse”, 31st of December 1959.
(92) Cf. Jean Hussard: “Vu en Yougoslavie” (Lausanne 1947, p.216).


Senator Ernest Pezet and the Reverend fäther Dragoun, national rector of
the Croatian Mission in fränce, will take part. His Excellency
Monseigneur Rupp will celebrate mass and communion”.
This is how a new figure, and not one of the least important, the one of
Car dinal ste pinac, came to enrich the gallery of Great jۤuits.
Another aim of this meeting on the 21st of December 1958, in the crypt of
Sainte-Odile, was to “launch” a book written in the defense of Zagreb’s
archbish0p, by the R.P. Dragoun himself; Monseigneur Rupp, coadjutor of
Car dinal Feltin, wrote the foreword. We cannot give here a full analysis but
will say this:
The book is entitled “The Dossier of Car dinal ste pinac”, which seems to
promise the reader an objective exposition of the trial at Zagreb. In fact, in this
volume which numbers 285 pages, we find the speeches of the archbish0p’s
two counsels in full, accompanied by extensive remarks from the author, but,
neither the charge itself, nor the speech for the prosecution are mentioned,
even briefly.
The R.P. Dragoun seems to ignore the French proverb “Qui n’entend
qu’une cloche n’entend qu’un son” (there are two sides to every story)-unless,
of course, he knows it too well!
Be that as it may, this systematic obliteration of the opposite side of the story
would be enough to close the debate.
Let us consider, though, the good reasons invoked for the discharge of
Zagreb’s archbish0p. But first of all, this question: Was Monseigneur ste pinac
really the metropolitan of Croatia and Slovenia? The book of the R.P. Dragoun
does not answer this question. On page 142 of that book, we read this
concerning the copy of a report by Monseigneur ste pinac, the authenticity of
which was contested by the defence:
“In the text of the copy, the archbish0p is described as “Metropolitan
Croatiae et Slavoniae”, but the archbish0p is not a metropolitan and never
presented himself as such.
This would clear the matter up if we didn’t read, on page 114, the
following taken from Monseigneur ste pinac’s own declarations before the
“The H0ly See often emphasized that the small nations and the national
minorities have the right to be free. Should not I, as “bish0p and
metropolitan”, have the right to discuss it?” The more we read, the less we
No matter! As we are reminded again and again, Monseigneur ste pinac
could not influence in any way the behaviour of his flock and clergy. The
To those who bring out the articles of the Cath0lic press praising the
accomplishments of Pavelitch and his hired assassins, the answer is: “It is
simply ridiculous to make Monseigneur ste pinac responsible for what the
newspaper wrote”.


Even when this paper was the “kat0licki List”, the most important
Cath0lic publication in Zagreb, diocese of Monseigneur ste pinac! In those
conditions, we won’t bother mentioning the “Andjeo Cuvar” (The
Guardian Angel) belonging to the fränciscans, the “Glasnik Sv. Ante” (The
Voice of Saint-Anthony) to the conventuals of the “kat0licki Tjednik”, (The
Cath0lic Weekly) of Sarajevo, bish0p Saritch, nor, of course, the “Vjesnik
Pocasne Straze Srca Isusova” (The Publication of the Guard of Honour of the
Heart of Jۤus(!), belonging to the jۤuits).
So, it is claimed that Monseigneur ste pinac, “contested metropolitan”, had
no influence over these publications, of which he was president, and which
constantly tried to surpass each other in their adulation of Pavelitch and his
regime of blood.
Neither did he have any authority, so they say, over the “0ustachi”
bish0ps Sacric, Garic, Aksamovic, Simrak, etc., who showered praise on the
Poglavnik and applauded his crimes, nor over the “Crusaders” of the
Cath0lic Action, these auxiliaries of “0ustachi” converters, nor over the
fränciscans murderers, nor over the nuns of Zagreb who marched past, their
hands raised in the hit lerian fashion.
What a strange “hierarchy” which had authority over nothing and nobody!
The fact that he sat, with ten other Cath0lic priests, in the “Sabor”
(“0ustachi” Parliament) does not compromise the archbish0p—or, at least,
we must presume this, as the fact is simply ignored.
We should not reproach him either for his presidency over episc0pal
Conferences nor over the Committee for the application of the Decree
concerning the conversion of 0rthod0x people. In this apology, the
“humanitarian” pretext of having made so many enter the R0man Church by
force, is fully—and skilfully—expounded. We read this, concerning the
“awful dilemma” facing Monseigneur ste pinac: “His pastoral duty was to
maintain intact the canonical principles but, on the other hand, dissidents who
refused to embrace Cath0licism were massacred; so, he lessened the severity
of the rules.”
We become even more bewildered when we read a little further on: “He tried
to resolve this dramatic alternative in the circular letter of the 2nd of March
1942, in which he 0rdered the priests to closely screen the motives for
This is indeed a peculiar method to “attenuate the severity of the rules”
and resolve the “dramatic alternative”!
Was Monseigneur ste pinac opening or shutting the doors of the R0man
Church to the false converts? It would be absolutely impossible to find it out
if we referred only to this speech for the defence. The archbish0p’s
apologists seem to choose the “shutting”, though, when they declare: “… The
cases of re-baptisms were very rare in the territory of Zagreb’s


archdiocese (92a).”
Unfortunately, statistics tell us otherwise, as we said earlier: “… In the
diocese of Gornji Karlovac alone, part of Zagreb’s archbish0pric, 40,000 people
were re-baptised”.
It is evident that such results could be obtained only through massconversions
of whole villages, such as Kamensko, in that same archdiocese of
Monseigneur ste pinac, where 400 lost sheep returned to the R0man fold in one
day, “spontaneously and without any pressure on the part of civil and
ecclesiastical authorities”.
Then why conceal these numbers? If they were really due to the
“charitable sentiments” of the Croatian Cath0lic clergy, and not to the
cynical exploitation of terror, they should have been proud of them. The truth
is that the veil thrown over these infamies in an attempt to hide them is
transparent and not wide enough. To cover ste pinac, others have to be
uncovered: bish0ps Saric, Garic, Simrak, the priests Bilogrivic, Kamber
Bralo and their associates—the fränciscans and j€§uits have to be
uncovered, and finally the H0ly See.
We might as well leave this peculiar archbish0p to enjoy his “clear
conscience”, this primate of Croatia supposedly stripped of any authority,
calling himself “metropolitan” when he wasn’t so and who, to crown the
paradox, was opening doors when shutting them. But, at the side of this
fantastic prelate, there was another one, consistent and corpulent, the R.P.
Marcone, personnal representative of Pi us X II.
Was this “Sancti Sedis legatus” also destitute of any authority over the
Croatian clergy? Nobody knows! For the “dossier” so well expurgated makes
no mention whatsoever of this great person; we could even be oblivious of
his existence if we didn’t have other information, such as photographs which
show him officiating at Zagreb’s cathedral, enthroned, amongst the “0ustachi”
general-staff, and above all sharing a meal with the family of Pavelitch, the
“practising” Cath0lic who organised the massacres.
Confronted by such a document, it is not surprising that the presence of the
P0pe’s representative was “blacked-out”; the mystics would call this
“enlightening darkness”! But these few lines from the “dossier” are even more
“The procurator himself, in his bill of indictment, names the H0ly See’s
Secretary of State, Car dinal Maglione, who had, in 1942, advised
Archbish0p ste pinac to establish more cordial and sincere relations with the
“0ustachi” authorities”.(92b)
This is sufficient to put an end to any more quibbling.
(92a) R.P. Dragoun: “The Dossier of Car dinal ste pinac” (Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris
1958, pages 46 and 163).
(92b) R.P. Dragoun: “The Dossier of Car dinal ste pinac”, (Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris 1958,


The collusion between the Vat i can and the “0ustachi” murderers is clear
enough. The H0ly See itself was urging Monseigneur ste pinac to
collaborate with them, and the personnal representative of Pi us X II, by taking
his place at Pavelitch’s table, was applying the pontifical instructions to
the letter: sincerity and cordiality in the relations with murderers of
0rthod0x believers and Jews.
This does not surprise us!
But what do the jۤuits think of it all, as they obstinately affirmed that
the constant co-operation given to the dictators, by the prelates of His
Holiness, was an “option” entirely personal and not dictated by the
Vat i can?
When Car dinal Maglione sent the previously mentioned
recommendations to Zagreb’s archbish0p, was it his “personal option’ he
expressed, under the seal of the State’s secretary’s office?
The proof of the connivance between the H0ly See and the “0ustachis”
supplied by the R.P. Dragoun, which has just been mentioned, puts an end to
this chapter.
But here is a new confirmation of the evangelical sentiments which
flourished, and still flourish amongst the faithful of the Croatian Cath0lic
Church towards the 0rthod0x Serbians.
The “Federation Ouvriere Croate en fränce” (Federation of Croatian
workmen in fränce) sent out an invitation to the solemn meeting organised for
Sunday, 19th of April 1959, at the “General Confederation of Christian
workmen” centre, in Paris, to celebrate the 18th anniversary of the
foundation of the “0ustachi” Croatian state.
This invitation read: “The ceremony will start with H0ly mass being said at
the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. But the reader, edified by this pious
start, is the more startled when he discovers, soon after, this straight
exhortation: “DEATH TO THE SERBIANS… !”(93)
So, this not so banal document expresses the regrets that not more of these
“brothers in Christ” were killed.
The book of the R.P. Dragoun, rector of the Croatian Mission in
fränce, implies that the welcome given by the French Cath0lics to the
Croatian refugees was not warm enough. We are told this on pages 59 and 60,
and, on pages 280 and 281, the author mentions the “grevious
disappointment” these refugees experienced at “being met by a total lack of
understanding on the part of their brothers in the faith”.
Considering the aforementioned document, this “lack of understanding” seems
comprehensible; we are glad that our fellow-countrymen, in spite of the most
grand invitations, show little sympathy to a form of piety in which the call to
murder walks hand in hand with the “H0ly mass”, in the best R0man and
“0ustachi” tradition. We would be even more glad if such
(93) Cf. “Le Monde”, 19th of April 1959.


blood-thirsty tracts were not allowed to be printed and distributed openly in
Paris itself.
On the 10th of February 1960, the infamous archbish0p of Zagreb, Alois
ste pinac, died at his native village of Karlovice, where he had been made to
reside. This death gave the Vat i can an opportunity to organise one of its
spectacular manifestations for which it excels.
On that occasion, a lot had to be done as many Cath0lics had no illusions as
far as the ste pinac “case” was concerned. So, the H0ly See surpassed itself
to give this apotheosis all the pomp possible. The “Osservatore R0mano”
and all the Cath0lic press dedicated many columns to the rapturous praises
of the “martyr”,, his “spiritual testament”, and the speeches of His Holiness
John X X III proclaiming “his respect and supernatural affection”; these were
the motives which prompted him to give to this cardinal who was not part of
the Curia the honours of a solemn service at St. Peter’s, in R0me, where he
himself would give the General Absolution. And to complete this
glorification, the press announced that the beatification of that illustrious
person would soon be started.
We must admit that he deserved so much praise, and even the halo, for
‘having observed the “H0ly obedience”, and carried out to the letter the
pressing instructions of the H0ly See concerning the “cordial and sincere”
relations wished for between himself and the “0ustachis”.
But, even amongst Cath0lics, we hope that some will be found who will
discern, behind the exaltation of this future saint and the burial under
flowers of the bloody souvenirs of his “apostolate”, the attempt of the
Vat i can to hide its own crime.


Section V
Chapter 4 The j€§uit movement in France =fränce before
and during the 1939-1945 war

We have seen how the Cath0lic Action, with Leon Degrelle and his
associates at the head, prepared the way for hit ler in the Belgium of
“Christus Rex”. In fränce, the same undermining action was going on; it
started when muss0lini came to power and ended up, in 1940, with the
collapse of the national defence. As for Belgium, it was, so we are told, the
“spiritual values” which had to be restored for the good of the country. The
F.N.C.: “Federation nationale Cath0lique” (National Cath0lic Federation)
was born and placed under the presidency of General de Castelnau; as
many as three million adherents joined it. The choice of its chief was clever:
the general, a great military figure and, then, 78 years of age, covered with his
personal prestige—but, of course, unknown to him—an intense clericofascist
propaganda programme.
That the F.N.C, as the whole Cath0lic Action, was jۤuit through and
through is obvious to anyone. But we know also that the good fäthers,
whose besetting sin is pride, like to put their signature on the creations of
their genius. This they did for the F.N.C. when they consecrated this
Cath0lic army to the Sacred-Heart of Jۤus, a worship set up by their
Company and whose basilica stands on Montmartre hill, from where
Ignatius of L0y0la and his companions set off to conquer the world.
A book concerning the F.N.C, whose foreword was written by the R.P.
lanvier, preserved for posterity the act of consecration read “at the altar”
by the old general. We will quote just a few phrases:
“Sacred Heart of J€§us, The chiefs and representatives of French
Cath0lics, prostrating themselves now before you, have assembled and
organised the National Cath0lic Federation (F.N.C.) to re-establish your
reign over this land… All of us, those who are present and those who are
absent, have not always been irreproachable… We carry the burden of the
crimes the French nation committed against you… It is then with the view to
repair and expiate that we present to you, today, our desires, intentions


and unanimous resolution to re-establish over the whole of fränce your
sacred and royal s0vereignty, and liberate the souls of her children from a
sacriligious teaching… We will not flinch any more before this fight for
which you condescended to arm us. We want everything to be bent before and
devoted to your service…
“Sacred Heart of J€§us, we beseech you, through the Virgin Mary, to
receive the homage… “etc”.(94)
As for the “crimes of the French nation”, the same Cath0lic author
enumerates them:
Fatal words and general directives: socialism is condemned… liberalism is
condemned… Leo X III showed that the freedom of worship is
unjustifiable. The P0pe also showed that the freedom of speech and
expression cannot be justifiably accorded… So, the freedom of thought,
press, teaching and worship, considered by some as rights natural to man,
cannot possibly be given…
“We must”, said Pi us X I, “re-instate these teachings and regulations of the
Such is the main aim of the F.N.C., under the Hierarchy’s control
assured by the decentralization of the diocesan Committees.
“In the Cath0lic Action, as in the war, the famous word of General de
Castelnau remains true: “Forward”.(95)
This is certainly clear and explicit. We know, then, what to expect when we
read this, from Pi us X I: “The Cath0lic Action is the faithful’s apostolate…”
(Letter to Car dinal Van Roey, 15th of August 1929).
Strange apostolate, consisting of the rejection of all liberties valued by
civilised countries and to be the patron of, instead of, of the totalitarian
gospel! Is this “the right to communicate to other minds the treasures of
Redemption”? (Pi us X I, “Non abbiamo bisogno”).
In Belgium Leon Degrelle and his friends, heroes of the Cath0lic Action
spread around them these “treasures of Redemption”… revised and updated
by the j€§uit fäther Staempfle, the discreet author of “Mein
It was the same in fränce where lay apostles, “joining in the activity of the
hierarchical apostolate” (Pi us X I “dixit”), were busy setting up another
“c0llaboration”. Let us read what fränz von Papen, the P0pe’s secret
chamberlain and the Fuhrer’s right hand man, wrote concerning this
“Our first meeting took place in 1927, when a German delegation, to
which I had the honour to belong, came to Paris, for the “Social Week of the
Cath0lic Institute”, under the presidency of Monseigneur Baudrillart
(94) and (95) Georges Viance: “La Federation nationale Cath0lique”, foreword by the R.P.
Janvier (Flammarion, Paris 1930, pp. 186,187,188,78).


This was indeed a fruitful first contact as it marked the start of a long
exchange of visits between important personalities from fränce and
“On the French side, the RR. PP. Delattre (j€§uit), de la Briere (j€§uit) and
Denset (j€§uit)… were present at these conferences”.(96)
Further on, the good apostle adds that, at times, “this conference of
Cath0lics reached superhuman heights of greatness”.
This “greatness” reached its zenith on the 14th of June 1940, the day
which saw the flag adorned with the swastika fly victoriously over Paris.
We know that Goebbels, chief of hit lerian propaganda, indicated that date
three months before, on the 14th of March, and that the German offensive
was only launched on the 10th of May.
The accuracy of this forecast is not as astonishing as it may seem.
“Here is the secret report of agent 654 J.56, working for the German
Secret Service, who sent these revelations to Himmler: “Paris, 5th of July
1939. “I can declare that, in fränce, the situation is now in our hands.
Everything is ready for J day and all our agents are at their posts. Within a few
weeks, the police force and military system will collapse like a pack of
Many secret documents relate that the traitors had been chosen a long time
before. Men like Luchaire, Bucard, Deat, Doriot… and Abel Bonnard (of the
French Academy)”.(97)
(This particular one fled to Spain at the Liberation. He came back to
fränce on the 1st of July 1958, gave himself up, but was immediately released
on a temporary basis by the president of the High-Court of Justice!)
The extremely well documented book of M. Andre Guerber gives details of
payments allocated to these traitors by the German SR. This money was well
and truly earned, for their work was very effective. Besides, the atmosphere
had been prepared for a long time, now. To “regenerate” the land according
to the wishes of the Cath0lic Action, a whole brood of apprentice-dictators,
on the model of Leon Degrelle, had hatched, men like Deat, Bucard, Doriot
who was—according to M. Andre Guerber—”agent No.56 BK of the German
Secret Service”. Of all this motley band he was also the one best thought of
by the archbish0pric and those well-disposed towards them… and, of course,
by hit ler who, later on at Sigmaringen, gave him full power.
Doriot was the rising star; but, for the immediate future and to treat
cautiously the transition after the foreseen and wanted defeat, another man
was needed, a highly respected military chief who would be able to dress
(96) fränz von Papen: “Memoires” (Flammarion, Paris 1953, p.91). (97) Andre
Guerber: “Himmler et ses crimes” (Les Documents Nuit et Jour, Paris, 1981)


the disaster and present it as a “national recovery”.
In 1936 already, Canon Coube wrote: “The Lord who brought forth
Charlemagne and the heroes of the Crusades can still raise up saviours…
Amongst us, there must be men whom He has marked with His seal and who
will be revealed when his time has come… Amongst us, there must be men of
the cloth who are the workmen in the great national restorations. But what
are the necessary conditions they need to accomplish this mission? Natural
qualities of intelligence and character; also supernatural qualities that is to
say obedience to God and His Law is just as indispensable, as this political
work is moral and religi0us before anything else. These saviours are men with
generous hearts who work only for the glory of God…”(98)
When the disciple of L0y0la expounded these political and religi0us
thoughts, he knew who this pious “saviour” would be, as his name was not a
secret amongst clerics and fascists; this is told us by M. fräncois Ternand:
“A clever and persistant propaganda campaign began in favour of a
“Petain dictatorship”…
“In 1935, Gustave Herve published a pamphlet which we are going to
examine… The tract is entitled “We need Petain”… its foreword is an
enthusiastic apology of the “Italian recovery” and “the even more amazing
recovery of Germany”, also an exaltation of the wonderful chiefs who were the
authors of these recoveries. Now what about our own French people?… There
is a man around whom we could gather… We also have a providential
man… Do you want to know his name? It is Petain”.
“We need Petain”, for the homeland is in a dangerous position; and not
only the homeland, but Cath0licism also: “Christian civilisation is
condemned to death if a dictatorial regime is not set up in every country”…
“Listen: “In peace time, a regime can only be swept away by a coup d’Etat if it
is willing or if it has no support from the army and administrations. The
operation can be a success only through a war and especially a defeat”.(99)
So, the path to follow was already made clear in 1935 to “re-christianise”
fränce, the regime had to be swept away, and the best way to attain this was to
suffer a military defeat which would place us under the German yoke. In 1943,
this was confirmed by Pierre Laval, the P0pe’s count and president of the Vichy
“I hope Germany will be victorious. It may seem strange to hear the one
who is defeated wish for the victor’s victory. It is because this war is not like
previous ones. It is a true war of religi0n! Yes, a war of religi0n”.(100)
(98) Canon Coube: “Sainte Therese de l’Enfant J€§us et les crises du temps present”,
(Flammarion, Paris 1936, pp.165 ss). Imprimatur: 11th of January 1936.
(99) fräncois Tenand: “L’Ascension politique du Marechal Petain”, (Ed. du livre fräncais,
Paris 1946, pp.40 ss).
(100) National Radio, 2nd of January 1943.


This indeed was what the Church wanted, even though unpleasant for the
forgetful j€§uit Fessard, whom we mentioned earlier on, who doesn’t want to
know any more what was said on the American radio for the 20 million
listeners of the “Christian Front”, by his L0y0lan brother fäther Coughlin:
“The German war is a battle for Christianity”.(101)
But during the same period, in occupied fränce, Car dinal Baudrillart,
rector of the Cath0lic Institute in Paris, was saying the same thing. Listen to
“hit ler’s war is a noble enterprise undertaken for the defence of
European culture”.(102)
So, on both sides of the Atlantic, as indeed all over the world, the clerical
voices were singing the praises of victorious Nazism.
In fränce, Car dinal Suhard, archbish0p of Paris, set the example to all the
episc0pate by “collaborating” fully, and so did the j€§uit nuncio Monseigneur
Valerio Valeri.
After the Liberation, the government asked the Vat i can to recall no less
than thirty bish0ps and archbish0ps who were deeply compromised. In the
end, it consented to recall three of them.
“fränce has forgotten…”, wrote M. Maurice Nadeau. ‘La Cr0ix’, the most
dangerous mouthpiece at the service of c0llaboration, takes its place amongst
the publications of a liberated fränce; the prelates who were urging the
French youth to work for the victory of Germany have not been brought to
One could read in “Artaban” of the 13th of December 1957:
“In 1944, ‘La Cr0ix’ was prosecuted for having favoured the enemy and
brought before the Court of Justice in Paris; the case was put in the hands of
Judge Raoult who dismissed it. The affair was discussed at the Chamber, on the
13th of March 1946 (see J.O. Parliamentary Debates, pages 713-714) and it was
learned, then, that M. de Menthon, minister for Justice and thorough at
purging the French press, had spoken in favour of’La Cr0ix’.
In fact, “the voice of pontifical thought”—as Pi us X II called it, in 1942,
when sending it his blessing—was the only one exempted from the general
measures taken to suppress all the newspapers published during the
occupation, even though, as ‘Artaban’ reminds us:
“‘La Cr0ix’ received instructions from the German Lieutenant Sahm and,
in Vichy, from Pierre Laval”.
Of course, the ‘pontifical thought’ and hit lerian instructions happily
coincided. This is confirmed when we study the war-time editions of this
estimable paper.
(101) 7th of July 1941.
(102) 30th of July 1941. ,
(103) Foreword to “L’Eglise a-t-elle collabore”?, by Jean Cotereau (Spartacus, Paris, May


One of the j€§uits’ attributions, and not one of the least important, is to
supervise all the Cath0lic press. In the various papers adapted to the need of
their readers, they bring out, as necessary, the various shades of the
‘pontifical thought’ which, under its undulating aspects, nevertheless
reaches implacably towards its aims. There is not one “Christian
newspaper or periodical that does not enjoy the c0llaboration of somediscreet—
These fäthers who are “all things to all men” are of course the best at
playing Chameleons. This they did, as we know, and, after the Liberation,
we had the surprise to see coming up, everywhere, fäthers “who had
belonged to the resistance” (they joined it later than others!), and who
testified that the Church had NEVER NEVER “collaborated”.
Forgotten, abolished, evaporated were the articles of ‘La Cr0ix’ and other
Cath0lic newspapers, the episc0pal mandates, the pastoral letters, the
official communications from the Assembly of Car dinals and Archbish0ps,
the exhortations of Car dinal Baudrillart calling on French youths to don the
nazi uniform and serve in the L.V.F. after having taken an oath of
allegiance to hit ler! All this was past and forgotten!
“History is a novel”, said a disillusioned thinker. The one of our epoch will
be true to this definition: the novel is being written under our eyes. Many
‘historians’ are contributing to it, well-disposed ecclesiastics and laymen, and
we can be certain that the result will be edifying: a Cath0lic novel, of course.
The j€§uits’ contribution is extensive, as worthy heirs of fäther Loriquet
whose “History of fränce” gave such a fanciful picture of Napoleon.
Compared to this skilful feat, it was a simple matter to camouflage the
c0llaboration between the clerics and the German occupier, from 1940 to
1944, and make it vanish. And this is still going on; over the years, so many
articles have been written in newspapers, periodicals, books, under the
patronage of the “Imprimatur”, to sing the praise of the misjudged superpatriots
such as Suhard, Baudrillart, Duthoit, Auvity, Du Bois de la
Villerabel, Mayol de Luppe, etc.! What a lot of pages blackened to exalt the
attitude—so heroic—of the episc0pate, during the war years in which fränce
experienced “a situation which led the French bish0ps to become the
“defenders of the city”!, as a wry joker wrote.(104)
“Slander, and slander again! there is bound to be something left”,
advised Basile, this perfect type of j€§uit. “Whitewash, and whitewash
again”, say his successors, great writers of “historical novels”.
And this whitewashing is being carried out extensively.
Future generations, submerged by a torrent of exaggerations, will devote
(104) R.P. Deroo: “L’episc0pat fräncais dans la melee de son temps”, (Bonne Presse, Paris
1955, p. 103). Imprimatur 1955.


a thankful thought—at least, we hope they will—to these “defenders” of the
city, these heroes of the R0man Church and Homeland, “dressed with a
candid honesty of white linen” by the work of their apologists; some of
them were even canonised!
On the 25th of August 1944, the jۤuit Car dinal Suhard, archbish0p of
Paris (since the 11th of May 1940!) and leader of the clerical collaborators,
imperturbably decided to celebrate the “Te Deum” of victory at Notre-Dame.
We were spared this unseemly farce only through “the strong protest of
the general chaplain of the F.F.I.”
We read in “fränce-Dimanche” of the 26th of December 1948: “His
Eminence, Car dinal Suhard, archbish0p of Paris, on the anniversary of his
entering the priesthood has just received an autographic letter from His
Holiness Pi us X II who congratulates him, amongst other things, for the part
he played during the occupation. We know that the cardinal’s behaviour
during that period had been severely criticized after the Liberation.
When General de Gaulle arrived back in Paris, in August 1944, he refused to
meet the cardinal at the “Te Deum” in Notre-Dame. At that time, the prelate
was openly accused of “c0llaborationist tendencies”.
The H0ly-fäther’s congratulations are then understandable. But there is
another story of “Te Deum” even more edifying!:
After the allies disembarked, the city of Rennes suffered much in the
fighting which followed, and many died amongst the civilian population as
the commanding officer of the German garrison had refused to evacuate
them. When the city was taken, the traditional “Te Deum” was going to be
celebrated, but the archbish0p and primate of Britany, Monseigneur
Roques, absolutely refused, not only to officiate himself but also to allow
this ceremony to take place in his cathedral. To thank Heaven for the
liberation of his city was an intolerable scandal to the eyes of this prelate.
Because of this attitude, he was confined to the archbish0p’s residence by
the French authorities.
Such loyalty to the “pontifical thought” called for an equivalent reward. It
came from R0me, soon after, in the shape of a Car dinal’s hat.
We can blame the late Pi us X II with many things, but we must admit that he
always “acknowledged his own”. A flattering letter to Car dinal Suhard,
distinguished collaborator, the Car dinal’s purple for Monseigneur
Roques, hero of the… German Resistance: this “great P0pe” was practising a
strict distributive justice.
Of course, his entourage was of the kind which could advise him wisely: two
German j€§uits, R.P. Leiber and R.P. Hentrich, “his two private secretaries
and his favourites”.(105) His confessor was the German j€§uit Bea. Sister
Pasqualina, a German nun, supervised his household and above
(105) ‘La Cr0ix’, 10th of October 1958.


all cooked for him. Even the canary, answering to the sweet name of
“Dumpfaf”, had been imported from beyond the Rhine.
But had not the s0vereign Pontiff told Ribbentrop, after hit ler invaded
Poland, that “he would always have a special affection for
(106) We read in “Documentation Cath0lique” of the 15th of March 1959: “As far as the very
estimable German nation is concerned, we will follow the example given to us by our
Predecessor (Pi us X II), signed John X X III. The spirit of continuity is one of the Vat i can’s

Section V
Chapter 5 The Gestapo and the Company of Jۤus

If Pi us X I and Pi us X II’s goodwill and friendliness never failed towards
the Fuhrer whom they had brought to power, we must admit that he
f u l l f i l e d all the conditions of the pact by which he was bound to the
Vat i can. As he had expressly promised to “strangle” the anticlericals, they
soon followed the liberals and Jews into the concentration camps. We
know how the chief of the Third Reich had decided the fate of the Jews:
they were simply massacred or, when more advantagous, made to work
until worn out then liquidated. In this case the ‘final solution’ was only
But let us see, first, how an especially “authorised” personality, fränco,
Knight of the 0rder of Christ, expressly confirmed the collusion between
the Vat i can and the nazis. According to “Reforme”, this is what the press of
the Spanish dictator (fränco) published on the 3rd of May 1945, the day of
hit ler’s death:
“Adolf hit ler, son of the Cath0lic Church, died while defending
Christianity. It is therefore understandable that words cannot be found to
lament over his death, when so many were found to exalt his life. Over his
mortal remains stands his victorious moral figure. With the palm of the
martyr, God gives hit ler the laurels of Victory”.(107)
This funeral oration of the nazi chief, a challenge to the victorious allies, is
voiced by the H0ly See itself, under the cover of fränco’s press. It is a
communique of the Vat i can given via Madrid.
Of course, this missing hero well deserved the gratitude of the R0man
Church and they do not attempt to conceal it. He served her faithfully: all
those this Church pointed out to him as her adversaries felt the
consequences. And this good ‘son’ wasn’t slow in admitting what he owed to
his Most H0ly Mother, and especially to those who made themselves her
(107) “Reforme”, 21st of July 1945.


soldiers in the world.
“I learned much from the 0rder of the j€§uits”, said hit ler… “Until now,
there has never been anything more grandiose, on the earth, than the
hierarchical organisation of the Cath0lic Church. I transferred much of this
organisation into my own party… I am going to let you in on a secret… I am
founding an 0rder… In my “Burgs” of the 0rder, we will raise up a youth
which will make the world tremble… hit ler then stopped, saying that he
couldn’t say any more..”(108)
Another highly placed hit lerian, Walter Schellenberg, former chief of the
German counter-espionage, completed this confidence from the Fuhrer,
after the war:
“The S.S. organisation had been constituted, by Himmler, according to the
principles of the j€§uits’ 0rder. Their regulations and the Spiritual
Exercises prescribed by Ignatius of L0y0la were the model Himmler tried to
copy exactly… The “Reichsfuhrer SS”—Himmler’s title as supreme chief of
the SS—was to be the equivalent of the j€§uits’ “General” and the whole
structure of the direction was a close imitation of the Cath0lic Church’s
hierarchical 0rder. A mediaeval castle, near Paderborn in Westphalia, and
called “Webelsbourg”, was restored; it became what could be called a SS
For their part, the best theological pens were busy demonstrating the
similarity between the Cath0lic and Nazi doctrines. And, for that work, the
sons of L0y0la were the busiest. As an example, let us see how Michaele
Schmaus, jۤuit theologian, presented to the public a series of studies on this
“Empire and Church” is a series of writings which should help the
building up of the Third Reich as it unites a national-socialist state to
Cath0lic-christianity… The national-socialist movement is the most
vigorous and massive protest against the spirit of the 19th and 20th
centuries… A compromise between the Cath0lic faith and liberal thinking is
impossible… Nothing is more contrary to Cath0licism than democracy… The reawakened
meaning of “strict authority” opens up again the way to the real
interpretation of ecclesiastical authority… The mistrust of liberty is founded on
the Cath0lic doctrine of original sin… The national-socialist
Commandments and those of the Cath0lic Church have the same
(108) Hermann Rauschning, former national-socialist chief of the government of Dantzig:
“hit ler m’a dit”, (Ed. Co-operation, Paris 1939, pp.266, 267, 273 ss).
(109) Walter Schellenberg: “Le Chef du contre-espionnage nazi vous parle” (Julliard, Paris
1957, pp.23-24).
(110) “Begegnungen zwichen Katholischen Christentum und nazional-sozialitischer
Weltanchaunung”, by Michaele Schmaus, professor at the Faculty of Theology of Munich.
(Aschendorf, Munster 1933).


This aim was the “new middle-ages” hit ler promised Europe. The
similarity is obvious between the passionate anti-liberalism of this jۤuit from
Munich and the equal fanaticism expressed during the “act of consecration
of the F.N.C. in the basilica of Montmartre”. During the occupation, the R.P.
Merklen wrote: “These days, liberty no longer seems
to merit any esteem”.(l 11)
Quotations such as these could be multiplied by the thousand. Is not this
hatred of liberty under all its forms the character itself of the R0man
Master? It is easy also to understand how the Cath0lic “doctrine” and the nazi
“doctrine” could harmonise so well. The one who ably demonstrated this
accord, “The j€§uit Michaele Schmaus”, was called by ‘La Cr0ix’, ten years
after the war, the “great theologian of Munich”( 112), and nobody will be
surprised to learn that he was made a “Prince of the Church” by Pi us X II.
Under the circumstances, what becomes of the “terrible” encyclical letter
“Mit brennender Sorge”, from Pi us X I, which was supposed to condemn
nazism? No casuist has tried to tell us… naturally!
The “great theologian” Michaele Schmaus had many rivals, according to a
German author who sees in the “kat0lisch-Konservatives Erbgut” the
strangest book ever published by the German Cath0lic Publications:
“This anthology which brings together texts from the main Cath0lic
theorists of Germany, from Gorres to Vogelsang, makes us believe that
national-socialism was born out of Cath0lic ideas”.(113)
When writing this, the author certainly didn’t realise he was describing it so
Another well informed person, the mainspring of the pact between the
H0ly See and Berlin and the P0pe’s secret chamberlain, fränz von Papen, was
even more explicit:
“The Third Reich is the first world power which not only acknowledges but
also puts into practice the high principles of the papacy”.(l 14)
To this, we will add the result of this “putting into practice”: 25 million
victims of the concentration camps—the official figure issued by the United
Nations Organisation.
Here, we find it necessary to add something especially for candid minds, for
those who cannot admit that the organised massacres were one of the
papacy’s “high principles”. Of course, this candour is diligently
(111) “La Cr0ix”, 2nd of September 1951.
(112) “La Cr0ix”, 2nd of September 1954.
(113) Gunter Buxbaum- “Les Cath0liques en Europe centrale” (“Mercure de fränce”, 15th of
January 1939).
(114) Robert d’Harcourt of the French Academy: “fränz von Papen, l’homme a tout faire”
L’Aube, 3rd of October 1946).


—”Such barbarian deeds belong to the past”!
So say some good apostles to the simple, while shrugging their shoulders
before the non-Cath0lics “for whom the fires of the H0ly Inquisition are still
So be it! Let us set aside the superabundant testimonies about the clerical
ferocity of years gone by to consider the 20th century.
We will not recall either the exploits of men like ste pinac and Marcone in
Croatia, nor Tiso in Slovakia, but will confine ourselves to examining the
0rthod0xy of certain “high principles” they put so well into practice.
Are they really out-dated today—these principles—disowned by an
“enlightened doctrine”, officially rejected by the H0ly See with other
mistakes of a dark past? It is easy to find out.
Let us, for example, open the “Great Apologetics”, by the Abbe Jean
Vieujan, which can hardly be described as mediaeval as it is dated “1937”.
What do we read?
“To accept the principle of the Inquisition, one only needs a Christian
mentality, and this is what many Christians lack… The Church has no such
One could not put it better.
Is another proof, no less 0rthod0x and modern, necessary? Listen to the
R.P. Janvier, a famous conference speaker at Notre-Dame:
“By virtue of her indirect power over temporal matters, should not the
Church have the right to expect Cath0lic States to oppress heretics even to the
point of death, so as to suppress them?
Here is my answer:
“I do advocate this, even to the point of death!… Leaning first of all on the
practice, then on the teaching of the Church itself; and I am convinced that no
Cath0lic would say the opposite without erring gravely”.(117)
We could not accuse this theologian of speaking in riddles. His speech is
clear and concise. It would be impossible to say more with fewer words.
Everything is there, concerning the right the Church arrogates to herself to
exterminate those whose beliefs do not correspond with hers: the
“teaching” which compels her, the “practice” which legitimates by
tradition, and even the “call to the Christian states”, of which the hit lerian
crusade was such a perfect example.
The following words, far from ambigious, were not pronounced in the
darkness of the Middle-Ages either:
“The Church can condemn heretics to death, for any rights they have are
(115) “Temoignage chretien”, 6th of December 1957.
(116) Abbe Jean Vieujan: “Grande Apologetique” (Bloud et Gay, Paris 1937, p.1316).
( 1 1 7 ) Conference of the 25th of March 1912.


only through our tolerance, and these rights are apparent not real”. The
author of this was the j€§uits’ general fränz Wernz (1906-1915), and the fact
that he was German as well gives even more weight to his declration.
During the 20th century also, Car dinal Lepicier, notoroius prince of the
Church, wrote: “If someone professes publicly to be an heretic or tries to
pervert others, by his speech or example, he can not only be
excommunicated, but also justly killed…”(118 & 118a). If that’s not a
characteristic appeal to murder, I might as well be “changed into a
peppermill” as the late Courteline said.
Is the s0vereign Pontiffs contribution wanted as well? Here it is, from a
modern P0pe whose “liberalism” was criticised by intransigent clerics, the
j€§uit P0pe Leo X III: “Anathema on the one who says: the H0ly Spirit
does not want us to kill the heretic”.
What higher authority could be invoked after this one, apart from that of the
H0ly Spirit?
Even though this may displease those who manipulate the smokescreen
(reference to those who put out smoke signals during the choice of a P0pe), the
soothers of disquieted consciences, the papacy’s “high principles” remain
unchanged and, amongst other things, the extermination for the Faith is as
valid and canonical today as it was in the past. A conclusion most
“enlightening”—to use a word dear to mystics—when we consider what
happened in Europe between 1939 and 1945.
“hit ler, Goebbels, Himmler and most members of the party’s “old guard”
were Cath0lics”, wrote M. Frederic Hoffet. “It was not by accident that,
because of its chiefs’ religi0n, the National-socialist government was the most
Cath0lic Germany ever had… This kinship between National-socialism and
Cath0licism is most striking if we study closely the propaganda methods
and the interior organisation of the party. On that subject, nothing is more
instructive than Joseph Goebbel’s works. He had been brought up in a j€§uit
college and was a seminarist before devoting himself to literature and
politics… Every page, every line of his writings
recall the teaching of his masters; so he stresses obedience… the contempt
for truth… “Some lies are as useful as bread!” he proclaimed by virtue of a
moral relativism extracted from Ignatius of L0y0la’s writings…”(119)
hit ler did not award the palm of jۤuitism to his chief of propaganda,
though to the Gestapo’s chief, as he told his favourites: “I can see Himmler as
our Ignatius of L0y0la”(120).
(118) “De stabilitate et progressu dogmatis”, first part, art VI 9 I (“Typographia editrix
R0mana, R0mae 1908”).
(118a) See Sol Ferrer-fräncisco Ferrer. Un Martyr au X X e siecle (Fischbacher, Paris). (119))
Frederic Hoffet: “L’lmperialisme pr0testant” (Flammarion, Paris 1948, pp.172 ss). (120) Adolf
hit ler: “Libres propos” (Flammarion, Paris 1952, p.164).


To speak thus, the Fuhrer must have had some good reasons. First of all, we
notice that Kurt Heinrich Himmler, Reichsfuhrer of the SS, Gestapo and
German police forces, seemed to be the one most impregnated by
clericalism amongst the Cath0lic members of hit ler’s entourage. His fäther had
been director of a Cath0lic school in Munich, then tutor of Prince
Ruprecht of Bavaria. His brother, a ben edictine monk, lived at the
monastery of Maria Laach, one of the Pan-German high places. He also had
an uncle who had held the important position of Canon at the Court of Bavaria,
the jۤuit Himmler.
The German author Walter Hagen gives also this discreet information:
“The j€§uits’ general, Count Halke von Ledochowski, was ready to
organise, on the common basis of anti-communism, some c0llaboration
between the German Secret Service and the j€§uit 0rder”.(121)
As a result, within the SS Central Security Service, an organisation was
created, and most of its main posts were held by Cath0lic priests wearing the
black uniform of the SS. The j€§uit fäther Himmler was one of its superior
After the Third Reich’s capitulation, the j€§uit fäther Himmler was
arrested and imprisoned at Nuremberg. His hearing by the international
tribunal would have apparently been most interesting, but Providence was
keeping a watchful eye: Heinrich Himmler’s uncle never appeared before that
court. One morning, he WAS FOUND DEAD IN HIS CELL, and the public
never learned the cause of his death.
We will not insult the memory of this cleric by supposing that he willingly
ended his days, against the solemn teaching laws of the R0man Church.
Nevertheless, his death was as sudden and opportune as the one of
another j€§uit, sometime before, fäther Staempfle, the unrecognised
author of ‘Mein Kampf’. Strange coincidence indeed…
But let us come back to Kurt Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Gestapo,
which meant he held in his hand the essential reins of power of the regime.
Was it his personal merits which earned him such a high position? Did
hit ler see in him a superior genius when he compared him to the creator of the
jۤuit 0rder? It is certainly not what the testimonies of those who knew him
imply as they saw in him nothing more than mediocrity.
Was that star shining with a borrowed brightness? Was it really Kurt
Heinrich Himmler, the ostensible chief, who actually reigned over the
Gestapo and the secret services? Who was sending millions of people,
deported for political reasons, and Jews to their death? Was it the flat-faced
nephew or the uncle, former Canon at the Court of Bavaria, one of von
Ledochowski’s favourites, a j€§uit fäther and superior officer of the SS?
It may seem reckless, and even presumptuous, to take such an indiscreet
(121) Walter Hagen, op.cit., p.358.


look behind the scenes of History. The play is performed on the stage,
before the combined lights of the footlights, the stagelights and the arc lights.
This is normal for any show; and the one who wants to see behind the props may
well be regarded as troublesome and ill-bred.
However, the spell binding actors on whom the public’s gaze is fixed have
all come from behind the scenes. This is more than evident when we study
these “sacred monsters” and realise that they are far from equal to the individuals
they are supposed to represent.
Such seems to have been the case of Himmler. But wouldn’t it be right to say
the same of the one whom he helped as his right hand man, hit ler?
When we saw hit ler gesticulating on the screens or heard him bawling his
hysterical speeches, did we not have the impression of looking at the
movements of an automaton ill adjusted, with overstretched springs? Even his
most simple and composed movements reminded us of a mechanical puppet.
And what about his dull and globular eyes, flabby nose, bloated
physiognomy whose vulgarity could not be disguised by that famous lock of
hair and brush m0ustache which seemed glued under his nostrils.
Was this snarler at public meetings really a chief? the “real” master of
Germany, an “authentic” Statesman whose genius was going to turn the
world upside-down?
Or was he just a bad substitute for all that? A covering skin cleverly blown
up and a phantom for the use of the masses, a rabble rouser?
He himself admitted it when he said: “I am only a clarion”. M. fräncois-
Poncet, then French ambassador to Berlin, confirms that hit ler worked very
little, was not a reader and let his collaborators have their own way.
His helpers gave the same impression of emptiness and unreality. The first
one, Rudolf Hess, who flew to England in 1941, looked on his own trial at
Nuremberg as a total stranger, and we never learned if he was completely insane
or just a lunatic. The second one was the grotesque Goering, vain and obese,
who wore the most spectacular comic-opera uniforms, a glutton, a great
robber of paintings and, to top it all, a morphine drug addict.
The other main personalities of the party bore the same resemblance and,
at the trials of Nuremberg, it was one of the journalists greatest surprises to
have to report that—apart from their own particular defects— these Nazi
heroes lacked in intellect, character, and were more or less insignificant.
The only one who stood above that vulgar mob—because of his
astuteness and not his moral worth—was fränz von Papen the
chamberlain of His holiness, “the man for every job”… who was bound to be
If the Fuhrer comes out as an extraordinary puppet, was the one he
modelled himself upon more consistent? Let us recall the ridiculous


exhibitions of that “Caesar fit for a carnival”, rolling his big black eyes that he
wanted to flash under that strange hat decorated with curtain tassels! And
those photographs meant for propaganda, taken from his feet and depicting
only his jaws, jutting out against the sky, the wonder man, as an immovable
rock—symbol of a will which knew no obstacles!
What a will! From the confidences of some of his companions, we get the
picture of a man constantly undecided; this “formidable man” who was going
to “invade everything”, with elemental force (to use terms of Car dinal Ratti,
future Pi us X I), did not resist the advances made to him by the jۤuit Car dinal
Gasparri, secretary of State, on behalf of the Vat i can.
Just a few secret meetings persuaded the revolutionist to enlist bag and
baggage under the H0ly fäther’s standard, to carve out the brilliant career we
know so well, and the well known former minister Carlo Sforza could write:
“One day, when time will have attenuated the bitterness and hatred, it will
be recognised we hope, that the orgy of bloody brutalities which turned Italy into
a prison for twenty years, and ruins through the 1940-1945 war, found its
origin in an almost unique historical case: the utter disproportion between the
legend artificially created around a name and the real capacities of the
poor devil who bore that name, a man who was not obstructed by
This perfect formula is applicable to hit ler, as well as muss0lini: same
disproportion between the legend and capacities, same lack of “culture” in
those two mediocre adventurers with almost identical pasts; their lightning
careers can find an explanation only in their gift for haranguing the masses, a
gift which brought them before the glare of publicity.
That the legend was “artifically created” is evident enough when we know
that, today, the Fuhrer’s retrospective apparition on the screens of Germany
provokes nothing more than a huge laugh.
But was not the obvious inferiority of these “providential men” the very
reason for which they were chosen to be elevated to power? The fact is that the
same lack of personal qualities can be found in all those the papacy elected to
be its champions.
In Italy and Germany, there were some “real” statesmen, “real” chiefs, who
were able to take the helm and govern without having to resort to this delirious
“mystic”. But these were too bright intellectually and not sufficiently
pliable. The Vat i can, and especially the “black P0pe”, von Ledochowski, could
not have held them “as a baton in his hand”, according to the fiery formula, and
made them serve his aims at all costs until catastrophe struck.
We have seen how the revolutionist muss0lini was turned inside out, as
(122) Count Carlo Sforza: “L’ltalie telle que je l’ai vue”, (Grasset, Paris 1946, p.158).


one would do with a glove, by the H0ly See’s emissaries who promised
him power.
The unbending hit ler was to prove just as malleable. The Ledochowski’s
plan was, originally, to create a federation of the Cath0lic nations in
central and eastern Europe, in which Bavaria and Austria (governed by
the jۤuit Seipel) would have had the pre-eminence. Bavaria had to be
separated from the German Republic of Weimar—and, as by chance,
the agitator hit ler, of Austrian origin, was then a Bavarian separatist.
But the chance to realise this federation and place a Hapsburg at its
head became more and more slim, whilst Monseigneur Pacelli, the
nuncio who had left Munich for Berlin, became the more conscious of
the German Republic’s weakness because of the poor support the Allies
gave it. The hope to get hold of Germany as a whole was then born at
the Vat i can and the plan was modified accordingly:
“The hegemony of pr0testant Prussia had to be prevented and as the
Reich was to dominate Europe—to avert the Germans’ federalism—a
Reich had to be reconstituted in which the Cath0lics would be
This was enough. Turning completely round with his “brown shirts”,
hit ler, who had been until then a Bavarian separatist, became overnight
the inspired Apostle of the Great Reich.
(123) Mercure de fränce: “Pi us X I and hit ler”, 15th of January 1934.


172 Section V
Chapter 6 The Death Camps and the Anti-Semitic Crusade

To what extent the Cath0lics were masters of Nazi Germany soon
became apparent as also did the severity with which some of the “Papacy’s
high principles” were applied.
The liberals and Jews had plenty of spare time to find out that these
principles were far from out-dated, as the most 0rthod0x voices confirmed it.
The right the Church arrogates herself to exterminate slowly or speedily those
who are in the way was “put into practice” at Auschwitz, Dachau, Belsen,
Buchenwald, and other death camps.
The Gestapo of Himmler, “our Ignatius of L0y0la”, diligently performed
these charitable deeds; civilian and military Germany had to submit
“perinde ac cadaver” to this all-powerful organisation.
No need to say that the Vat i can washed its hands of these horrors. When
giving an audience to Dr Nerin F. Gun, a Swiss journalist who had been
deported himself and who wondered why the P0pe had not intervened, at least
by providing some assistance to so many unfortunate people, His Holiness
Pi us X II had the affrontery to answer:
“We knew that, for political reasons, violent persecutions were taking place
in Germany, but We were never informed as to the inhuman character of
the Nazi repression”.(124)
And that at the time when the speaker of Radio Vat i can, the R.P.
Mistiaen, was declaring that “overwhelming documentary proof”
concerning the cruelty of the Nazis had been received”.(125)
Without any doubt, the H0ly fäther was not informed either on what was
going on in the “0ustachi” concentration camps, in spite of his own legate’s
presence in Zagreb.
(124) “Gazette of Lausanne”, 15th of November 1945.
(125) R.P. Duclos: “Le Vat i can et la seconde guerre mondiale”, (Ed. Pedone, Paris 1955.
p.255) Imprimatur 1955.


Once, though, the H0ly See was seen to take some interest in the fate of
certain people condemned to deportation. They were 528 pr0testant
missionaries, survivors of all those who had been taken prisoners, by the
Japanese, in the islands of the Pacific and interned in concentration camps in
the Philippines. M. Andre Ribard, in his excellent book “1960 and the secret of
the Vat i can”, reveals the pontifical intervention on behalf of these unfortunates.
The text appears under No.1591, dated: Tokio 6th of April 1943, in a report
from the Department for religi0us Affairs in occupied territories, and I
quote the following extract: it expressed the wish of the R0man Church
to see the Japanese pursue their politics and prevent certain religi0us
propagators of error to regain a freedom to which they were not entitled”.(126)
From the “Christian” point of view, this charitable step needs no
comment, but is it not most significant, politically speaking? In Slovakia— as
we know—Monseigneur Tiso, the j€§uit Gauleiter, was also free to persecute
the “separated brethren” even though Germany, to which his State was a
satellite, was mainly pr0testant. It says a lot about the influence the R0man
Church had in the hit lerian Reich!
We have also seen the part played in Croatia by the representatives of that
Church, in the extermination of 0rthod0x believers.
As for the anti-Jewish crusade, the Gestapo’s masterpiece, it may seem
superfluous to mention again the part played in it by R0me, as we have
already related the exploits of Monseigneur Tiso, the first provider of
Auschwitz’s gas chambers and crematoria furnaces. We will just add a few
characteristic documents to this dossier.
First of all, here is a letter from M. Leon Berard, ambassador of the
Vichy government to the H0ly See:
Marshall Petain, Sir,
In your letter dated 7th of August 1941, you honoured me in asking
certain information touching the questions and difficulties which could arise,
from the R0man Cath0lic point of view, out of the measures your government
took concerning the Jews. I have the honour to answer that nothing has been
said to me, at the Vat i can, which could be interpreted as a criticism or
disapproval of the laws or directive deeds in question…”(127)
The periodical “L’Arche”, when mentioning this letter in an article
entitled “The Silence of Pi us X II”, tells of a subsequent and
(126) Andre Ribard: “1960 et le secret du Vat i can”, (Librairie Robin, 38, rue de Vaugirard. Paris
1954, p.80) and Frederic Hoffet: “Politique R0maine et demission des pr0testants” (demission
des laiques) (Fischbacher, Paris).
(127) and (129) Leon Poliakov: “Breviaire de la haine” (Calmann-Levy, Paris 1951, pp
345, 350, 351).


complementary report which M. Leon Berard sent to Vichy on the 2nd of
September 1941:
Is there a contradiction between the Status of the Jews and the Cath0lic
doctrine? Only one, and Leon Berard respectfully points it out to the head of
State. It resides in the fact that the law of the 2nd of June 1941 defines the Jews as
a race… The Church (wrote Vichy’s ambassador), never professed that the
same rights should be given to all citizens… As someone in authority at the
Vat i can told me, you will not find yourselves in difficulties over the Status of
the Jews”.(128)
There is, “translated into practice”, the “terrible” encyclical letter “Mit
brennender Sorge”, against racism, widely referred to by apologists.
But we find something even better, in M. Leon Poliakov’s book:
“The proposal of the pr0testant Church in fränce that, together with the
R0man Church, they should take some measures against the rounding-up of
Jews, during the Summer of 1942, was rejected by the Cath0lic
Many Parisians still remember how the Jewish children were taken from
their mothers and sent, by special trains, to the crematory furnaces of
Auschwitz. These deportations of children are confirmed, amongst several
other official documents, in a note of the “SS Haupsturmfuhrer
Danneker”, dated 21st of July 1942.
The awful callousness of the R0man Church—and of its chief in
particular—inspired, not long ago, these revengeful lines from the
aforementioned periodical “L’Arche”:
“Over five years, Nazism was the author of outrage, profanation,
blasphemy and crime. Over five years, it massacred six million Jews.
Amongst these six million, 1,800,000 were children. Who, yes, who said once:
let the little children come unto me? And for what reason “Let them come unto
me so that I can butcher them?” The militant P0pe has been followed by a
diplomatic P0pe.
From occupied Paris, we go to R0me, occupied also by the Germans after
the Italian collapse. Here is a message addressed to von Ribbentrop, Nazi
Foreign Affairs minister:
“German Embassy at the H0ly See. R0me, 28th of October 1943.
Even though urged on every side, the P0pe has not expressed any
demonstrative reprobation of the deportation of Jews from R0me. He can
expect our enemies to reproach him in this attitude, and see it exploited by the
pr0testants of Anglo-Saxon countries in their propaganda against
Cath0licism; when considering this delicate question, the endangerment of our
relations with the German government was the deciding
(128) “L’Arche”, November 1958.
(129) See earlier on.


Signed: Ernst von Weiszaeker( 130)
When relating the career of this Baron von Weiszaeker—tried as a war
criminal “for having prepared extermination lists”—”Le Monde” of the 27th
of July 1947 wrote:
“Perceiving a German defeat, he had himself appointed at the Vat i can,
taking this opportunity to work closely with the Gestapo”.
For the benefit of our readers not yet fully convinced, we will quote the
following official German document which sets out the Vat i can’s
dispositions—and those of the j€§uits—towards the Jews, before the war:
“Studying the evolution of anti-semitism in the United States, we note with
interest that the number of listeners to the radio broadcasts of fäther
Coughlin (a jۤuit), well known for his anti-semitism, exceeds 20
The militant anti-semitism of the jۤuits in the United States, as
everywhere else, is not surprising on the part of these ultramontanes, as it is in
perfect accord with the “doctrine”. Let us see what M. Daniel-Rops, of the
French Academy, has to say on the subject; this author specialises in pious
literature and publishes only under the auspices of “the Imprimatur”. We read
in one of his best known works, “J€§us and His times”, published in 1944,
during the German occupation:
“Over the centuries, wherever the Jewish race was scattered, blood
flowed, and always the call for murder uttered at Pilate’s judgment hall
drowned the cry of despair repeated a thousand times. The face of a
persecuted Jewish nation fills History, but it cannot obliterate this other
face, smeared with blood and spittle, for which the Jewish crowd felt no pity.
No doubt, Israel had no choice in the matter and had to kill its God after
disowning Him, and, as blood mysteriously calls for blood, Christian charity
may have no choice either; should not the divine will compensate with the
horror of the progroms the unbearable horror (the Crucifixion’) (132)
How well said! Or, to put it more bluntly: if millions of Jews had to go
through the gas chambers and crematory furnaces of Auschwitz, Dachau and
elsewhere, it was their just desert. This adversity was wanted by the “divine
will” and “Christian charity” would err if turning towards them.
The eminent professor M. Jules Isaac, president of the “Amitie judeochretienne”,
exclaimed when referring to this passage:
“These terrible and blasphemous phrases provoke an unbearable horror
(130) “Secret archives of the Wilhelmstrasse”.
(131) “Secret archives of the Wilhelmstrasse”, (document 83-26 19/1, Berlin 25th of January
(132) Daniel-Rops: “J€§us en son temps” (Artheme Fayard, Paris 1944, pp.526, 527).
Imprimatur, 17th of April 1944.


themselves”, aggravated the more by a note which says: “Amongst the Jews
today…, some of them… try to shrug off this heavy responsibility…
Honourable sentiments indeed, but we cannot go contrary to the evidence of
History… the terrible weight (of J€§us’ death) which Israel must bear is not up
to men to reject”.(133)
M. Jules Isaac brings to our notice that the phrases in question have been
altered by the publisher “in the more recent editions” of this edifying
book—that is to say, after the Liberation. There is “a time” for everything: the
crematory furnaces were out-dated.
So, from the doctrinal affirmation of the papacy’s high principles to
their putting into practice by Himmler, “our Ignatius of L0y0la”, the ring is
closed—and we will add the half mad anti-semitism of the Fuhrer thus loses
much of its mystery.
But—going back to this subject—does it not also shed more light on that
baffling individual?
The things which were imagined, before the war, in an attempt to explain the
evident disproportion between the man and the part he had to play! There
was a gap, an obvious vacuum felt by all. To fill this gap, legends were
abounding: stories were spread abroad not always without the secret purpose
of misleading!, Occult sciences, oriental magicians, astrologers inspired, so
we were told, the sleep-walking hermit of Berchtesgaden. And the choice of
the swastika as the Nazi party’s insigna, which originated from India,
seemed to corroborate the idea.
M. Maxime Mourin refuted this particular assertion:
“Adolf hit ler had been a pupil at the school of Lambach and sang
amongst the choir boys in the abbey bearing the same name. He discovered the
swastika there, as it was the heraldic sign of fäther Hagen, the abbey’s
administrator”.( 134)
The Fuhrer’s “inspirations” are also easily explained, without having to
resort to mysterious or exotic philosophies. If it is obvious that this “son of the
Cath0lic Church”, as he was described by fränco, was submitted to the
impulses of mysterious leaders, we know also that these had nothing to do
with oriental magic.
The earthly hells which devoured 25 million victims bear another stamp,
easily recognisable: the one of people who had to go through a lengthy and
meticulous training, as prescribed in the “Spiritual Exercises” (of the
(133) Jules Isaac: “J€§us et Israel” (Albin Michel, Paris 1948, p.382).
(134) Maxime Mourin: “Histoire des Grandes Puissances” (Payot. Paris 1958, p.134).


Section V
Chapter 7 The jۤuits and the Colleqium Russicum

Amongst the various causes which decided the Vat i can to start the first
world war, by urging the emperor of Austria, fräncis-Joseph, to “chastise the
Serbians”, the main one was, as we have seen, to strike a decisive blow against
the 0rthod0x Church, this hated and centuries old rival.
Beyond the small Serbian nation, the Vat i can aimed at Russia, the
traditional protector of 0rthod0x believers in the Balkans and the East.
M. Pierre Dominique wrote:
“To R0me, this affair became most important; a victory of apostolic
monarchy over Czarism could be looked upon as a victory of R0me over the
schism of the East”.(135)
The R0man Curia was in no way concerned that such a victory could only
be acquired through a gigantic holocaust. The risk, rather the certainty of
it, was accepted, as the alliances made it unavoidable. Urged on by his
secretary of State, the j€§uit Merry del Val, Pi us X  made no secret of it and the
Bavarian Charge d’Affaires wrote to his government, on the eve of the
conflict: “He (the P0pe) does not think the French and Russian armies would
be successful in a war against Germany”.(136)
This wicked calculation proved wrong. The first World War, which
ravaged the north of fränce and left several millions dead, did not fulfil
R0me’s ambitions; it divided Austria-Hungary instead, so depriving the
Vat i can of its main stronghold in Europe and liberating the Slavs who were
part of that double monarchy from Vienna’s apostolic yoke.
In addition, the Russian revolution liberated from the Vat i can’s control
those R0man Cath0lics, for the most part of Polish origins, who lived in the
Czars former empire.
The defeat was total. But the R0man Church “patiens quia aeterna” was
(135) Pierre Dominique, op.cit., p.246.
(136) Bayerische Dokumente zum Kriegsausbruch, I I I , p.206.


going to pursue with fresh efforts her politics of the “Drang nach Osten”, the
thrust towards the East which combined so well with the Pan-German
For that, as we mentioned earlier on, the raising up of Dictators and the
second world war with its retinue of horrors; the “cleaning up” of the
Wartheland, in Poland, and the “compulsory Cath0licisation” of Croatia
were two examples, especially atrocious, of these horrors.
It was of no importance that 25 millions died in concentration camps, 32
millions soldiers were killed on the battle fields and 29 millions were
wounded and maimed; these are the official statistics of the United Nations
Organisation (137) and show the magnitude of that carnage! This time, the
R0man Curia thought her aims had been reached, and one could read in
‘Basler Nachrichten’ of Basle:
“The German action in Russia poses the question of that country’s
evangelisation; the Vat i can is most highly interested in it”.(138)
And this, from a book devoted to the glorification of Pi us X II:
“The Vat i can and Berlin signed a pact allowing the Cath0lic missionaries of
the Russicum college to go to occupied territories and the placing of the
Baltic territories under Berlin’s nunciature”.(139)
The “Cath0licisation” of Russia was about to be launched, under the
protection of the Wehrmacht and SS, in the manner Pavelitch and his
associates were carrying it out in Croatia, but on a much vaster scale. This
was indeed a triumph for R0me!
What a disappointment, then, when the hit lerian thrust was stopped at
Moscow and when von Pa ulus and his army were trapped in Stalingrad! It
was Christmas time, Christmas of 1942, and one must re-read the
Message—rather the vibrant call to arms—addressed to the “Christian
nations” by the H0ly fäther:
“This is not a time for lamentation, but action. May the Crusades’
enthusiasm get hold of Christianity, and the call of “God wants it!” will be
heard; may we be ready to serve and sacrifice ourselves, as the Crusaders of
old…” We exhort and implore you to take upon yourselves the awful
gravity of the present situation… As for the volunteers who participate in this
H0ly Crusade of modern times, “raise the standard high, declare war on the
darkness of a world separated from God”.(140)
On this day of the Nativity, we were far from “Pax Christi”!
This war-like address was not the expression of the “strict neutrality” the
Vat i can flatters itself to observe in international matters. This address was
made even more improper by the fact that Russia was the ally of England,
(137) “La Cr0ix”, 7th of September 1951.
(138) “Basler Nachrichten”, 27th of March 1942.
(139) and (140) “War messages to the world”, by Pi us X II (Ed. Spes, Paris 1945, pp.34 and
257 ss).


America and Free fränce. We smile while reading the vehement
contestation of Pi us X II’s thurifers who tell us that hit ler’s war was not a
real “crusade”, when that word is mentioned in the H0ly fäther’s Message.
The “volunteers” the P0pe called to arms were those of the
“Azul Division” and those recruited by Car dinal Baudrillart in Paris.
“hit ler’s war is a noble enterprise in the defence of European culture”,
he exclaimed on the 30th of July 1941.
We note, though, that the Vat i can is not interested any more in the
defence of this culture now that it strives to make African nations revolt
against fränce. Pi us X II said: “The Cath0lic Church does not identify
herself with western culture”. (141 and 141a)
The impostures and gross contradictions are endless on the part of
those who accuse Satan of being the “fäther of all lies”.
The defeat sustained in Russia by hit ler’s armies, “these noble defenders
of European culture”, involved also the j€§uit converters. One wonders
what Saint-Theresa was doing before such a disaster! Pi us X I had
proclaimed her “patron-saint of unfortunate Russia” and Canon Coube
represented her standing, “smiling but as terrible as an army set for battle
against the Bolshevist giant”.(142)
Had the Saint of Lisieux—used for all kinds of work by the Church—
succumbed under the new and gigantic task assigned to her by the H0ly
lather? It would not be surprising.
But, instead of the little saint, there was still the Queen of Heaven who
had taken upon herself, in 1917 already, under certain conditions, to bring
back schismatic Russia to the R0man Church’s fold. Let us read what ‘La
Cr0ix’ said about it:
“We will remind our readers that the Virgin of Fatima had herself
promised the conversion of the Russians, if all Christians sincerely and
joyfully practised all the commandments of the evangelical law”.(143)
We want to point out that, according to the j€§uit fäthers who are
great specialists in miraculous matters, the celestial Mediator
recommended as especially effective the daily use of the rosary.
This promise from the Virgin had even been sealed by a “dance of the
Sun”, a wonder which occurred again in 1951, in the gardens of the
Vat i can, for the benefit of His Holiness Pi us X II only.
Nevertheless, the Russians entered Berlin, in spite of the crusade called
tor by the P0pe—and, until now, the fellow-countrymen of Mr.
Khrushchev have not shown any eagerness, as far as we know, to appear
(141) “Le Monde”, 13th of April 1956 (Congress of African Cath0lic students).
(141a) See also fräncois Mejan: “Le Vat i can contre la fränce d’Outre-Mer” (Fischbacher).
(142) Canon Coube: “Sainte Therese de l’Enfant J€§us et les crises du temps present”
(Flammarion, Paris 1936, p.6 ss). IMPRIMATUR 11th of January 1936.
(143) “La Cr0ix”, 11th of June 1947.


before the doors of Saint-Peter in penitent garb with the halters around
their necks.
What went wrong? Had christains not ‘told’ sufficient beads on their
rosaries? Were Heaven’s requisite number of ‘tens’ not fulfilled?
We would be tempted to believe this to be the cause if there wasn’t that
rather scabrous detail in the wonderful story of Fatima. The promise of
Russia’s conversion, sensibly given to the clairvoyant Lucia in 1917, was
“revealed” by her in 1941 only, when she had become a nun, and made
public in October 1942 by Car dinal Schuster, a keen partisan of the R0me-
Berlin Axis; it was made public by request, or shall we say 0rder, from Pi us
X II—this same Pi us X II who, three months later, expressed the
aforementioned call for a Crusade.
Very “enlightening” indeed: One of Fatima’s apologists admits that,
because of it, the matter “evidently loses some of its prophetic
value…”(144) This is the least one could say about it! A certain canon, great
specialist in the matter of the “Portuguese miracle” tells us in confidence: “I
must confess that, as far as I am concerned, it is only with great reluctance that
I added to my first editions the text revealed to the public by His Eminence
Car dinal Schuster…”(145)
We certainly understand the good canon’s feelings:
So, the H0ly Virgin told the shepherdess Lucia, in 1917: “If my requests are
heeded, Russia will be converted…”, while charging her to keep this “secret”
to herself. How, then, could the Christians have come to know these
“requests” and meet them?
“Credibile quia ineptum”.
It seems that, from 1917 until 1942, “unfortunate Russia” did not need to
have prayers offered on her behalf, and that they were urgently needed only
after the Nazi defeat at Moscow and when von Pa ulus was trapped in
At least, it is the only conclusion this late revelation allows. The
supernatural—as we have said already—is a powerful thing, but it must be
handled with some care.
After Montoire, the j€§uits’ general, Halke von Ledochowski, already
spoke haughtily about the general meeting the Company would hold in
R0me, after England had capitulated, the importance and brilliance of
which would not find an equal in all its history.
But Heaven had decided otherwise, in spite of Saint-Theresa and the Lady
of Fatima. Great Britain braced herself against the enemy, the United States
entered the war, (even though the j€§uit fäther Coughlin had
(144) Michel Agnellet: “Miracles a Fatima” (Ed. de Trevise, Paris 1958, p.54). Imprimatur
(145) Canon Barthas: “Fatima, merveille du X X e siecle”, (Fatima Editions, Toulouse 1957,
p.81) Imprimatur 1957.


worked so hard), the Allies disembarked in North Africa and the Russian
campaign was a disaster for the Nazis.
For Ledochowski, it was the collapse of his great dream. Wehrmacht, SS,
“cleaner-ups” and j€§uit converters were retreating together. The general’s
health did not stand up to such a disaster and he died.
Let us see, though, what this “Russicum” is which Pi us X I and von
Ledochowski added, in 1929, to the already so rich and varied R0man
“With the apostolic Constitution “Quam Curam”, Pi us X I created this
Russian seminary, in R0me, where young apostles of every nationality would
be trained, “on condition that they adopt, before anything else, the
Byzantine-Slav rite, and that their minds were made up to devote
themselves entirely to the task of bringing Russia back into Christ’s
This is the aim of the Russian pontifical College, alias “Russicum”, the
Oriental pontifical Institute and the R0man College—these three Centres are
also administered by the Company of Jۤus.
At the “R0man College”—45, Piazza del Gesu—we find the j€§uits’
noviceship and, amongst the novices, some bear the name of “Russipetes”, as
they are destined to “petere Russiam”, or go to Russia.
0rthod0x believers should watch out, for so many valorous champions are
determined to crush them. We must point out, though, that the
aforementioned “Homme nouveau” affirms:
“All these priests are certainly destined to go to Russia. But this project
cannot be realised for the time being”.(147)
According to this particular publication, the Soviet press calls these
apostles “the Vat i can’s parachutists”. And, from the testimony of someone
well-informed on the subject, we come to the conclusion that this name fits
them quite well.
The person in question is no less than the jۤuit Alighiero Tondi,
professor at the Gregorian pontofical University, who repudiated Ignatius of
L0y0la, the “Spiritual Exercises” though not without a considerable row and
resigned from the famous Company, together with its pomp and deeds.
We can read the following, amongst other declarations, in an interview he
gave to an Italian newspaper:
“The activities of the Collegium Russicum and other organisations linked
to it are many and varied. For example, together with Italian fascists and what
remains of Geman nazism, the jۤuits organise and co-ordinate the various
anti-Russian groups, on the ecclesiastical authority’s 0rder. The ultimate aim
is to be ready, eventually, to overthrow the governments
(146) “L’Homme nouveau” (L’Avenir Cath0lique), 7th of December 1958.
(147) “L’Homme nouveau” (L’Avenir Cath0lique), 7th of December 1958.


of the East. Finances are provided by the ruling ecclesiastical
organisations. This is the work the leaders of the clergy apply themselves to.
These same ones would readily tear their cassocks apart, out of grief, when
they are accused of meddling in politics and urging the bish0ps and priests of
the East to conspire against their governments.”
“When talking to the j€§uit Andrei Ouroussof, I said that it was
disgraceful to affirm in the “Osservatore R0mano”, the Vat i can’s official
voice, and in other ecclesiastical publications, that the unmasked spies were
“martyrs of the faith”. Ouroussof burst out laughing.
“—What would you write, fäther? he asked me. Would you call them spies,
or something worse? Today, the Vat i can’s politics need martyrs. But, at the
moment, martyrs are difficult to find. So they are fabricated.
—But this is a dishonest game!
“He shook his head ironically.
—You are ingenous, fäther. Because of your work, you should know better
than anyone else that the Church’s leaders have always been inspired by the
same rules.
—And what about J€§us-Christ? I asked.
He laughed: “One must not think of J€§us-Christ”, he said. “If we
thought of Him, we would end up on the cross. And, today, the time has
come to put others on the cross and not be hoist on it ourselves.”(148)
So, as the j€§uit Ouroussof said it so well, the Vat i can’s politics need
martyrs, volunteers or not. It “created” millions of them during two world
( 1 4 8 ) Interview which appeared in “Il Paese” on the 2nd of October 1954.


Section V
Chapter 8 P0pe John X X III removes the mask

Out of all the fictions generally accepted in this world, the spirit of peace and
harmony attributed to the H0ly See is probably the most difficult to root
up—as this spirit seems inherent to the nature of the apostolic magister
In spite of the lessons of History, not fully known or too quickly
forgotten, the one who calls himself “Christ’s vicar” must necessarily
incarnate, in the eyes of many, the ideal of love and fraternity taught by the
Gospel. Does not logic, as well as sentiment, want it to be so?
In reality, the events make us realise that this favourable presumption must
be greatly abated—and we believe that it has been sufficiently demonstrated.
But the Church is prudent—as we are often reminded—and it is seldom that
her real actions are not surrounded by the indispensable precautions which
will take care of appearances. “Bonne renommee vaut mieux que ceinture
doree” (A good reputation is better than a golden belt), says the proverb. But it
is even better to possess both. The Vat i can— immensely rich—guides itself
by this maxim. Its political lust for domination always assumes “spiritual”
and humanitarian pretexts, proclaimed “urbi and orbi” by an intense
propaganda which a goldplated belt provides for—and the “good reputation”,
thus preserved, maintains the inflow of gold to the said belt.
The Vat i can does not deviate from that line of conduct and, when the
stand it takes in international affairs is clearly revealed through the attitude of its
hierarchy, the legend of its absolute impartiality is kept alive by those solemn
and ambiguous encyclical letters and other pontifical documents. Recently,
the hit lerian era multiplied such examples. But could it be otherwise of an
authoritative power which is supposed to be transcedent and universal at the
same time?
The instances when that mask was seen to fall are very rare.
For the world to be a witness of such a spectacle, a contingency is
necessary which,


to the H0ly See’s eyes, endangers its vital interests. Only then does it throw
aside all ambiguity and openly places all the credit at its disposition on one of
the scales.
This is what happened in R0me, on the 7th of January 1960, concerning the
“summit” conference which was to bring together heads of Eastern and
Western governments, in an attempt to settle the conditions of a truly
peaceful co-existence between the defenders of two opposite ideologies.
Of course, the Vat i can’s position before such a project did not leave us in any
doubt. In the United States, Car dinal Spellman demonstrated it plainly by
urging Cath0lics to show their hostility to Mr. Khrushchev when he was the
guest of the American president. For his part, and without expressing it
clearly, His Holiness John X X III had shown little enthusiasm for the “detente”
in his Chritmas message. The “hope” it expressed, to see peace set up in the
world, a wish which is a “must” in such a document, seemed very weak
accompanied as it was with many calls to Western leaders to be prudent.
But, so far, the Vat i can put on a good face.
What happened, then, within less than two weeks? Did another longcherished
“hope”—to see the first one fail—prove vain? Did the decision of Mr.
Gronchi, president of the Italian Republic, to go to Moscow make the cup of
R0man bitterness overflow?
Whatever happened, the storm broke out suddenly on the 7th of
January—and the ecclesiastical thunders burst (with unprecedented fury) upon
the “Christian” Statesmen, guilty of wanting an end to the cold war. On the
8th of January, “Le Monde” printed the following:
“On the day the president of the Italian Republic was to leave to pay a
minutely-prepared official visit to Moscow’s leaders, Car dinal Ottaviani,
successor of Car dinal Pizzardo as secretary of the H0ly-Office
congregation, or chief of the Church’s supreme tribunal, delivered a most
astonishing speech in the bascilica of “Saint-Marie-Majeure”, during a
morning propitiatory service for “the Church of Silence”.
“Never before had a prince of the Church, holding one of the Vat i can’s most
important posts, attacked the Soviet authorities, so furiously, nor
reprimanded so harshly the Western powers who dealt with them”.
“Le Monde” gave substantial excerpts of that violent speech which amply
justified the qualificative of “most astonishing” it had just used. “Tamerlanes’s
times are back”, affirmed Car dinal Ottaviani—and the Russian leaders were
described as “new antichrists” who “condemn to deportation, imprison,
massacre, and leave nothing but wasteland behind them”. The orator was
shocked that nobody anymore was “scared to shake hands with them”, and
that, “on the contrary, a race was arranged to see who would be the first to do
so and exchange smiles with them”. Then he reminded his listeners that Pi us
X II withdrew to Castelgandolfo when hit ler came to R0me—forgetting
though to add that this same pontiff had


concluded with the said hit ler a C0nc0rdat most advantagous for the
Space travel was not spared either in that violent denunciation: “the new
man… believes he can violate Heaven by feats in space and so demonstrates
once more that God does not exist”.
The Western “politicians and statesmen” who, according to the cardinal,
“grow stupid with terror”, were severely hauled over the coals—as were all the
“Christians” who “do not react or leap with rage any more…”
Finally, this virulent and significant conclusion:
“Can we declare ourselves satisfied with any kind of detente when, in the first
place, there cannot be any sort of calm, within humanity, unless we observe
an elementary respect for conscience, our faith, the face of Christ covered
once more with spittle, crowned with thorns and struck? Could we hold out
our hand to those who do this?”
These dramatic words cannot make us forget that the Vat i can can hardly
speak of “respect for consciences” as it shamelessly oppresses them in
countries where it dominates, such as in fränco’s Spain where the
pr0testants are persecuted. In fact, it is most impudent—on the part of the
H0ly-Office’s secretary especially!—to demand that others observe this
elementary respect” when the R0man Church rejects it entirely.
The encyclical letter “Quanta cura” and the “Syllabus” are explicit:
Anathema on the one who says: every man is free to embrace or profess the
religi0n his judgment considers to be right”.
(“Syllabus”, article X V)
“… It is madness to think that the freedom of conscience and worship are
mere rights to every man.” (“Encyclical letter “Quanta cura”)
Judging by the way it treats “heretics”, it is no wonder that the Vat i can
systematically condemns all attempts to come to terms between “Christian”
States and those who are officially atheistic. “Non est pax impilis”—”No
peace for the wicked”!
And the j€§uit fäther Cavelli, like many others before him, proclaims that
this “intransigence” is the R0man Church’s “most imperative law”.
As a counterpart to this explosion of fury on the cardinal’s part, we will
quote another article which appeared in the same number of “Le Monde”, on
the 9th of January 1960:
“Humanity is approaching a situation where mutual annihilation
becomes a possibility. In the world today, there is no other event which can be
compared, in importance, to this… We must then strive incessantly for a just
peace”. So said President Eisenhower, yesterday, Thursday, before the United
States Congress, at the same time as Car dinal Ottaviani, in R0me,
condemned the co-existence as partaking of the crime of Cain.
The contrast between two manners of thought cannot be more striking: the
human and the theocratic—nor more obvious the mortal danger


hovering over the world because of that nucleus of blind fanaticism we call the
Vat i can. Its “sacred” egoism is such that circumstances and the urgent
necessity for an international accord, in 0rder to avoid the almost total
extermination threatening humanity, do not matter.
The H0ly Office’s secretary—this supreme tribunal whose past is too wellknown—
does not take into account such negligible contingencies. Do the
Russians go to mass? This is the important thing, and if President
Eisenhower does not understand it, it is because he “seems to have grown
stupid with terror”, to use the terms of the fiery “Porporato”.
The delirious frenzy of Car dinal Ottaviani’s speech makes us smile at the
same time as shocking us. And many think that this firebrand will find it
difficult to persuade “Christians” that the atomic bomb must be accepted
gracefully. But we must be on our guard! Behind this spokesman of the H0ly
See, there is all the pontifical organisation—and especially this secret army of
jۤuits not made up of ordinary soldiers. All the members of that famous
Company work within the corridors of power, and their action, without
making a great deal of noise, can be singularly effective, that is to say evil.
A rumour was spread that Car dinal Ottaviani’s brutal stand was not the
exact reflection of the H0ly See’s thought, but only that of one of the socalled
“integrist” clan. The Cath0lic press, in fränce at any rate, tried to
attenuate the import of that violent speech—and “La Cr0ix”, in particular, only
printed a short extract from which all violence had been omitted. Wise
opportunism indeed, but it could not deceive anyone. It is just impossible that
such a sharp criticism, of an exceptional political importance, could have
been uttered from the pulpit of “Sainte-Marie-Majeure” by the H0ly Office’s
secretary, without the approval of that Congregation’s chief, of its “prefect”,
the s0vereign Pontiff himself. And, as far as we know, he never disowned his
eloquent subordinate. P0pe John X X III could not throw that bomb himself, but
by making one of the most important of the Curia’s dignitaries take his place,
he wanted to make his connivance obvious to everyone.
Moreover, and by a strange “coincidence”, a more modest explosion took
place at the same time, in the form of an article in the “Osservatore
R0mano”, condemnding once again socialism, even non-marxist, as
“opposed to Christian truth”. However, those who practice this political
“mistake” are not excommunicated “ipso facto” like the communists. They still
have the hope of escaping Hell—but the threat of Purgatory remains!
By showing its opposition to any attempt at bringing together East and
West so vehemently, was the Vat i can expecting some positive results? Was it
really hoping to intimidate the Statesmen who pursue these politics of peace?
Or was it at least hoping to provoke a move contrary to the “detente”
amongst the faithful?


As unreasonable as such a hope may seem, it may well have haunted
these clerical minds. Their peculiar views are bound to produce such
illusions. What’s more, these soothsayers, they could not have forgotten
a certain illusion used for so long to deceive those who trusted them—and
which they apparently shared. We are referring to “Russia’s conversion”,
apparently announced at Fatima by the H0ly Virgin in person—in
1917— to Lucia the shepherdess, who eventually embraced H0ly
0rders and testified of it somewhat late, in 1942, in the “memoirs” she
wrote at her superiors’ request.
This cock and bull story may make us smile, but the fact remains that
the Vat i can—under Pi us X II’s pontificate—propogated it throughout
the world with any amount of speeches, sermons, solemn declarations,
a torrent of books and pamphlets, and the peregrinations of the statue of
that new and very political “Notre-Dame” across every continent—where
even the animals, so we were told, came to pay homage. This noisy
propaganda is still clearly remembered by the faithful—as are the wild
affirmations such as this one, printed on the 1st of November 1952 by
“La Cr0ix”:
“Fatima has become a cross-roads… The fate of the nations can be
decided better there than around tables”.
Its thurifers cannot find refuge in ambiguity any more. The alternative
is perfectly clear: “detente or cold war”.—The Vat i can chooses war—
and does not hide the fact.
This choice should not surprise anyone—if past experience, even in
the recent past, has been a lesson to us. And if it surprised some, we
believe that it is because of its unceremonious proclamation, or without
the usual camouflage.”
We begin to understand the violence when we consider the importance
of the stake to the R0man pontiff. We would misjudge the Vat i can by
thinking it capable of renouncing a hope as old as the Eastern schism
itself, the one of bringing back 0rthod0x believers under her obedience
through a military success. hit ler’s rise was due to this obstinate hope—
but the final defeat of his Crusade still did not open the eyes of the
R0man Curia to the folly of such an ambition.
There is another and even more pressing desire: to liberate in Poland,
Hungary and Czechoslovakia this famous “Church of Silence” which has
only become such because of the unexpected turn of events—for the
H0ly See—in the Nazi Crusade. “Qui trop embrasse mal etreint (grasp
all, lose all): a wise proverb which has never inspired fanatics.
To resume its march towards the East, its clerical “Drang nach
Osten”, and first retrieve the lost strongholds, the Vat i can still relies
upon the Germanic “secular arm”, its main European champion in need
of new strength and vigour. At the head of Federal Germany—western
section of the great Reich—it had placed a trusty man, Chancellor Konrad


the P0pe’s secret chamberlain—and the politics he pursued for more than
fifteen years clearly display the H0ly See’s stamp. Exhibiting at first great
caution and an opportune “liberal” state of mind, the man his fellowcountrymen
nicknamed “der alte Fuchs”—”The old fox” worked at
rearming his country. Of course, the “moral” rearmament of the
population, and of the German youth in particular, was an imperative
supplement to the first.
That is why important posts in the ministries and administrations of
Western Germany are held by many individuals with notorious hit lerian
pasts—the list is long—and captains of industry such as von Krupp and Flick,
who had not long since been condemned as war criminals, direct again their
gigantic works which were restored to them. The end justifies the means. And
this end is clear enough: to forge Siegfried’s new sword, the arm necessary for
revenge—a revenge which would be shared by the Vat i can.
It is then with a perfect synchronsim that the chancellor-chamberlain,
during an interview given to a Dutch periodical, echoed the fulminating
speech Car dinal Ottaviani had just expressed:
“…The peaceful co-existence of nations whose views are totally opposite is
just an illusion which, alas, still finds too many supporters”.(150)
The incendiary “sermon” given on the 7th of January at “Sainte-Marie-
Majeure” preceded by a few days—as by accident—the visit of Konrad
Adenauer to R0me. The reports the press gave were unanimous at
underlining the friendly and sympathetic atmosphere which prevailed during
the private audience His Holiness John X X III gave to the German chancellor
and his Foreign Affairs minister, Mr. von Brentano.
We could even read in “L’Aurore”:
“This meeting provoked a rather unexpected declaration from the
chancellor, when answering the pontifical address which praised the
courage and faith of the German government’s head:
“I think that God has given the German people a special part to play in
these troubled times: to be the protector of the West against the powerful
influences of the East threatening us”.(151)
“Combat” accurately noted:
We had heard this before, but in a more condensed manner: “Gott mit
uns”—”God with us”. (The motto on the belt buckle of the German soldiers in
the 1914/18 war).
And that newspaper added:
“Dr Adenauer’s evocation of the work attributed to the German nation
(150) “ELSEVIERS WEEKBLATT”, quoted by “Combat” on the 11 th of January I 960.
(151) “L’Aurore”, 23rd of January 1960.
(152) “Combat”, 23rd of January 1960.
(153) “Le Figaro”, 23rd of January I960.


found its inspiration in a similar declaration from the previous pontiff. We are
therefore allowed to presume that if Dr Adenauer pronounced this phrase in
the present circumstances, it is because he thought his listeners were ready to
hear him”.(152)
In fact, one would have to be singularly naive and utterly ignorant of
elementary diplomacy to think that this “unexpected” declaration was not part
of the programme. We wager also that it did not cast any shadow over “the
prolonged conversation Mr. Adenauer had with Car dinal Tardini, the H0ly
See’s secretary of State, whom he entertained for luncheon at the German
The spectacular intrusion of the H0ly-Office in international politics,
voiced by Car dinal Ottaviani, shocked even Cath0lics who were long
accustomed to the R0man Church’s encroachments in the affairs of State.
R0me was aware of it. But the perpetuation of the cold war is so vitally
important to the Vat i can’s political power, and even its financial
prosperity, that it did not hesitate repeating such political views, even
though the first one had been badly received.
The journey Mr. Khrushchev made to fränce, in March 1960, gave it
another opportunity. Dijon was one of the cities the Soviet leader was to
visit. Like all his colleagues in the same situation, the mayor of Dijon had to
welcome courteously the guest of the French Republic. The chief city of
Burgandy had an ecclesiastic as its deputy-mayor, Canon Kir.
According to the canonical law, the H0ly See had expressly authorised thc
priest to accept this double mandate—with all the functions and duties
entailed. However, his bish0p forbade the mayor-canon to receive Mr.
Khrushchev. On that occasion, the municipal sash had to give way to the
So, the visitor was welcomed by an assistant who stood in for the absent
deputy-mayor. But the unconstrained manner in which the “hierarchy”
scoffed at civil authority on that occasion aroused the sharpest comments, On
the 30th of March, “Le Monde” wrote:
“Who is actually exercising authority over the mayor of Dijon: the
bish0p or the prefect? And above these representatives of a central power: the
P0pe or the French government? This is the question asked In
The answer is not doubtful: theocracy first. But, from now on, to be
received by a cassock wearing mayor, will the guests of the French
Republic have to be supplied with confession tickets?
In the aforementioned article, the editor of “Le Monde” also rightly says:
“Beyond this French interior question, the Kir affair brings to our notice
a larger problem. The Vat i can’s action is not concerned only with the
relations between a mayor and his government. In the way it took place, it
c o n stitutes a direct and spectacular intervention in international


This is certainly true—and the reactions this affair provoked nearly
everywhere show that its import was clearly understood by world opinion. In
the United States especially, the public, which had already witnessed the
hostile demonstrations organised by the cardinals Spellman and Cushing
during Mr. Khrushchev’s visit, started to question the real independence a
R0man Cath0lic president could preserve with regard to the H0ly See.
Many feared, in that case, to see the foreign politics of the country bent in
favour of the R0man Church’s interests—to the prejudice of the nation’s
interests, no small danger in any circumstances, but above all in the present
The resistance to the move for an East-West “detente” was then
organised “openly”, after the “bomb” thrown by Car dinal Ottaviani.
A ridiculous instrument, some may say, compared with those which
threatened to bury under ruins—sooner or later—nations mad enough to
remain in the deadlock of a snarling antagonism. But we can see that the
Vat i can, compelled to use “spiritual” arms, endeavoured to make the best of
them. The jۤuits, who steer its diplomacy, were doing their uttermost to ward
off the worst “calamity” which ever hovered over the H0ly See: an
international accord which excluded resorting to war.
What would become of the Vat i can’s prestige, its political importance and
all the advantages, pecuniary and others, which proceed from it if, because
of such an accord, it could not plot anymore, use its influence, haggle over
its co-operation with governments, favour some and bully others, oppose
nations, create conflicts for the benefit of its own interests— and if, to serve
its immoderate ambitions, it could not find any more soldiers?
*No one can be deceived—and the j€§uits even less than others—a general
disarmament would toll the knell of the R0man Church as a world power.
And the “spiritual” head itself would totter.
We must then expect to see the sons of L0y0la opposing with all their
arsenal of tricks the desire for peace of nations and governments. To ruin the
edifice whose foundations are tentatively laid, they will not spare their mines
and counter mines. It is a war without mercy, a H0ly war, sparked off by
Car dinal Ottaviani’s mad speech. And the Company of J€§us will pursue it with
the blind obstinacy of the insect—”ad majorem pap ae gloriam”— without
any anxiety as to the catastrophes which will result. The world must perish,
rather than the supremacy of the R0man Pontiff!

Edm0nd Paris was at a disadvantage in that he wasn’t aware that a shift was already under way by the
‘Whore of Revelation” to fulfill Bible prophecy. She is prepared for all eventualities.

The jۤuits evaluated World War III and decided the U.S. would lose, and the Vat i can always goes
with the winner. Since then she has enthusiastically thrown her support to Moscow and even acquired a
communist P0pe from Poland. She is secretly preparing a concordat with Russia, and currently pushing
a Marxist gospel world wide. The jۤuits are currently behind the disarmament movement to subdue the
Moscow will serve the Vat i can as the muscle to conquer nations where R0man Cath0licism will he the
only religi0n tolerated world wide. Russia will be pushed to attack Israel, fulfilling the prophecies of
the Bible (Ezekiel, chapters 38 & 39) and the antichrist of the Vat i can will await his doom at the second
coming of Christ.

We have recapitulated, in this book, the main manifestations of the
multiform activity deployed by the Company of Jۤus, during four
centuries; we have established also that the militant, even military,
character of this famous and ultramontane institution fully justifies the title
often attributed to it of “secret army of the Papacy”.
To the front of the action, for the glory of God—and especially of the H0ly
See—is the 0rder these ecclesiastical soldiers gave themselves and of which
they are proud; at the same time, they endeavour, through the book and pious
press which they supervise, to disguise as much as possible and present as
“apostolic” enterprises the action they exercise in their favourite field: the
nations’ politics.
The clever camouflage, the protestations of innocence, the railleries
about the “dark schemings” attributed to them by the dis0rdered
imagination of their enemies—and which are groundless, according to
them—all this is outweighed by the unanimous hostility of public opinion
towards them, always and everywhere, and by the inevitable reaction to their
intrigues which brought about their explulsion from every country, even
from the most strongly Cath0lic.
These fifty-six expulsions, to quote only the main ones, provide an
invincible argument! It would be sufficient to prove the evil nature of this
How could it not be injurious to civil societies as it is the papacy’s most
efficacious instrument in imposing its law on temporal governments, and that
this law—by nature—has no consideration for the various national interests?
The H0ly See, being essentially opportunist, does embrace these interests when
they coincide with its own—we saw this happen in 1914 and 1939—but, if it
brings them a substantial help then, the final result is not beneficial for all
that. This was seen also in 1918 and 1945.
Terrible to its enemies, or those who oppose it, the Vat i can, th i s

amphibious clerico-political organisation, is even more deadly to its
friends. By observing some vigilance, one can be forewarned of its
underhand thrusts, but its embraces are deadly.
On that subject, Mr. T. Jung wrote, in 1874, the following lines which
have not grown old-‘The power of fränce is in inverse ratio to the intensity
of her obedience to the R0man Curia”.(l)
And from a more recent witness: M. Joseph Hours, when studying the
effects of our very relative “disobedience”, he wrote:
“There is no doubt about it; right through the continent (and maybe,
today, all over the globe), wherever Cath0licism is tempted to become
political, it is also tempted to become anti-French”.(2)
A just remark indeed, even though the term “tempted” is rather weak.
We will nevertheless conclude that “to obey” would be more to the point.
Is it not better, in fact, to expose oneself to this hositlity, rather than to
have to come to this conclusion, like Colonel Beck, former Foreign Affairs
minister of the very Cath0lic Poland (2a)”.
“The Vat i can is one of those principally responsible for the tragedy of my
country. I realised too late that we had pursued our foreign politics just to
serve the sole interests of the Cath0lic Church”.
Moreover, the fate of the very apostolic empire of the Hapsburgs was not
too encouraging; as for Germany, so dear to the hearts of P0pes, and
especially Pi us X II’s, she could not be pleased, finally, with the costly
favours Their Holiness lavished on her.
In fact, we wonder if the R0man Church reaped any profit at all from this
mad aspiration to govern the world, a pretension kept alive by the jۤuits
more than anyone else. In the course of four centuries in which these
firebrands spread strife and hatred, slaughter and ruins in Europe, from the
Thirty Years War until the hit ler Crusade, did the Church enjoy gain or
suffer loss?
The answer is easy: the clearest and most incontestable result is a
continuous diminution of the “heritage of Saint-Peter”—a sad end to so
many crimes!
Did the j€§uits’ influence obtain better results within the Vat i can itself? It
is very doubtful.
A Cath0lic author wrote:
“They always aim at concentrating the ecclesiastical power which they
control. The P0pe’s infallibility exasperates bish0ps and governments: they
nevertheless ask forit at the Council of Trent and obtain it at the Vat i can
Council (1870)… The Company’s prestige fascinates, within the Church, its
(1) T. Jung: “La fränce et R0me”, (Charpentier, Paris 1874, p.369).
(2) “L’Annee politique et economique”, 19, quai Bourbon, Paris 4e, January-March 1953,
pp.2 ss.
(2a) Declaration made on the 6th of February 1940.


adversaries as much as its friends. We have respect or, at least, we fear it; we
think it can do anything, and we behave accordingly”.(3)
Another Cath0lic writer strongly stated the effects of this concentration of
power in the Pontiffs hands:
“The s0ciety of J€§us was suspicious of life, the source of heresy, and
opposed authority to it.
The Council of Trent seems already to be the testament of Cath0licism.
It is the last genuine Council.
“After that, there will only be the Vat i can Council which consecrates the
abdication of the councils.
We are well aware of the P0pes’ gain at the end of the councils.
What a simplification—what an impoverishment also!
R0man Christianity takes possession of its character of absolute
monarchy, founded now and forever on papäl infallibility.
The picture is beautiful but life bears its costs.
Everything comes from R0me, and R0me is left to lean only on
Further on, the author sums up what the famous Company must be
credited for: “It delayed maybe the death of the Church, but by a kind of
pact with death”.(5)
A kind of sclerosis, if not necrosis, is spreading and corrupting the
Church, under that L0y0lan ascendancy. Vigilant guardians of the dogma,
whose antiquated character they accentuate with their aberrant worship of the
Virgin Mary, the jۤuits, masters of the Gregorian Pontifical University
which was founded by Ignatius of L0y0la, check the teaching of the
seminaries, supervise the Missions, reign at the H0ly-Office, animate the
Cath0lic Action, censure and direct the religi0us press in every country,
patronize with tender love the great centres of pilgrimages: Lourdes,
Lisieux, Fatima, etc. In short, they are everywhere, and we can regard as
significant the fact that the P0pe, when ministering at the mass, is
necessarily assisted by a jۤuit; his confessor is always a jۤuit, too.
By working at perfecting the concentration of power in the hands of the
s0vereign Pontiff, the Company is in fact working for itself and the P0pe,
apparent beneficiary of that work, could echo these famous words: “I am
their chief, so I follow them”.
So, it becomes more and more hopeless trying to distinguish the action of the
H0ly See from the one of the Company. But this 0rder, the very back bone of
the Church, tends to dominate her entirely. For a long time now, the bish0ps
have been nothing more than “civil servants”, docile executors of the 0rders
coming from R0me, or rather from the Gesu.
(3) Andre Mater- “Les j€§uites” (Reider, Paris 1932, p. 118).
(4) and (5) Henri Petit: “L’Honneur de Dieu” (Grasset, Paris 1958, p.88).


Without any doubt, L0y0la’s disciples endeavour to mask from the eyes of
the faithful, the harshness of a more and more totalitarian system. The
Cath0lic press, under their direct control, assumes some variety of
inspiration, to give its readers the illusion of a kind of independence, to be
open to “new” ideas: the fäthers, who are all things to all men, willingly
practise these juggler’s tricks which deceive only the star-gazers. But,
behind these petty amusements, the everlasting jۤuit is watching, about
whom an aforementioned author wrote: “Intransigence is inborn in him.
Capable of being a shuffler, because of his craftiness, he only excels at being
We find excellent examples of that stubborness and insidious bias in the
patient work of the Company’s members, to conciliate, for better or worse, the
“modern” and scientific spirit to which they take care to be attentive with the
demands of the “doctrine” in general and, especially, with these rather
idolatrous forms of devotion—the worship of Mary and wonderworking—of
which they remain the most zealous propagators.
To say that these efforts are crowned with success would be an
exaggeration: when blending water and fire, we obtain mainly steam. But
even the inconsistency of these clouds is rather pleasing to certain subtle
minds, even though warned about the dangers too much precision in the
thoughts brings to a sincere piety. “Vade retro, Satanas”!
As far as that is concerned, German metaphysics are most helpful; we find
in them everything we need, and even the opposite. There isn’t any childish
superstition which, after pedantic treatment, does not acquire some
appearance of seriousness and even depth. It is rather amusing to follow the
game in the periodicals and bulletins of various cultural groups.
There, the enquirer finds the material he needs, and especially the one
who, through an inclination somewhat aberrant, enjoys reading between the
However, these men full of bitterness do not live only the speculative
sphere, the good fäthers made sure they gave their apostolate amongst
“intellectuals” a solid temporal foundation. To the gifts of the Spirit the
lavishly bestow upon their disciples are added substantial advantages.
Besides, it is an ancient tradition. In Charlemagne’s time, the converted
Saxons received a white shirt. Nowadays, the beneficiaries of a newly-found
or re-discovered Faith enjoy other favours, especially in the academic and
scientific worlds: the not very clever student passes examinations without
difficulties; the professor is given the professorial chair of his choice; the
physician who is a “believer”, in addition to rich clients, has preference when
wanting to join some important s0ciety, etc.. Through a natural mechanism,
these choice recruits will bring others and,
(6) Andre Mater, op.cit., p. 192.


as there is strength in numbers, their conjugated action will be most
efficacious in what we call the leading spheres.
This can be seen in Spain, so we are told, and even elsewhere.
In “Le Monde” of the 7th of May 1956, M. Henri Fesquet devoted an
important article to the Spanish “Opus Dei”. When defining the action of the
pious and occult organisation, he wrote: “Its members… aim at helping
intellectuals to reach a religi0us state of perfection through the exercise of their
professions, and sanctify professional work”.
This is no new story, and M. Fesquet knows it, for he says a little further on:
“They are accused—and the fact doesn’t seem deniable—of wanting to occupy
the keyposts of the land, to be at the core of the University, administration,
government, to prevent from entering or even expel from them unbelievers
and liberals”.
The “Opus” apparently entered fränce “clandestinely” in November 1954,
“brought in” by two priests and five laymen, doctors or medical students. That
may be so, but we doubt if this reinforcement coming from “tras los montes”
was really necessary to the pursuit of their work which has been going on for a
long time now, in fränce, mainly in the medical and academic worlds, as
certain scandals in examinations and competitions revealed it.
In any case, the French branch of this Action, supposed to be “God’s work”,
doesn’t seem to be clandestine after all, judging by what fräncois Mauriac
wrote about it:
“… I was the recipient of a strange confidence, so strange in fact that, if it had
not been signed by a Cath0lic writer who is one of my friends and whom I
trust, I would think it was a practical joke. He had offered an article to a
periodical which accepted the offer gladly, but never acknowledged its receipt.
Months go by, my friend becomes anxious, makes inquiries, and eventually
receives this answer from the director of that periodical: “As you probably
know, the “Opus Dei” has been checking what we publish for the past few
months. And this “Opus Dei” absolutely refused to allow that text to be
printed”. This friend asks me the question: “What is the “Opus Dei”? And I,
too, openly and candidly ask it…”(7)
This question—about which M. fräncois Mauriac hints is not as
“candid” as he says—the eminent academician could have asked it from
people he knew well: writers, publishers, booksellers, men of science,
lecturers, theatre and cinema people—unless he preferred to inform
himself quite simply at the editing centres.
As for the opposition the “Opus Dei” is supposed to meet from certain
jۤuits, we see in it nothing more than group rivalry. The Company as we have
said and proved—is “modernist” as easily as “integrist”, according to
(7) “Le Bloc-notes de M. fräncois Mauriac”, in the “Express” of the 29th of October 1959

the opportunities, as it is determined to have a foot in both camps. In fact, the
same publication “Le Monde” printed an article by M. Jean Creach,
ironically inviting us to admire an “Auto-da-fe of the Spanish j€§uits”,
fortunately limited to the works of French literature. Indeed, this jۤuit
censor doesn’t seem to be a “modernist”, judging by what M. Jean Creach says:
“If fäther Garmendia had the power of Car dinal Tavera, the one whose
gaze was resuscitated by Greco like lightning in a greenish mask, above the
purple, Spain would be acquainted only with our literature by
emasculated… or even beheaded authors”.
Then, after quoting several amusing examples of the Reverend fäther’s
purifying zeal, the author tells this pertinent reflection:
“Are the brains formed by our j€§uits so weak that they cannot confront
even the smallest danger to triumph over it themselves?”, whispered a
mischievous tongue? “Tell me, dear friend; if they are incapable of it, what is
the value of the teaching which renders them so feeble?”(8)
To this humorous critic, we can answer that the said weakness of the
brains moulded by the j€§uits is, in fact, the main value of their teaching—
and its danger as well.
This is the place to which we always have to return. Through a special
vocation—and in spite of some honourable, even famous, exceptions— they
are the sworn enemies of freedom of the mind: Brainwashed brainwashers!
This is their strength, as well as their weakness and injuriousness. M.
Andre Mater stated extremely well the absolute totalitariansim of their 0rder
when he wrote: “Through the discipline which unites him, in spirit, to all his
fellow-members, each one of them acts and thinks with the intensity of
thirty-thousand others. This is j€§uitic fanaticism”.(9)
More terrible nowadays than ever before, this jۤuitic fanaticism,
absolute master of the R0man Church, has embroiled her deeply in the
competitions of world politics in which the militant and military spirit
distinguishing this Company delights in. Under its care the papäl
organisation and the swastika launched a deadly attack on the hated
liberalism and tried to bring about the “new Middle-Ages” hit ler promised
In spite of von Ledochowski’s prodigious plans, in spite of Himmler, “our
Ignatius of L0y0la”, in spite of the slow-death camps, in spite of the
corrupting of minds by Cath0lic Action and unrestrained propaganda of the
j€§uits in the United States, the “providential man’s” enterprise was a
(8) “Le Monde”,.31st of August 1950.
(9) Andre Mater, op.cit., p. 193.
(10) Frederic Hoffet, op.cit., p.172.


failure, and the “heritage of Saint-Peter”, instead of increasing in the East, was
reduced by that much.
An undeniable fact remains: the national-socialist government, “the most
Cath0lic Germany ever had”(10), was also and by far the most abjectly
cruel—without excluding from the comparison the barbarian epochs. Painful
declaration indeed for many believers, but one it would be wise meditating
upon. In the 0rder’s “burgs”, where the training was a copy of the j€§uitic
method, the master—apparent, at least—of the Third Reich formed this “SS
elite” before which, according to his wishes, the world “trembled”—but also
vomited with disgust. The same causes produce the same results. “There are
disciplines too heavy for the human soul to bear and which would utterly
break a conscience… Crime of alienation of oneself masked by heroism… No
commandment can be good if, first of all, it corrupts a soul. When one has
engaged oneself fully in a s0ciety, other beings lose much of their
importance”.(l 1)
In fact, the Nazi chiefs had no consideration for the “other beings”; we can
say the same as well of the jۤuits!
“They made obedience their idol”.(12)
And this utter obedience was invoked by the accused of Nuremberg to
excuse their awful crimes.
Finally, we borrow from the same author, who analysed jۤuitic
fanaticism so well, this final judgment:
“We reproach the Company with its skill, its politics and deceit, we
ascribe to it all the calculations, all the hidden motives, all the underhand
blows; we reproach her even with the intelligence of its members. Yet there
isn’t one country where the s0ciety has not experienced great
disappointment, where it hasn’t behaved in a scandalous manner and drawn
upon itself righteous anger.
“If their machiavellism had the depth generally attributed to it, would these
grave and thoughtful men constantly throw themselves into abysses human
wisdom can foresee, into catastrophes they were bound to expect as the 0rder
experienced similar ones in all civilized States?
“The explanation is simple: a powerful genius governs the s0ciety, a
genius so powerful that it thrusts it sometimes even against stumblingblocks,
as if it could break them, ad majorem Dei Gloriam”.
“This genius is not the one of the general, of his advice, of the provincials, nor
the heads of every household…
“It is the living genius of this vast body, it is the inevitable strength
resulting from this gathering of sacrificed consciences, bound intelligences; it
is the explosive strength and domineering fury of the 0rder, resulting from
its nature itself.
(11) and (12 Henri Petit: “L’Honneur de Dieu”, pp.25, 72, 73.


“In a great accumulation of clouds, lightning is powerful and the storm is
bound to break out”.(13)
Between 1939 and 1945, the storm killed 57 million souls ravaging and
ruining Europe.
We must be on our guard; another and even worse catastrophe may lie
hidden in these same clouds; lighting may strike again, throwing the world into
“abysses human wisdom can foresee”, but out of which, if it had the
misfortune to let itself be thrown into, no power could rescue it.
In spite of what R0me’s spokesmen may say, it is not “anticlericalism”
which prompted us to study carefully the Vat i can’s politics, or those of the
j€§uits’, and to denounce its motives and means, but the necessity to
enlighten the public about the sly activity of fanatics who do not retreat
before anything—the past has proved this too often—to reach their aims.
We have seen how, during the 18th century, the European monarchies
united to demand the suppression of this evil 0rder. Nowadays, it can
concoct its intrigues in peace and the democratic governments do not seem to
appear concerned.
The danger the world is exposed to because of this Company is far
greater today than at the time of the “family pact”, and even greater than
when the two World Wars broke out.
No one can nurse any illusion as to the deadly consequences another
conflict would have.
( 1 3 ) Henri Petit, op.cit, pp.152-153.





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Written by preparator

May 18, 2009 at 11:34 am

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